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ILTVfl 







,/v C y ^^ CHICAGO AND NEW YORK ^^ ft /^^ <C 



CHICAGO AND NEW YORK 



C. S. MYERS, Vice-Pres. 
WARREN EDWARDS, Mgr. 



The Railway List Co. 

William E. MAGRAW, Pres. 



L. F. WILSON, Editor 

O. W. MIDDLETON, Assoc. Editor 



S 



WWl 



Index to Volume XXXIII 

7 JAN19J0 

JANUARY TO DECEMBER 1909 



■J 



Issue. Pages. 

January 1 to 28 

February 29 to 68 

March 69 to 108 

April 109 to 148 



A 

Abuse of the M. C. B. Repair Card.6,113 

Accidents, Railroadt 49 

Accidents, Responsibility for Railroadt. 89 

Activity, Railroad . . . . . 69 

Advantages of Grinding 444 

Agriculture Lands, How to Obtain.. 245 
Air- 
Brake Hose* 319 

Brakes, Development in, for Rail- 
roads * f 158, 168, 231, 307 

Compressed, Hammer 411 

Compressor Explosions 186 

Compressors, New* 60 

Hose, Emergency Leak, Stoppers 

for * 143 

Pump Union * 18 

Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition ....109 

All Steel Car, Thet 49 

American Society of Mechanical En- 
gineers Year Book 29 

American Society of Mechanical En- 
gineers, November Meeting 473 

American Railway Association's Bu- 
reau for Safe Transp. of Explos- 
ives 133 

An Efficient Car Ventilator* 508 

Annealing Temperatures and Graphite 

Formation .241 

Announcement, Transfer of Railway 

Master Mechanic! 48 

Annual Convention, Master Mechan- 
ics Ass'n, Report of 252 

Apprentice, The Specialt 352 

Approaching Transfer of the Electri- 
fication Problem 122 

Arrangement, Piping, for Steam, Air 
and Water between Locomotive 
and Tender SJt 



Issue. Pages. 

May 149 to 184 

June 185 to 248 

July .249 to 312 

August 313 to 350 

Armbrust Brake Shoe 63 

Articulated — 
Compound Locomotives, Mallet*f . . .2,150 
Compound Locomotives, Virginian 

Ry. * 221 

Freight Locomotives, A. T. & S. F. 

Ry. * 489 

Locomotives, Mallet, C. C. & O. 

Ry. * 378 

Passenger Locomotives, A. T. & S. 

F. Ry. * 442 

Ash, Influence of, in Locomotive 

Service * 176 

Ash Pans, Self Cleaning 351 

Association, General Foremen's 149 

Association, New Fuelt 1 

Association, Railway Business 43 

Association, C. J. C. I. & C. F., Spe- 
cial Meeting 101 

Association, C. J. C. I. & C. F., Pa- 
pers Read Before 417 

Atlantic City Conventions! 129 

Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe — 
Articulated Freight Locomotives*. 489 

Locomotive Record! .390 

Mallet Articulated Passenger Lo- 
comotives * 442 

Standard Construction of Termi- 
nals * t 155, 169 

Attachment, Ratchet, for Pipe Cut- 
ting * 511 

Automatic Cut-Off Saw, Hamilton*. .104 

Automatic Train Stop 20 

Axle Lathe, Heavy Pattern* 34 

Axles, Increasing Life of* 239 

B 

Balanced Compound Locomotive, S. 
P. & S. Ry.* Ill 






Issue. Pages. 

September 351 to 388 

October 389 to 426 

November 427 to 474 

December 475 to 514 

Baltimore & Ohio R. R., Recent Im- 
provements on the 228 

Bearing Metals 131 

Bell Ringers, New Locomotive*. .. .240 
Bessemer & Lake Erie R. R., New 

Locomotive for * 314 

Binding Agent for Coal Briquets, 

New 327 

Birmingham Southern Car, New* 70 

Bituminous Gas Producers, Develop- 
ment in 176 

Bogalusa Shops, New Orleans Great 

Northern R. R 429 

Bogie and Underframe for Indiana 

State Rys 30 

Boiler — 
Check Valves and feed water pipes.381 

English Locomotive* 396, 497 

How Ruined* 407 

Inspection, Federal Locomotive! - . . 251 

Shop, Illinois Central! 169 

Shop, Illinois Cent. R. R.. Use of 

Dies in * 230 

Tube Welding Hammer, Impro- 
vised * 125 

Boilers, Locomotive 497 

Bolt Extracting Device 316 

Boring Machine, Car, Vertical* 510 

Boring Machine, Cylinder 130 

Boring Machine, Horizontal floor*.. 414 
Boring Machine. Universal, Drilling, 

Milling and * 33 

Boulton Shops. R. F. & P. R. R.*...ii9 

Box car doors and fixtures* 344 

Brake rigging. Safety 383 

Brake shoe, Armbrust 63 

Brake shoe. Evolution of the 139 

Brass Melting, Notes on 404 

Brighter Industrial and Commercial 

Outlook t 50 

British Patent Revocation 141 



Briquetted coal for locomotivest .... 48 

Briquetting of coal 9 

Briquets, coal. New binding agent for327 
Bureau for the safe trans]), of explos- 

ives ".'. 133 

Burner, New hydro-carbon* U3 

Buying Side, The* 448 



Cableway at the Gatun Locks, Pana- 
ma * 500 

Canada, Western 29 

Canadian Pacific Ry., Saskatoon 

Shops * 8 

Canadian Pacific Ry., Successful Su- 
perheater * 392 

Canal Work, Panama 109 

Capacity, Safety Valve* 114 

Car- 
All Steel t 49 

Birmingham Southern. New* 70 

Boring Machine, Vertical* 510 

Construction, Passenger, Steel in . . 76 

Construction, Use of Steel in 177 

Demurrage 29 

Locomotive and. Painters 328 

Mortising Machine for Heavy 

Work* 143 

Motor, C. R. I. & P. Ry.*.. 343 

Motor, New Ga'soline* 444 

Motor, New German Steam* 327 

Plates, Steel, Repairing in Posi- 
tion * 178 

Record, the Idle 149 

Repair Plant, Extension of* 16 

Repair Shops, Locomotive and, 

Bogalusa* 429 

Shops at Logan, Ohio, Hocking 

Valley Ry. * 239 

Shops at Spirit Lake, Idaho* 72 

Tenoning Machine, Heavy* 346 

Ventilator, An Efficient* 508 

Wheel Plant 31 

Wheel Forging * 338 

Wheels, Flat Spots on* IS 

Window Fixtures* 65 

Window Screen, New* 241 

Cars — 

Forty-Ton Flat 37 

Motor t 314, 353 

Passenger, Zanzibar* 122 

Pooling 29 

Steel. Paint for* 306 

Ventilation of 12 

Caring for Locomotives 5 

Carolina, Clinchfield & Ohio, Articu- 
lated Locomotives * 378 

Cartoons* 220, 271. 329, 407, 488 

Case Hardening 413 

Cast Steel Truck Frames* 10 

Castle Nuts * 317 

Castings, Steam Cylinder, Production 

of * ' 4:;h 

Central of Georgia Ry., Macon Shops 

of the 331 

Centralia, Illinois Central Shops at*. 497 
Check Valves, Boiler and Feed Water 

Pipes 381 

Chicago & Alton R. R., Consolidation 

and Pacific Locomotives* 173 

Chicago & Western Indiana R. R., 

Turntable Tractor * 240 

Chicago, Burlington & Quincy R. R., 

Pacific Type Locomotives* 250 

Chicago, Burlington & Quincy R. R., 

Lounging Cars 391 

Chicago Electrification. Illinois Cen- 
tral Report 445 

Chicago, Electrification of Railways, 

Paper 483 

Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Ry., 

New Passenger Equipment* 402 

Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Ry. — 
Cost of Motor Car and Locomotive 



Service 119 

Motes on Silvis Shops of* 440 

Shop Building at II Dorado* 4 

Twenty live Passenger Motor Car*. 343 
Chief Joint Car Inspector's and Car 

Foremen's Association.. 355, 417, 451 
Choice of a System of Electrification 

for Trunk I ,ines 399 

Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton Ry., 

Six Wheel Switcher 1 ...! 75 

( imlcr 1'its ->1, 71 

Classification of Motive Power on 

Indian Railways 229 

Cleveland Industrial Exposition .... 70 

Cleveland Shear* 107 

Club, the Railroad. Its Worth 142 

Club-. Railwayt 1 

Coache>, \'eu Passenger 70 

Coal- 
Briquets, Binding Agents for 327 

Briquetted, for Locomotives 48 

Briquetting of 9 

Government Specifications for 178 

Influence of Ash on, in Locomotive 

Service * 176 

Mines, Concerning Operation oft. .476 

Purchase of 35 

Tar as coating for Iron Pipes. .. .440 

Coaling Station, Locomotive 13 

Coals, Relation of character to Pre- 
vention of Smoke 409 

Combined Mortiser and Gainer* 344 

( Compound — 

Locomotive. Balanced* Ill 

Locomotive. Mallet Articulated*! 

2, 150 

Locomotive. Mallet Articulated. 

Virginian Ry. * 221 

Compressed Air Hammer* 411 

Compressor Explosions, Air 186 

Compressors, Air* 60 

Concerning Som< of Our Railway 

Supply Friends* 25 

Concerning Side Sheets of Wide Fire- 
boxes t 49 

Concerning the Operation of Coal 

Mines t 476 

Constructio [Terminals, Standard 

\ T. & S. F. Ry.* t 155, 169 

Construction, Railway, in England. .339 

Consumer, Smoke * 31 

Contact with Electricity, Danger of. 169 
i oii\ ention — 

Atlantic City t * 42, 128, 149, 272 

Car and Locomotive Painters' 328 

C. J. C. I. & C. F.. Report of. 417, 451 

General Foremen's 69,186 

Master Blacksmiths', Report of... 392 
Master Car Bldrs., Report of 291, 320 
Master Mechanics, Report of. 252, 331 
Traveling Engineers', Report of... 393 

Coping and Notching Machine* 51 

Copper 1'ipcs, Fatigue in 240 

Cost of Motor Car and Locomotive 

Service. C, R. I. & P. Ry 119 

1 orrespondence — 

Cinder Pits* 51, 71 

Danger of Contact with Electricity.169 

Development in Air Brakes 307 

Locomotive Boilers 497 

Locomotive Fuel Economy 316 

Safety Brake Rigging 383 

Crane — 

Double Trolley* 106 

Electric Gantry* 18 

1 i uomotive* 71 

Locomotive Wrecking* 110 

Crank Axles, Locomotive, Increasing 

the Life of* 239 

Cutting, Pipe, Ratchet Attachment 

for* oil 

Cutting Steelt 88 

Cut-Off Saw, Hamilton Automatic*. .104 

Cylinder Boring Machine* 130 

Cylinder Press, New Reversed* 181 



D 



Danger of Contact with Electricity 169 

I >eath of I larriman*! 

Demurrage, Car 

Designs, Several Truck 8 

Development iii Air Brakes*t 

15.s, 168, 231, 

Development in Bituminous Gas Pro 

ducers 176 

Development of Mechanical Engi 
neering < lourse at Wisconsin . L53 

Device. Bolt Extracting 316 

Device. Pneumatic, for Transferring 

Liquids* 487 

Devices, Railway. Manufacturers of... r .0:.» 
Dies in Boiler Shop of Illinois Cen- 
tral R. R., Use of* 

Dinner to Hugh M. Wilson 301 

Discussion — 

More Terminal Electrification'!". .. .390 
Topical, at Master Mechanics' Con- 
vention :;:;i 

Topical, at Master Car Builders' 

Convention 320 

Direct Current Service, Starting Pan- 
els for* 341 

Dispatch Tube, Pneumatic 

Dispatching, Telephone, for Trains.. 86 
Doctor. An Engineer Who Is Also.. 125 

Doors, Box Car, and Fixtures* 344 

Double Trolley Crane* 106 

Drafting of Locomotives 443 

Drill, High Duty* 

Drill, High Speed Sensitive* 414 

Drill Socket, Lang* 21 

Drill Socket, Special 11 

Drilling Machine, Universal* 33 

Drive, Electric, Machine Shop* 49) 



Economy, Fuclf 249 

Economy of Electric Drive in Ma- 
chine Shop* 491 

Economy, Locomotive Fuel 316 

Efficiency of Metal Working Ma- 
chine Tools 340 

Efficient Car Ventilator* 508 

Electric — 

Drive in Machine Shop* 491 

Gantry Crane* 18 

Locomotive with Side Rods* 336 

Locomotive, Pennsylvania R. R.* ...438 

Turntable Tractors* 37 

Electrification — 
Chicago. Reference to in, 111. Cent. 

Report 445 

Chicago Railways, Paper 483 

Discussion, More terminal.t 390 

For Trunk Lines, Choice of a Sys- 
tem of 399 

Problem, Approaching Transfer of.122 

Problem. Study Up Onf 427 

Terminalf 185, 390 

Terminal, and Public Opinionf 185 

Electricity, Danger of Contact with. 169 

Elimination of Smoke 38 

Emergency Leak Stopper for Air 

Hose* 143 

Emergency Treatment for the In- 

juredt 428 

England, Railway Construction 329 

English Locomotive Boilers* 396, 497 

English Menu Card* 25 

Engineering Course at Wisconsin ....153 

Engineer who is Also a Doctor 125 

Engines, the Heaviest Builtf 168 

Equipment, Motive Power, Preparing 

for Winter Servicet 427 

Equipment, New Passenger, C. M. & St. 

P. Ry* 402 

Equipment Tool, Most Economical 
Method of Maintaining on Loco- 
motives in Service 379 



Erecting Shops and Heavy Machine 

Shops. Lighting* 406 

Erecting Shops, Parsons, M. K. & T. 

System* 408 

Evolution of the Brake Shoe 139 

Exhibits at the Mechanical Conven- 
tions, List of* 272 

Experiences of a Worker at Panama.. 169 
Experimental Railway Refrigerating 

Plant* 125 

Experts Report on the Wood Locomo- 
tive Firebox 337 

Explosions, Air Compressor 186 

Explosives, Bureau for Safe Trans- 
portation 133 

Exposition. Alaska-Yukon-Pacific ...109 

Exposition, Cleveland Industrial 70 

Extension of a Car Repair Plant* 16 

Extracting Device, Bolt 316 

F 

Face Grinder, Locomotive Guide Bar 

and* 14 

Factors Influencing Efficiency of Ma- 
chine Tools 340 

Faster Time for Western Trains" 391 

Fasteners, Nut and Bolt, Manufacture 

of* 242 

Fatigue in Copper Pipes . . . . , 240 

Federal Locomotive Boiler Inspection! .250 
Feed Water Delivery Pipes, Boiler 

Check Valves and 381 

Fighting, Snow* 224 

Firebox, New, for Locomotives*tl26, 128 

Firebox, Report on Wood's 337 

Fireboxes, Wide, Concerning Side 

Sheets oft 49 

Fireman Who Have Been Machin- 
ists! 128 

Firemen's Strike on Georgia R. R.f..l86 

Fixtures, Car Window* 65 

Flat Cars, Forty Ton 37 

Flat Spots on Car Wheels* 18 

Floor Boring Machine, Horizontal*. .414 

Flue-Cutting Machine, Ryerson* 511 

Flue Rattler, Homemade, Large Ca- 
pacity* 302 

Foremen's Association, General 149 

Foremen's Convention, General 69, 186 

Forest Service, Government Transfers 

Work of 507 

Forest Service, Railroad Co-operates 

with 377 

Forged Steel Hydraulic Jacks* 100 

Forging, Car Wheel* 338 

Four-speed, Three-phase Locomotive*. .477 
Four-Wheel 80,000 lb. Capacity Steel 

Passenger Truck* 3 

Frames, Welding Locomotive* 406 

Freight Locomotives, Articulated, A., T. 

& S. F. Ry* 489 

Frisco System, Springfield Shop of 

thef* 351, 362 

Fritz, John, Medal, Presentation Cere- 
mony 109 

Fuel Association, Newf 1 

Fuel Coal, The Purchase of 35 

Fuel Economy! , 249 

Fuel Economy, Locomotive 316 

G 

Gainer, Mortiser and, Combined* 345 

Gantry Crane, Electric* 18 

Gas Producer Power in Railroad 

Shops! 313 

Gas Producer Tests 129, 505 

Gas Producers, Developments in Bi- 
tuminous 177 

Gasoline Motor Car, New* 444 

Gatun Locks, Cable Ways at the* 500 

Gear, Walschaert Valve 475, 481 

General Foremen's Association 149 



General Foremen's Convention 69, 186 

Georgia R. R., Firemen's Strike ont... 186 

German Steam Motor Car, New* 327 

Governing Shop Laborers, Systems of. 136 
Government Specifications for Coal. 178 
Government Timber and Agricultural 

Lands, How to Obtain 245 

Government Transfers Work of For- 
est Service 507 

Grand Trunk Ry., Locomotive Repair 

Shop at Battle Creek* 79 

Grand Trunk Ry., Locomotive Repair 

Shops at Stratford, Ont* 90 

Graphite Formation in Tool Steel, An- 
nealing Temperatures and 241 

Great North Country, The 245 

Grinding, Some Advantages of 444 

Guide Bar and Face Grinder, Locomo- 
tive* 14 

H 

Hammer, Compressed Air* 411 

Hammer, Improvised Tube Welding*.. .125 

Hammers, Machinists' 329 

Hamilton Automatic Cut-Off Saw* 104 

Handy Vise* 179 

Harriman, Death of!* 352 

Heaviest Engines Built! 168 

Heavy Pattern Axle Lathe* 34 

Heavy Pattern Lathe, New* 17 

Heavy Car Tenoning Machine* 347 

Heavy Dutv Planer* 384 

High Duty Drill* 59 

High Power Milling Machine* 105 

High Steam Pressures in Locomotive 

Service* 44 

High Speed Sensitive Drill* 414 

Hocking Valley Ry. Car Shops at Lo- 
gan, Ohio 239 

Hose. Emergency Leak Stopper for 

Air* 143 

Homemade Flue Rattler, Large Ca- 
pacity* 302 

Hose, Air Brake* .319 

How to Obtain Government Timber 

and Agricultural Lands 245 

How Boilers Are Ruined 407 

Horizontal Floor Boring Machine*. .. .414 

Hydraulic Jacks, Forged Steel* .100 

Hydro Carbon Burner, New* 413 

Hydro-Pneumatic Pit Jack* 508 

I 

Idaho and Washington R. R. Shops at 

Spirit Lake* 72 

Idle Car Record 149 

Illinois Central R. R. — 

Boiler Shop* 230 

Locomotives for the* 498 

More Terminal Electrification Dis- 
cussions! 390 

Report, Reference to Chicago Elec- 
trification 445 

Shops at Centralia* 497 

Terminal Electrification and Public 

Opinion! 185 

Use of Dies in Boiler Shop of* 230 

Illinois, Locomotive Model for Uni- 
versity 186 

Illinois University, Railway Mechanical 

Works at* 335 

Improvements, Recent on Baltimore & 

Ohio R. R 228 

Improvised Boiler Tube Welding 

Hammer* 125 

Increasing Life of Locomotive Crank 

Axles* 239 

Indian Railways, Classification of Mo- 
tive Power 229 

Industrial Exposition, Cleveland 70 

Influence of Ash on Value of Coal in 
Locomotive Service* ,,..,.....,,. .176 



Ingenious Rod Packing Moulding Ma 

chine* 171 

injured, Emergency Treatment for the'!'. 428 
Inspection, Federal Locomotive Boilert.250 

Interesting Tool, All* 340 

Iron Pipes, Coal Tar as Coating for. . .440 

J 

Jack, Pit, Hydro-Pneumatic* 508 

Jacks, Forged Steel Hydraulic* 100 

John Fritz, Medal, Presentation Cere- 
mony 1 00 



K 



Kokomo, Marion & Western Traction 
Co 56 

L 

Labor Distribution, Shop Timekeeping ' 

and 137 

Laborers, Shop, Systems of Governing. 136 

Lang Drill Socket* 21 

Lang Tool Holder* 63 

Large Capacity Homemade Flue Rat- 
tler* 302 

Lathe, Heavy Pattern Axle* 34 

Lathe, New, Heavy Pattern* 17 

Lathe Single-Speed Pulley, Gear 

Driven* 52 

Law, the Safety Appliance 63 

Leak Stopper for Air Hose, Emerg- 
ency* 143 

Lectures, Recent 70 

Lectures at University of Minnesota, 

Non-Resident 1 109 

Left Side, Locomotive's! 128 

Legislation, Railroad! 2 

Lighting of Erecting Shops* 406 

Liquids, Pneumatic Device for Trans- 
ferring* 487 

List of Exhibits at Mechanical Conven- 
tions* 272 

Locks, Gatun, Cableways at the* 500 

Locomotive — 

Bell Ringer, New* 240 

Boilers 497 

Boilers, English* 396, 497 

Coaling Station* 13 

Cranes* 70 

Crank Axles, Increasing Life of*... 239 

Electric Pennsylvania R. R* 438 

Firebox, Wood, Experts Report on.. 337 

Four-Speed, Three-Phase* 477 

Frames, Welding* 406 

Fuel Economy 316 

Guide Bar and Face Grinder* 14 

Model for University. 186 

Practice, Superheated Steam in! 313 

Record, Santa Fe! 390 

Repair Shop at Battle Creek* 79 

Repair Shops at Stratford, Ont.*.... 90 
Service, High Steam Pressure in* ... 44 
Shops at Bogalusa, N. O. G. N. R. 

R* 429 

Shops at Spirit Lake, Idaho* 72 

Side Rod Electric* 336 

Locomotives — 

Balanced Compound* Ill 

Bessemer & Lake Erie R. R., New*.. 314 

Briquetted Coal for! 48 

Caring for 5 

Drafting of 443 

Largest in the World 129 

Left Sidet 128 

Mallet Articulated Freight, A., T. & 

S. F. Ry.* 489 

New Firebox for*t 126, 128 

New. for the Illinois Central R. R.*..49S 
In Service, Economical Method of 

Maintaining Tool Equipment on . . . 379 
Oil Burning 29, 69, 109 



82713 



Tender and, Piping Arrangement.. 354 
Wrecking Crane, Pennsylvania 

R. R.* 110 

Logan, Ohio. Hocking Valley Rv. Car 

Shops at* 889 

Lounging Cars, C, B. & Q. R. R 391 

M 

Machine and Erecting Shop, Parsons, 

M.. K. & T. System* W8 

Machine, Ryerson Flue Cutting* 511 

Machine Shop, Economy of Electric 

Drive in the* 491 

Machine Shop, Heavy, Lighting of 

Erecting Shop and* M>6 

Machine Tools, Metal Working. Factors 

Influencing the Efficiency of 340 

Machine, Vertical Car Boring* ..510 

Machinists, Firemen Who Have Beent.128 

Machinists' Hammers 329 

Macon Shop of the Central of Georgia 

Ry 331 

Maintaining Tool Equipment on Loco- 
motives in Service, Most Economi- 
cal Method of 379 

Mallet Articulated Compound Locomo- 

tivest ^ 

Mallet Articulated Compound Locomo- 
tives, Southern Pacific Ry.* L50 

Mallet Articulated Compound Locomo 

tives, Virginian Ry.* 221 

Mallet Articulated Freight Locomotives. 

A.. T. & S. F. Ry.* 489 

Mallet Articulated Locomotives, C C. 

& O. Ry. 3 

Mallet Articulated Passenger Locomo- 
tives, A.. T. & S. F. Ry.*... 442 

Manufacture of Nut and Bolt Fasten- 
ers* 242 

Manufacture of Sand Paper ..414 

Manufacturers of Railway Devices, Rail- 
ways and •"> (, ~ 

Master" Blacksmiths' Convention, Re- 
port of 392 

Master Car Builders' Repair Card. 

Abuse of the 6, 113 

Master Car Builders' Ass,,., Report of 

the 43rd Annual Convention 291 

Mast-r Car Builders' Convention. Topi- 
cal Discussion at 320 

Master Car Builders' Rules? 89 

Master Mechanics and Master Car 

Builders' Conventions* 42 

Master Mechanics' Convention, Regis- 
tration of Members 303 

Master Mechanics' Convention, Report 

of the 42nd Annual 252 

Master Mechanics' Convention, Topical 

Discussion at :!:; 1 

Mechanical Engineering Course at Wis- 
consin, Development of 1-~> :; 

Mechanical Officials of America, Rep- 
resentative Raihvayt* 185 I8"i 

Mechanical Work, Railway, at the Uni- 
versity of Illinois'* 333 

Medals, Panama Canal 110 

Melting, Brass, Notes on 404 

Members of the Chief Joint Car In- 
spectors and Car Foremen's As- 
sociation of America" 355 

Members of the Master Mechanics' 

Assn., Registration of 303 

Menu Card, English* 25 

Metal Cutting Tools Without Clear- 
ance 21, 51 

Metallic Packing. A New* 383 

Metallic Rod Packing* 178 

Metallic Sheathing* 64 

Metals, Bearing 131 

Milling Machine, High Power* 105 

Milling Machine, Universal Boring, 

Drilling and Milling* 33 

Mine Explosion and Rescue Station .... 69 
Mines, Coal, Operation oft 476 



Missouri, Kansas & Texas System. Par- 
son's Machine and Erecting Shop*. 408 

Montreal and Quebec :.' 4 1 

More Terminal Electrification DisCUS 

-ion'' 390 

Mortiser and Gainer, Combined* ::i4 

Mortising Machine for Heavy Work. 

Car* ' i i;i 

Most Economical of Maintaining Tool 
Equipment on Locomotives in Ser- 
vice 

Motive Power Equipment, Preparing 

for Winter Service'-' 127 

Motive Power on Indian Railways, 

Classification of 229 

Motive Power. Severe Test of. on Raton 

Mountain 179 

Motor Car and Locomotive Service. 

Cosi of, C, R. I. & P. Ry H9 

Motor Car, New Gasoline* 444 

Motor Car. New German Steam :;27 

Motor Car. 25 Passenger, C, R. I. & 

P. Ry.* 343 

Motor Carsf :;i i 

Motor Cars 352 

Moulding Machine. Rod Packing, In- 
genious* 171 

N 

New Literature 14i'> 

181, ill. (49, 507 

Xew Orleans Great Northern R. R. 

Shops at Bogalusa, La.* 

Non-Resident Lectures at University of 

Minnesota L09 

North Country, The (neat 24.1 

Notching Machine. Coping and' .">1 

Notes on Brass Melting KM 

Notes on the Silvis Shop-, c'.. R. I. & 

P. Ry 140 

Notes of the United Kingdom! 470 

Nut and Bolt Fasteners, Manufacture 

of* 242 

Nuts. Castle* 317 

o 

Obituary" 1 See. also, "To Die No 

More'' 1 27. 309, 349, W8, 513 

Oil Burning Locomotives 29, 69, L09 

Oil Supply for Panama Railroad Lo- 
comotives L2 

Old Shop T00L Rejuvenated 50 

Operation of Coal Mines. Concerning 

Operation of Turntables* 7 

Ounce of Rim Prevention, An 142 

Our Country and Our Railroads 106 

Outlook, Brighter Industrial and Com- 
mercial' 1 ' 30 

P 

Pacific Type Locomotives* 250 

Pacific Type Locomotives. Consolidation 

and* 17:; 

Packing, A New Metallic* 383 

Packing, New Metallic Rod* 178 

Paint for Steel Cars* 306 

Painters, Car and Locomotive. Conven- 
tion 

Panama Canal Medals 110 

Panama Canal Works 109, 238, 334 

Panama, Experiences of a Worker at. .169 
Panama, Gatun Locks. Cable Ways 

at* . .". .500 

Panama R. R.. Oil Supply for Locomo- 
tives 12 

Panama. Raising Wrecks at 149 

Panels. Starting, for Direct Current 

Service* 341 

Papers Read Before the Chief Joint Car 
Inspectors and Car Foremen's As- 



sociation in Convention at Buffalo, 

Pt. 16 H7 

Papers to Be Read Before the Western 
Society of Engineers, 1909 1910. 

Parson's. Machine and Erecting Shop. 

M.. K. & I . System* 

Passenger Car Construction, Ua 

Steel in 7C. 177 

Passenger Cars ,,, Zanzibar* 122 

PasS< nger Coaches. New 

Passenger Equipment, New. ('.. M. & 

St. P. Ry.* 102 

nger I. otives, Mallet Articu- 
lated. A.. T. & S. F. Ry* 442 

nger Truck, Four-wheel, so, 000 lb 

Capacity, Steel* :; 

P.^t Year. Thet 1 

Patent Revocation, British 111 

Patents. (See Railwav Mechanical Patents.) 
Pennsylvania Railroad — 

Consolidation Locomotives ;i 

Electric Locomotive* 4:1s 

Locomotive Wrecking Crane* 110 

Scheduled Timet gg 

Surprise Tests on 391 

Pennsylvania Tunnel and Terminal 

Co.'s Lower House t.'; 

Personal Mention* 86, 66 

Personals -107, 146, L83, 847, 311, 349, 387, 
116, 147, 512. 

or Premium System of Organiza- 
tion 171 

Piece Workt 475 

Pipe Cutting, Ratchet Attachment for*. 511 

Pipe Fitting, New Union-Cinch* 15 

Pipes. Fatigue in Copper 240 

Pipes. Feed Water Delivery, Boiler 

Check Valves and 38 1 

Pipes. Iron, Coal Tar as Coating for. .446 
Piping Arrangement for Steam. Air and 

Water Between Locomotive and 

Tender 354 

Piston and Slide Valves, Semi-Plug*.. c .' s 

Pit Jack. Hydro Pneumatic* 508 

Pits. Cinder* 51, 71 

Planer. I Law Duty* 384 

Plant for Locomotive Co. (American). 29 

Plate Straightening Rolls* kid 

Pneumatic Device for Transferring 

Liquids 

Pneumatic Dispatch Tube 391 

Pooling Cars 89 

Power, Gas Producer, in Railroad 

Shopt 313 

Power, Wireless Transmission of 243 

Preparing Motive Power Equipment for 

Winter Service''' 

Presentation Ceremony, the John Fritz 

Medal L09 

Preservati es, Wood 69 

Press, New Reversed Cylinder* 1^1 

Pressures. High Steam, in Locomotive 

Service* 44 

ui ion of Smoke, Relation of the 

Character of Coal to the 1<>9 

Problems, Electrification, Study 

Up Out 427 

Proceedings of the 10th Annual Con- 
vention of the Chief Joint Car In- 
spectors and Car Foremen's Assn. 

of America* 4.". 1 

Producer Tests, (las 129, 506 

Producers. Bituminous Gas, Develop- 
ments in L76 

Production of Steam Cylinder Castings*4::»; 

Proposed Train for the President 14'.) 

Prouty Gasoline Car* 444 

Public Opinion, Terminal Electrification 

and? 185 

Publications. Technical 28 

Purchase of Railway Fuel Coal 35 

Purchases. Railroad''' 88 

Q 

Quebec, Montreal and 241 



—J 



R 



Railroad — 

Accidents" 1 " 49 

Activity 6i) 

Club—Its Worth 142 

Co-operates with Forest Service 377 

Legislation'!" 2 

Purchases"*" 88 

Shops. Vertical Car Boring Machine 

for* 510 

Railway — 

Administration Courset 314 

Business Association 43 

Clubsf 1 

Construction in England 329 

Devices, Raihvavs and Manufacturers 

of " 502 

Mechanical Patents — 148. 184, 248, 312, 

350. 388, 426, 474, 514 

Mechanical Work at the University 

of Illinois* 335 

Refrigerating Plant, Experimental*. .125 

Single Phaset 88 

Supplv Friends, Concerning Some of 

Our* 25 

Raihvavs and Manufacturers of Railway 

De'vices 502 

Railways. Chicago. Electrification of... 483 

Raising Wrecks at Panama 149 

Ratchet Attachment for Pipe Cutting*. 511 
Raton Mountain, Severe Test of Motive 

Power on 179 

Recent Improvements on the B. & O. 

R. R 228 

Recent Lectures . 70 

Record, Santa Fe Locomotivet 390 

Registration of Members of the Master 

Mechanic Assn 303 

Regrinder, Triple Valve* ......342 

Reference to Chicago Electrification in 

Illinois Central Report 445 

Refrigerating Plant, Experimental Rail- 

. way* 125 

Relation of the Character of Coals to 

the Prevention of Smoke 409 

Repair Card, Abuse of the 6, 113 

Repair Shop at Battle Creek, Loco- 
motive* 79 

Repairing Steel Car Plates in Position*. 178 
Reports — 

42d Annual Convention of the Mas- 
ter Mechanics' Assn 252 

43rd Annual Convention of the Mas- 
ter Car Builders' Assn 291 

Master Blacksmiths' Convention 392 

Traveling Engineers' Convention 393 

Representative Railway Mechanical Of- 
ficials of Americat* 185, 187 

Re>cue Station, Mine Explosion and... 69 
Responsibility for Railroad Accidentst. 89 

Reversed Cvlinder Press, New* 181 

Richmond, Fredericksburg and Potomac 

R. R., Boutton Shops* 119 

Rigging, Safety Brake .383 

Rod Packing Machine, Ingenious* 171 

Rod Packing, New Metallic* 178, 383 

Rolls, Plate Straightening* 106 

Rules, Master Car Builderst 89 

Rust Prevention, An Ounce of 142 

Ryerson Flue Cutting Machine 511 



Safety Appliance Law, The 63 

Safety Brake Rigging 383 

Safety Valve Capacity* 114 

Sand Paper, Manufacture of 414 

Saskatoon Shops, Canadian Pacific Ry.* 8 
Saw, Hamilton Automatic Cut-off*. .. .104 

Scheduled Time, Perm. R. R 69 

Screen, New Car Window* 241 

Self Cleaning Ash Pant 351 



Selling Side, The* (See, also, Trade 

Notes.) 309, 347, 385, 415, 446, 511 

Semi-Plug Piston and Slide Valves*... 98 

Sensitive Drill, High Speed* 414 

Several Truck Designs 8 

Severe Test of Motive Power on Raton 

Mountain 179 

Shear, Cleveland* 107 

Sheathing, Metallic* 64 

Shop — 

Building, C, R. I. & P. Ry.. 4 

Economy of Electric Drive in the*... 491 

Laborers, Systems of Governing 136 

Timekeeping and Labor Distribution. 137 

Tools Rejuvenated, Old 50 

Shops — 

Boiler, Illinois Centralt ....159 

Boulton Shops* 119 

Canadian Pacific* 8 

Car, of the Hocking Valley Ry. at 

Logan, Ohio 239 

Central of Georgia R. R., at Macon.. 331 

Gas Producer Power int 313 

Illinois Central, at Centralia* 497 

Lighting of Erecting and Heavy Ma- 
chine* 406 

Locomotive and Car Repair, at Boga- 

lnsa, La., N. O. G. N. R. R.* 429 

Locomotive and Car Repair, Idaho & 
Washington R. R., at Spirit Lake, 

Idaho* 72 

Locomotive Repair, at Battle Creek, 

Grand Trunk Ry.* 79 

Locomotive Repair, at Stratford, Ont, 

Grand Trunk Ry.* 90 

Parsons' Machine and Erecting, M., 

K. & T. System* 408 

Railroad, Vertical Car Boring Ma- 
chine for* 510 

Silvis, of C, R. I. & P. Ry* 440 

Springfield, of the Frisco Sys- 

temt* 351, 362 

Terminal R. R. of St. Louis* 227 

Side Frames and Truckst 389 

Side Rods, Electric Locomotive with*.. 336 
Side Sheets of Wide Fireboxes, Con- 

cerningt 49 

Silvis Shops, C, R. I. & P. Ry., Notes 

on the* 440 

Simplon Tunnel, Electric Locomo- 
tive* .'.477 

Single Phase Railways'!' 88 

Single Speed Pulley Gear Driven 

Lathe* 52 

Slide Valves, Semi-Plug Piston and*. . 98 

Smoke Consumer* 31 

Smoke, Elimination of 38 

Smoke, Relation of the Character of 

Coals to the Prevention of 409 

Snow Fighting* 224 

Some Advantages of Grinding 444 

Southern Pacific Ry. — Heaviest En- 
gines Builti" 168 

Southern Pacific Ry., Mallet Articulated 

Compound Locomotives* 150 

Special Apprentice, Thet 352 

Special Drill Socket 14 

Special Meeting of the C. J. C. I. & C. 

F. Assn 101 

Special Train for the Conventions. ... 149 

Specialties, Some Tool Room* 64 

Specifications for Coal. Government. . .173 
Spokane, Portland & Seattle Ry., Bal- 
anced Compound Locomotives* Ill 

Springfield Shops of the Frisco Sys- 

temf* 351. 362 

Standard Construction of Terminals, 

A., T, & S. F. Ry.*f 155, 169 

Starting Panels for Direct Current Ser- 
vice* 341 

Staybolts, Stresses in 30 

Steam Cylinder Castings, Production 

of* 436 

Steam Motor Car, New German* 327 

Steam Pressures in Locomotive Ser- 
vice. High* 44 



Steam, Superheated, in Locomotive 

Practice'!' 3 13 

Steel Cars, Paint for* 300 

Steel -in Passenger Car Construction.,. 76 
Steel, Tool, Annealing Temperatures 

and Graphite Formation in 211 

Steel, Use in Passenger Car Construc- 
tion 177 

Straightening Rolls, Plate- 1 ' L06 

Storekeepers' Association 29 

Stresses in Staybolts 30 

Strike on Georgia K. P., Firemen's 1 ! . . . 186 
Study upon Electrifications' Prob 

lems 427 

Suggestion, At 428 

Superheated Steam in Locomotive Prac- 

ticet 313 

Superheater, A Successful, Canadian 

Pacific Ry.* 392 

Supplymen's Association, Secretaryship 

oft 249 

Surprise Tests on the Pennsylvania 

R. R 391 

Switcher, Six-Wheel, C. H. & D. Ry.*. 75 
System of Electrification for Trunk 

Lines, Choice of a 39!) 

System of Organization, Piece or Pre- 
mium ]?l 

Systems of Governing Shop Laborers. 136 



Tank Locomotives, New Six-Wheel 

Coupled 30 

Tar, Coal, as Coating for Iron Pipes.. 446 

Technical Publications 28 

Telephone for Train Dispatching.... 86 
Temperatures, Annealing, and Graphite 

Formation in Tool Steel 241 

Tenoning Machine, Heavy Car* 346 

Terminal Electrification and Public 

Opinion t 185 

Terminal Electrification Discussion, 

More t 390 

Terminal R. R. of St. Louis, Shops of 

the * 227 

Terminals, Standard Construction of. A. 

T. & S. F. * t 155, 169 

Test of Motive Power on Raton Moun- 
tain, Severe 179 

Tests, Gas Producer 129, 506 

Tests of Locomotive Valves & Gearstl28 
Tests on the Pennsylvania R. R., Sur- 
prise t • - ; 391 

Three-Phase, Four-Speed Locomotive*. 477 
Timekeeping and Labor Distribution, 

Shop 137 

To Die No More* (See also "Obit- 
uary") 309, 349, 448, 513 

Tool, An Interesting* 346 

Tool Equipment for Locomotives in 
Service, Most Economical Meth- 
od of Maintaining 379 

Tool Holder, A New* 308 

Tool Holder, Lang* 63 

Tool Holder, Universal* 24 

Tool Room Specialties. Some* 64 

Tool Steel, Annealing Temperatures and 

Graphite Formation in 241 

Tools, Metal Working Machine. Factors 

Influencing the Efficiency of 340 

Tools, Metal Cutting, without Clear- 
ance 21. 51 

Tools, Old Shop, Rejuvenated 50 

Topical Discussions at the M. C. B. 

Convention 320 

Topical Discussions at the Master Me- 
chanics Convention 331 

Traction Co., Kokomo, Marion & West- 
ern 56 

Trade Notes, (See also Selling Side) 

28. 67. 107, 144, 182. 245 

Train Dispatching, Telephone for 86 

Train for the President. Proposed .... 149 

Train Stop, Automatic 20 

Trains, Western, Faster Time for 391 



rransfer of the Electrification Problem, 

\pi>r< laching 122 

Transfers, Work of Forest Service, 

( lovernment 507 

Transferring Liquids, Pneumatic Device 

for * i 487 

Transmission of Power, Wireless 243 

Transportation Exhibit, Alaska-Yukon- 

Pacific Exposition 109 

Transportation of Explosives, Bureau 

for the 133 

Traveling Engineers Convention, Report 

of the ,.393 

Treatment for the Injured, Emergencyf.428 

Triple Valve Regrinder* 342 

Truck, Four Wheel, 80,000 lb. Capacity, 

Steel Passenger* 3 

Truck Frames, Cast Steel* 10 

Truck Designs, Several 8 

Trucks, Side Frames andf 389 

Trunk Lines, Choice of a System of 

Electrification for 399 

Tube, Pneumatic Dispatch 391 

Tunnel. Simplon, Electric Locomo- 
tive 477 

Turntable Tractors, Electric* 37 

Turntable Tractor, C. & W. I. R. R*. .240 
Turntables, Operation of* 7 



u 



Union-Cinch Pipe Fitting, New*.... 15 
United Kingdom, Notes from thet...476 
Universal Boring, Drilling and Milling 

Machine * 33 

Universal Tool Holder* 24 

University, Locomotive Model for".... 186 
Use of Dies in the Boiler Shop of Illi- 
nois Central R. R.* 230 

Use of Steel in Passenger Car Con- 
struction 177, 342 



Valve Capacity, Safety* 114 

Valve Gear, Walschaert t * 475, 481 

Valve Regrinder, Triple* 342 

Valves, Boiler Check, and Feed Water 

Delivery Pipes 381 

Valves, Semi-Plug Piston and Slide*.. 98 

Ventilation of Cars 12 

Ventilator, Car, An Efficient* :.<>* 

Vertical Car Boring Machine for Rail- 
road Shops* 510 

\ irginian Ry. Mallet Articulated Com- 
pound Locomotives* 221 

Vise. Handy* 179 



w 



W est< in Canada :;«.) 

Western Maryland R. R., Consolida- 
tion Locomotive* 126 

Western Society of Engineers, Papers 
to Be Read Before the, 1909-1910. .384 

Western Trains, Faster Time for 391 

Wheel Forging, Car* 338 

Wheel Plant, Car* 31 

Wide Fireboxes, Concerning Side Sheets 

on t 49 

Wilson, Hugh M., Dinner to 301 

Window Screen, New Car* 241 

Winter Season, Thef 389 

Winter Service, Preparing Motive Pow- 
er Equipment fort 427 

Wireless Transmission of Power 243 

Wisconsin, Development of the Mechan- 
ical Engineering Course at 153 

Wood Locomotive Firebox, Experts Re- 
port on the 337 

Wood Preservatives 69 

Work, I 'iece t 47". 

Wrecking Crane, Locomotive* 110 

Wrecks at Panama, Raising 149 



Year Book, A. S. M. F. 



:!'.< 



Underframe and Bogie for Indian Rys. 30 

Union, Air Pump* 18 



Walschaerl Valve Gear t * ....475, 481 £^ 

Welding Hammer, Improvised Tube*. 125 

Welding Locomotive Frames* 406 Zanzibar, Passenger Cars in* 122 



RAILWAY 
MASTER MECHANIC 



A MONTHLY RAILWAY JOURNAL 

devoted to the interest of railway motive power, car equip- 
ment shops, machinery and supplies. 

SUBSCRIPTION PRICE $2.00 A \ EAR 
ESTABLISHED 1878 



PUBLISHED BY THE 

CRANDALL PUBLISHING 
COMPANY 

510 SECURITY BUILDING 
CHICAGO 

TELEPHONE MAIN 3185 



BRUCE V. CRANDALL, President 

WARREN EDWARDS. Vice President 
C C. ZIMMERMAN. Secretary 

NORMAN F. REHM. Editor 



VOL. XXXIII., No. 1 



Entered as Second Class-Matter June 18, 1895, at the Post Office 
at Chicago, Illinois, Under Act of March 3, 1879. 



JANUARY, 1909 



New Fuel Association 

THE International Railway Fuel Association was 
recently organized for the purpose of improving 
methods of handling fuel as well as purchasing, in- 
specting, weighing and distributing it. The active 
membership is made up of purchasing and fuel agents, 
together with other railroad officials directly interested 
in such fuel problems, while the associate membership 
includes producers and manufacturers concerned in the 
production of fuel and the manufacture of handling 
and distributing devices. 

The work of this association should be of great value 
to the railroad companies and the railroad officials, 
who are charter members, are very enthusiastic. Mr. 
Eugene McAuliffe, general fuel agent, Rock Island- 
Frisco Lines, is the first president of the association, 
and to him the credit is given for successfully organ- 
izing the association. 



Ttie Past Year 

THE records of the year, 1908, indicate that better- 
ment work was reduced to a small amount in all 
departments. By this statement it should not be in- 
ferred that any of the railroads have allowed their 
equipment to depreciate in a way to hamper the trans- 
portation facilities, but that new shops and their equip- 
ment, cars, locomotives, etc., have-not been built except 
in cases of need. 

The number of cars, built in 1908, was about 78,000, 
while in 190? there were about 290,000. This shows a 
reduction of almost 75 per cent. In consideration of the 
number of surplus cars, which varied approximately be- 
tween 450,000 and 110.000 for the year, there was not 
a pressing need for many new cars. 

During the past year the steel box car question was 
discussed in several organizations, many mechanical offi- 
cials being in favor of steel for the superstructure as 
well as for the underframing. Mr. W. R. McKeen, Jr., 
stated that the Union Pacific all-steel box cars developed 
no defects. At the Master Mechanics' and Master Car 
Builders' conventions last June the Bettendorf all-steel 
box car, built by the Bettendorf Axle Co., Davenport, 
Iowa, was exhibited. 

In 1908 there was also a reduction in the number of 



locomotives built. There were approximately 7,300 
built in 1907 and 2,300 in 1908, which means almost a 
70 per cent reduction. Among the more important ques- 
tions concerning locomotives that were considered last 
year are the mechanical stoker and the superheater. The 
committee report of the Master Mechanics' Association 
on mechanical stokers was to the effect that mechanical 
stoking is successful and it included descriptions of the 
more important mechanical stokers, but in the case of 
superheaters no definite recommendations were made 
in the report which covered the present data on the sub- 
ject. The development of the Mallet compound con- 
tinued as an important question in locomotive design. 

Railroad extension in 1908 was chiefly in the west 
among the roads that were building Pacific coast con- 
nections. There was a decrease in new mileage from 
5,200 to 3,200, about 40 per cent. 

In reviewing the work of the past year, it is not sur- 
prising to find that betterment work was materially cur- 
tailed. It was a natural consequence of the market con- 
ditions because traffic was ■ radically reduced, the rail- 
road companies being affected to a greater degree than 
other industrial concerns. The gradual resumption in 
all lines is being felt, however, and this early revival is 
due to the resources of the country, which in agriculture 
could hardly have been more gratifying. 

It is not logical to have an immediate return of nor- 
mal conditions, so we must look forward to a steady re- 
newal of activity. This means that the betterment work 
in all departments will be systematically taken up, which 
in the past year offered the best means of reducing ex- 
penses in view of the smaller gross earnings. 



Railway Clubs 

THERE are few members of railway clubs who do 
not appreciate the advantages of membership. In 
a recent address to the St. Louis Railway Club by Mr. 
J. J. Baulch, president of the club, he explained clearlv 
what the railway club means and its value to railroad 
men. 

One of the most important points is the free exchange 
of ideas between men in all branches of railroad work, 
as well as in all positions. Thought is stimulated along 
new lines and a broader conception of the progress in 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



I muary, L909 



railroad construction, operation and maintenance is 
given. This alone should be sufficient to make any rail- 
road man join a railway club. 

These remarks are made at this time for the benefit 
of those who have not taken advantage of the oppor- 
tunity, which the railway club offers, to become more 
thoroughly informed. It is usually the case that serious 
consideration of this matter results in an application for 
membership. 



Mallet Articulated Compound Locomotives 

THE advantages of the Mallet articulated com- 
pound locomotive in meeting the demand for 
greater power were brought out in a paper by Mr. 
C. J. Mellin at a recent meeting of the American So- 
ciety of Mechanical Engineers. The use of this type of 
locomotive in freight service has already demonstrated 
its good points, which also favor its application to 
passenger service, especially in districts where there 
are heavy grades and sharp curves. The chief ad- 
vantages are given briefly, as follows: 

"The Mallet articulated arrangement presents the 
advantages of enormous tractive power concentrated 
in the combination of the two sets of engines with 
practically no increase in the individual weights of 
the moving and wearing parts over those of engines 
of the ordinary types; double expansion of the steam; 
simplicity and ease in operation ; and a short rigid 
wheel base, with the weight distributed over a long 
total wheel base, resulting in the greatest flexibility 
and ease on track and bridges. It was also found pos- 
sible at the very first to provide an engine under the 
control and operation of a single crew, having double 
the power of the largest engines of the ordinary type." 

It is noted that over a hundred locomotives of this 
type have been built and that these range in weight 
on drivers from 106,000 lbs. to 410,000 lbs. and from 
20,000 lbs. to 125,000 lbs. in tractive power. Tabulated 
data are given on the heaviest designs of different 
types, which show that the tractive power of the Mal- 
let engine is double that of the other types. With en- 
gines of the same tractive power the weights of mov- 
ing and wearing parts are much less for the Mallet 
type. This type of locomotive entails a logical devel- 
opment and with varied details of design the same 
principle may be used in meeting the future demands 
in passenger service. Relative to slipping the follow- 
ing comparison is given : 

"With the ordinary engine, slipping at such times 
is a serious matter, as the train is losing speed and 
may stall on that account after a few repetitions. In 
the case of the articulated engines, the loss in power 
by the slipping of one engine is practically gained by 
the other, in the increase of unbalanced pressure that 
thereby results. This difference in the unbalanced 
pressure has the opposite effect on the slipping engine, 
usually causing it to stop slipping after a few revolu- 
tions, without the necessity of closing the throttle. 



This is explained by the fact that, when tbe low pres 
sure engine slips, the receiver pressure naturally falls 
and reduces the back pressure on the high pressure 
piston, as well as the forward pressure on the low pres- 
sure piston; causing the latter engine to stop slipping 
on account of the friction against the rail under the 
reduced receiver pressure, which reduction also in- 
creases the average unbalanced pressure on the high 
pressure piston a corresponding amount."' 

In the past several years, descriptions of Mallet en- 
gines and discussions of important features have ap- 
peared in the Railway Master Mechanic. Among 
these was an article in the August, 1907, issue by Mr. 
T. F. Crawford, Great Northern Railway, on the trac- 
tive force of Mallet compound locomotives. The Mal- 
let compound for the Erie Railroad, which is the heav- 
iest and most powerful locomotive in the world, was 
described in the September^ 1907, issue. The latter 
engine has a total weight in working order of 410,000 
lbs., which is also the weight on drivers, and a tractive 
power of 94.800 lbs. or 120,000 lbs. when working 
simple. 



Railroad Legislation 

IN order to promote railroad activity, commercial 
organizations are advocating conservative legis- 
lation which shall restore confidence in railroad in- 
vestments. The spirit of co-operation, which is the 
controlling factor in commercial growth, had much to 
do with the progress in railroad construction in this 
country, and the present agitation of the commercial 
organizations is more for the purpose of bringing back 
a full realization of this point than to decry recent 
legislation. 

The Illinois Manufacturers' Association passed the 
following resolution : 

Resolved, That the Illinois Manufacturers' Associa- 
tion respectfully recptests all Senators and Representa- 
tives of Illinois in the National and State Legislatures 
to discourage all measures having a tendency to con- 
tinue or aggravate the agitation against corporate in- 
terests, and to support all legislation which, without 
injury to their constituents, will tend to allay the hos- 
tility toward business conducted under corporate form, 
including manufacturing, commercial and transporta- 
tion companies, while the new laws on the statute 
books are being tried out. 

The above resolution indicates the feeling that exists 
among the members of a large independent organiza- 
tion, which has endeavored to promote shippers' in- 
terest in the past. The Southern Commercial Con- 
gress also passed a resolution, which follows, to ex- 
press its attitude regarding the railroad problem. 

"Railroad construction has been extensive, but the 
rapid commercial growth of the South requires an 
enormous increase in its railroad facilities to transport 
to market its many and varied products. The con- 
struction of such adequate facilities can be accom- 
plished only by assuring the holders of capital that 



Tanuary, 1909 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



such enterprises will be safeguarded by conservative 
and constructive legislation, and we urge upon our 
Southern legislators the wisdom of such policy and 
condemn any agitation leading to the contrary. We 
favor a spirit of co-operation between the people and 
railroads and other corporate interests, to the end that 
the required confidence of investors may be estab- 



lished in the securities of the corporations of the 
South." 

It is necessary that these facts be brought to the 
attention of our legislative representatives because a 
more speedy return to activity will result from a thor- 
ough appreciation of the feeling on the part of the 
large commercial organizations. 



Four- Wheel 80,000-/6 Capacity Steel Passenger Truck 



THE length and weight of passenger car equipment 
used on American roads has been steadily increas- 
ing for the past number of years, and trains have been 
operated at a greater average speed. These conditions 
have placed greater strains on the running gear of all 
such equipment, and the truck illustrated bythe accom- 
panying photograph was designed to meet this demand. 

This truck is of the four-wheel all-metal type having 
M. C. B. standard axles of 80,000-lbs. capacity, and 36- 
in. steel tired wheels. The wheel base is 8 ft., and length 
over side frames is 11 ft. 10 ins. The weight of trucks 
complete equipped with high speed brake rigging is 
14,100 lbs. each. 

In designing this truck, wrought metal has been used 
on all parts subject to strains in order to reduce to a 
minimum the chances of failure in service and to over- 
come the objection to the use of castings, which, on ac- 
count of the liability of flaws in the initial castings, 
and crystalization due to shocks are more subject to 
breakage than wrought metal properly distributed. 

The general construction of this truck, built by the 
Barney & Smith Car Company, Dayton, Ohio, is as fol- 
lows: 

The side frames are constructed of open hearth steel 
web plates, reinforced at the edges with angles. The 
pedestals are an integral part of the truck sides, the web 
plates being cut and reinforced with heavy malleable 
castings, which also act as guides to the journal boxes. 
The side frames are also cut out to receive equalizer 
and bolster springs, the opening for bolster springs being 
reinforced as shown. 

The equalizers are made of best hammered iron and 
are of the double type, one being placed on each side of 
the frame and maintained in position by the equalizer 



spring seat castings which rest on the equalizers with 
an extension projecting downward, thereby forming a 
combined spreader and spring seat. 

The cross transoms are formed of steel plate pressed 
in an inverted "U" shape and have flanges at the ends. 
These flanges are securely riveted to side frames. 

The end sills are composed of rolled channels se- 
cured to the side frames by means of malleable iron 
corner plates, the manner in which the cross transoms 
and end sills are secured to the sides being such that 
truck frames are kept square and true in service. The 
safety beams of standard I-beam section are provided 
and secured to end sills and cross transoms ; axle 
safety guards being riveted to the bottom of these 
I-beams. 

The brake beams are supported from a rolled T-sec- 
tion placed crosswise of and secured to the side frames 
and safety beams. To this T-section are also secured 
brake release springs, brake safety irons and lever guides. 

The bolsters are composed of rolled I-beams rein- 
forced at top and bottom with cover plates of proper 
dimensions, and provided with end and center filler 
castings, center plates, side bearings, bolster spring 
seats and chafing castings of malleable iron. All parts 
securely riveted together. 

The spring plank is composed of two rolled steel angles 
and two elliptic spring seat castings which rest on the 
swing motion axles. Swing motion hangers, which sup- 
port the spring planks, are of rehammered iron and ex- 
tend upward and between flanges of the U-shape cross 
transoms, to which they are secured by turned steel 
pins. 

All rivet holes are reamed and rivets power driven 
with the exception of a few connections which are driven 











mm 

L 




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mat ' ■* 

• ». m sfc .. . ; l r 


•••* ■»«•■■»,]■ 


i r 

















EIGHTY-THOUSAND POUND CAPACITY STEEL TRUCK. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



January, 1909 



by pneumatic hammer, and as all parts containing rivets 
are spring suspended there is no liability of rivets be- 
coming loose in service. A large number of these trucks 
have been constructed and are in service under 70-ft. 
vestibule coaches, parlor and private cars. 



Shop Building, C. R. I. & P. Ry. 

THE Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific shop buildings 
and layout at El Dorado, Ark., are on a small 
scale, but contain some interesting details of construc- 
tion. The section and plan of roundhouse, which is used 
in the extreme south, is shown in Fig. 1. This round- 
house has a depth of 90 ft. and is of frame construction 
on concrete foundation. The length of pit is 65 ft. and 
pit is 14 ft. 1 in. from the outer wall and 10 ft. S-ll/16 
ins. from the inner wall. The walls of the pit are built 
of concrete and the floor of paving brick on edge 
grouted. 

The walls and 10x10 in. posts have a concrete foot- 
ing. The roof girders. are 10x14 ins. and carry 1x1 !-in. 
joists on which are laid 2x8-in. matched and dressed 
roof boards covered by a composition roofing. The 
pitch of roof is 1 in 12 ins. 

The design of smoke ventilator is shown in Fig. 2 and 
its location with respect to pit is shown in Fig. 1. The 
length of ventilator is 12 ft. and width 4 ft. The inside 
surfaces including both sides of lower slats are painted 




lAHS/rUDinAl. Jeer, 



' ' ■ . ■ 



I7S5SJ™ 



m 



*fc 



I 



" nlf — 



TO 



mart 
FIG. 2— SMOKE VENTILATOR, C. R. I. & P. RY. 

with two coats of oil paint and two coats of fire-proof 
paint. 

In Fig. 3 is given a plan of the combination pit for 
drivers and trucks and in Fig. 4 is given a section 
through the pit. The walls of the pit are built of con- 



I 


ma ;.;., 


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FIG. 1— SECTION AND PLAN OF ROUNDHOUSE, C, R. I. & P- RY. 



January, 1909 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 




FIG. 3— PLAN OF COMBINATION PIT FOR 

crete. Allith track for No. 300 Reliable Merchandise 
carrier is to be bolted to bottom flange of I-beam. One 
Reliable Merchandise carrier is to be provided with a 
Yale and Towne 5-ton triplex block and the hand chain 
for operation of this block is to be 32 ft. long. The lift 
is to have a capacity of 5 tons. 




FIG 4— SECTION THROUGH COMBINATION PIT, C. R. I. & P. 

RY. 

A section through cinder pit is shown in Fig. 5. The 
floor of pit is of hard clinker-burned brick. There is a 
5 per cent ascending grade to the cinder pit track and a 
5 per cent descending grade to the depressed track. 



Caring for Locomotives 

AT 5 o'clock in the afternoon the Isthmian Canal 
Commissin engineer takes his train to the nearest 
siding, uncouples his locomotive from the string of loaded 
or empty cars, and runs the engine to the hostling yard. 
His dinner over, he goes to his quarters, and the follow- 
ing m6rning at 6 :30 o'clock he is in the cab again. From 
the time the engineer leaves his locomotive at night until 
he takes the throttle again in the morning, the engine 
also is resting and preparing for the next day's work. Its 
food is two or three tons of coal, several barrels of water ; 
and a few bushels of sand ; and once in two weeks it is 
given a bath in the form of a "washout." The engineer 
calls his dinner and rest "recreation," and the recreation 
of his locomotive "hostling." Hostling is as essential to 
the engine as recreation is to the engineer. 

Between fifty and sixty locomotives are hostled every 
night at Pedro Miguel. During the day screws have be- 
gun to show wear, a drawhead has weakened, a grate 



DRIVERS AND TRU CKS, C. R. I. & P. RT. 

given out, lubricators and injectors, rod brasses, air brake- 
equipment or trucks need repairing, the guides on the 
piston crosshead must be closed, or some other little 
weaknesses have developed in several of the engines ; and 
those so affected are run into the shed, over the repair 
pit if necessary, and the machinist begins the repairs at 
once. The other engines are turned over to the six 
"gold" men known as "hostlers." These men have served 
as engineers and are now hostling, waiting a chance to 
take a regular run. 

Each hostler takes four locomotives in one train and 
runs them to the coal chute, then to the sand chute, and 
then to the water pipe. This order may be changed as 
convenience dictates, but the process remains the same, 
and when the hostler leaves the engines they have a full 
store of coal, a tank full of water, and sand enough in 
the sand box to meet the next day's demands. Firemen' 
then separate the cinders from the coal, dump them, and' 
bank the fire. The oil cups are filled, the light repairs 
finished, and the locomotives cleaned, usually by mid- 
night. After that the hostler's work is merely to visit 
each engine two or three times until 5 o'clock, and see 
that all is going well. Between 5 and 6 o'clock the fires 
are raked again, and when the engineer takes his locomo- 
tive at 6 :30 o'clock the fire is bright, and the gauge regis- 
ters from 120 to 150 pounds of steam. 

Four engines are "washed out" every night, and an 
order is preserved so that each has a thorough cleaning 
once in fifteen days. Like the locomotives that need re- 
pairing, those to be washed out are separated from the 
rest early in the evening and hostled at once. They are 
then run over the cinder pit where the fires are dumped,, 
and taken into the house where the steam and water are 
allowed to escape, while cold water is forced into the 




FIG. 5— SECTION THROUGH CINDER PIT. C. R. I. & P. RT. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



January, L909 



boilers and running out carries with it the loose matter 
that has collected during two weeks. All this takes from 
5 :30 o'clock in the evening until 2 o'clock the next morn- 
ing, when the fires are started again, and at 6:30 the 
engines' are ready for their work. 

To one not accustomed to such work the hostlers and 
their helpers moving in and out among the great engines, 
with the shadows deepened by an occasional headlight, 
the gleam from the cinder pit, or rays from the work- 
men's lanterns, make an eerie sight. Fifty locomotives 
maneuver in files of four on only six tracks, and so close 
to one another that the trains almost touch, while half 
a hundred men hurry about among them. It looks like 
a mix-up and sounds like discord ; but the engines start 
only on double signals, there are no collisions, accidents 
are few, the work moves swiftly. 

At daybreak the result of it all is seen in the locomo- 
tives standing ready, like horses at the barrier. On the 
morning of October 29, at :30 o'clock 52 locomotives 
left the yard in nine minutes, and often the clearance is 
made in seven minutes. Between 6 :30 and 6 :41 o'clock 
two locomotives had left the yard, coupled to a train of 
sixteen 20-yard cars which had been left on the siding 
the night before, had stretched the unloader cable, and 
started to the La Boca dumps. — The Canal Record. 



Abuse of the M. C. B. Repair Cara* 

AT its annual convention of 1896, the Master Car 
Builders' Association incorporated into the Mas- 
ter Car Builders' Rules of Interchange effective Sep- 
tember 1, 1896, the following: 

Sec. 16, Rule 4. 

"When repairs of any kind are made to foreign cars, 
a repair card shall be securely attached to outside face 
of intermediate sill between cross-tie timbers. This 
card shall specify fully the repairs made, reasons for 
same, date and place where made and name of road 
making repairs," etc., etc. 

This requirement has remained in the Rules of In- 
terchange every year since 1896, and is still required 
under rule 76 of the present code. In revising the 
Master Car Builders' Rule of Interchange September 
1, 1897, and since that time down to the present day 
(excluding the exceptions noted in last line of rule 4), 
intermediate or delivering lines were relieved from re- 
sponsibility of wrong repairs not made by them. (See 
1908 code, 2nd paragraph, page 2; rule 4, page 4; rule 
47, page 19 ; and last sentence of rule 86, page 38.) 
The 1897 amendment referred to, rendered the use of 
the Master Car Builders' repair card all the more neces- 
sary, as, in relieving the intermediate or delivering 
roads from responsibility of wrong repairs not made by 
them, it "boiled down" so to speak, the matter of ad- 
justment to the two parties only, viz. : the car owner 
and the road who actually made the wrong repairs. If, 
as required by the Master Car Builders' rules, the road 



*Paper presented by Mr. J. J. Hennessey, M. C. B.', C, M. 
& St. P. Ry., before the Western Railway Club. 



who did the incorrect work applied a Master Car 
Builders' repair card covering the items objected to, 
its identity would of course Ik- immediately known, 
and the adjustment of the account would then be a 
very easy matter. The application of the repair card 
in all cases of repairs to foreign car equipment as re- 
quired by the Master Car Builders' rules, is not, I am 
very sorry to state, being done, and the fact that these 
repair cards are not being applied, brings to us a very 
difficult problem for solution. The road with which I 
am connected, has cases coining up every day where 
our cars are offered home to us with wrong repairs to 
sills, trucks, draft gear, and other very expensive parts 
of our equipment, and the expense of correcting same 
is enormous, and we cannot afford to bear it. The re- 
pair card is invariably missing, and we are then forced 
to the only other method of ascertaining by whom the 
repairs were made, and this leads us to that same old 
story of tracing with its attendant voluminous corres- 
pondence, loss of time, and expense, to say nothing of 
the burden placed upon the office forces of our Motive 
Power and Car Accounting departments. This diffi- 
culty has been growing worse from year to year, until 
now its presents to us a very serious condition with no 
apparent relief in sight. It is to be deplored that this 
particular rule is so flagrantly violated. Here we are 
an association of Master Car Builders, organized for 
the purpose of concerted action in various lines, the 
most important of which is the successful interchange 
of freight cars. To thoroughly understand each other 
in the workings of this particular branch of the busi- 
ness, we have agreed upon a code of rules, the carry- 
ing out of which necessarily means that railroads must 
be honest, otherwise the plan would be a complete fail- 
ure. In the regular course of business our cars drift 
hundreds of miles from home and we have to depend 
upon the honesty of the foreign lines in the matter of 
repairs and the rendition of bills. There are instances 
without number, where foreign roads have noted upon 
their repair cards that wheels were renewed account of 
sliding axles renewed account cut journals, air hose re- 
newed account missing, and numerous other parts re- 
paired or renewed, for which the possessing road as- 
sumes the expense of such repairs account of the man- 
ner in which the defects were brought about. If the 
foreign lines were dishonest they could have reported 
such defects as the result of ordinary wear and tear 
and rendered bills for the work. It would not, there- 
fore, be consistent for us to assign dishonesty as the 
cause of non-application of the repair card when re- 
pairs are made to foreign cars. My personal opinion 
is that it is due to indifference on the part of our re- 
pairmen. I have heard it said that the application of 
the repair card is not really necessary in view of the 
fact that the stub of such card reaches the car owner 
with the repair bill, or when sent through the mails in 
case no bill is rendered. This we all know is a grave 
mistake, as it is necessary to know immediately when 
car reaches home, where the incorrect repairs were 



Tamaxy. 1909 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



made in order to avoid the objectionable tracing. It 
has also been stated that insufficient time is given to 
execute and apply repair cards when making up trains 
or when trains stop for only a brief period at repair 
points. I have looked into this and found that by 
having repair cards dated and signed, that it requires 
onlv a trifle more additional time to fill in the other 
necessary data and apply the card, as it means only 
minor repairs such as air hose, journal bearings, brake 
shoes and the like. I am therefore satisfied that this 
objection can be overcome if only an effort is made. 
The road with which I am engaged has what we term 
a traveling inspector, who is continually traveling over 
our system. It has been made part of his duties to 
look over foreign cars taken off our various repair 
tracks; also such foreign cars as receive minor repairs 
in the yards. If he finds any repairs made to such cars 
and no repair card attached covering the items, he 
makes report to headquarters and also to the foreman 
in charge at the local point, and the party at fault is 
easily located and disciplined. Headquarters also cen- 
sure the foreman for allowing such violation, so that 
there is considerable incentive for the foremen to be 
vigilant in this regard. We have found this to be pro- 
ductive of very good results, and we have also found 
that the mere issuance of an order to apply repair cards 
in all cases of foreign car repairs, does not bring about 
the desired result; there must be something done to 
show that you mean to have the order obeyed. If our 
practice in this matter can be improved upon (and I be- 
lieve there is always room for improvement), I sincere- 
ly hope the discussion here will bring it to light and 
give us all the benefit of whatever profitable ideas will 
be advanced. I also believe that the universal suffer- 
ing among railroads and private lines due to the non- 
application of repair cards, makes the subject one that 
should be taken up by all the railway clubs in the coun- 
try and thoroughly discussed, which will undoubtedly 
result in advancing some proposition that will bring 
about the desired condition. 



Operation of Turntables 

A STRIKING example of the economy and conven- 
ience which results from the use of electric power 
for the operation of turntables and transfer tables is 
shown by the installation of a motor on a turntable on 
one of the railroads in New York state. This turntable 
was formerly operated by hand, requiring the time of a 
number of men at intervals, which averaged the continu- 
ous service of two men for 24 hours a day. The donkey 
was equipped with a standard Westinghouse induction 
motor, known as type "F" high torque, rated at 20 hp., 
200 volts, two-phase, 60 cycles. This reduced the labor 
required to one man per day of 24 hours. 

Inasmuch as the men were paid 15 cents an hour in 
each case this motor produced a saving of $3.60 a day, 
or $1,314.00 per year of 365 days. At the cost of power 
for the motor has averaged but $8.00 a month, or a total 




METHOD OF SUPPLYING POWER TO TURNTABLE. 

of $96.00 a year, the net saving is $1,218.00 a year. Th p - 
total cost of the electrical equipment, including the cost 
of installing the outfit, was approximately $1,500.00, 
which is but slightly greater than the actual saving in 
one year. As a result of this installation four other 
turntables have been supplied with electrical equipment 
by the same railroad, and plans are on foot for similarly 
equipping several more. 

The economy is not the most important point in the 
advantages of the electrical equipment, although it makes 
a very good showing. The work of a turntable is inter- 
mittent and is usually rushing for a short time and then 
at a standstill, especially at terminals, where many loco- 
motives often come in at the same time. The length 
of time required to turn a locomotive by hand depends 
largely upon the number of men available to do the turn- 
ing, but even with the handles full, which condition 
requires from four to eight men, it is impossible to do 
the work as rapidly as with a motor. Hence, the saving 
in time at such periods is of great importance as the 
congestion at the turntables is relieved and the movement 
of traffic is expedited. 

The method of supplying power to the table has some 
interesting details. A bridge is used with overhead 
wires, which run to a standard Westimghouse overhead 
collecting switch. This switch is constructed with 
brushes and collector rings so that contact is made at 
all times and in all positions of the turntable. This 
switch is so constructed that there is no strain on the 
line wire, as the cross arm to which they run does not 
move with the tables, but is stationary while the table 
revolves. 

In this installation the cab is mounted on the center 
of the turntable, so that the wires run directly from the 
bridge of the cab and to the motor. In many instances 
the cab is mounted at one end, but instead of being 
directly on the table, it is mounted on the donkey directly 
directly over the motor, to overcome the jolting which 
the cabman would get when the locomotives run on and 
off. 

In many cases, especially in a new installation, the 
feed wires are run underground in conduit and brought 
up through the king pin in the center of the table. The 



s 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



January, 1909 



same type of switch mentioned above is placed between 
the tracks and the connections made from this point in 
the usual manner. 

Several Truck Designs 

THE standard C-80 high-speed "Trunk Line" 
double truck, built by the Standard Motor Truck 
Company, .Pittsburg, Pa., is designed specially for high 
speed trunk line railroad service and has a carrying ca- 
pacity of 80,000 lbs. at king pins. The journals are 
5xi) ins. and the wheels are 33-in. forged steel wheels 
made by the Forged Steel Wheel Company, Pittsburg, 
Pa. The truck has pressed channel steel side frames 
and transoms. The pedestals are of cast steel machine 
fitted and are then pressed and riveted to the pressed 
steel side frames. The journal boxes arc of cast steel 
and have Standard Motor Truck Company's standard lid 
in addition to a hinge at the top. The brakes have no 
brake beam and are carried practically on the equalizer 
bars and are adjustable in position to allow for varying 
■diameter of wheels. All the holes in the brake rigging 
are steel thimbled and all wearing bolts are case-hard- 
ened. Coil springs are used on bolts to prevent chatter 
and wear. 

The bolster is cast steel and the side* of the bolster 
are protected from wear by plates of high carbon steel. 
The bolster is guided between wear plates of low carbon 
steel which are bolted to the transoms and the bolster 
hangers have hardened tool steel saddles at their upper 
•ends, which rock on hardened tool steel pins which are 
pressed into the transoms. The bolster springs are el- 
liptic, 37 ins. long, and have six leaves. These are di- 
vided into sets of three leaves to reduce the damping 
effect, thus insuring easj riding. 

This company also manufactures and is now building 
a truck of this same type having a carrying capacity 
•of 120,000 lbs., with fixlO-in. journals and 38-in. forged 
steel wheels, and it will operate at a speed of 70 miles 
per hour. 

INTERBOROUGH TRICKS. 

The standard C-60 high speed "Interborough" double 
trucks are designed to carry a combined car body and 
passenger load of 60,000 to 75,000 lbs., and are espe- 
ciallv constructed to meet the severe conditions of heavy 



high speed interborough service, which service, owing 
to sharp curves and imperfect track, is probably more 
severe on truck equipment than trunk line service would 
be. To insure safety and low cost of maintenance, the 
frames and brake rods are solid forged without welds, 
and bolsters and brake rigging are protected by safet) 
straps. The side frames are solid bars, the transoms 
rolled angles and the end frames pressed channel shape 
sections, and all are forged and machined and connected 
by the best possible system of riveting. 

All parts are so protected that bolster hangers can- 
not wear clown and no wear or chafing will take place- 
on bolsters, transoms, side frames or journal boxes and 
owing to the use of compression springs on all wearing 
bolts the wear on the bolts and brake rigging fs sub- 
jected to the least possible wear. All holes in the brake 
rigging are steel thimbled and bolts are case hardened 
b\ a new process which insures sufficient depth of hard- 
ened material. 

The journal box lids are held on tight by a cam, are 
easy to open and cannot rattle off if properly put on. In 
order to reduce the consumption of power, the journal 
boxes are rigidly connected to the equalizer bars. To 
make the brake rigging the most efficient possible, the 
brake- are carried directly on the equalizer bars. To 
give the easiest riding effect the Standard Motor Truck 
Company's patent bolster spring is used. A double 
elliptic spring of this type has the easy riding qualities 
of a quadruple elliptic spring of the old design. The 
side swing of the bolster is checked by a friction device 
which is controlled exclusively by this company. To 
eliminate noise, all moving parts arc held in contact by 
compression springs. The brakes do not rattle or chat- 
ter. They have no connection to the truck frame and 
thus the application of them produces no vibration in 
the car body. 



Saskatoon Shops, Canadian Pacific Ry. 

Tl 1 E arrangement of the Canadian Pacific shops at 
Saskatoon is shown in Fig. 1. The coal pockets 
are located between the in-bound and out-bound tracks, 
which lead directly to the turntable. The sand and 
water supply is near the coal chute, while the depressed 
cinder pit is along the in-bound track midway between 
coal chute and roundhouse. 




FIG. 1— CANADIAN PACIFIC SHOPS AT SASKATOON. 



January, 1909 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



9 




FiG. 2— MACHINE SHOP AND BOILER HOUSE. 

In this layout it will be noted that the turntable sup- 
plies both the roundhouse and machine shop directly. 
The tracks lead from the turntable to the two erecting 
pits, as shown in the accompanying plans. 

The boiler house and engine room are connected to 
the machine shop as in Fig. 2. The machine tools are 
located between the erecting pits and the engine room. 
The inner wall of machine shop is about 185 ft. from 
the center of turntable pit. 

The arrangement of machine tools is shown in Fig. 3. 
The main shaft for driving these tools extends the length 
of the shop and is run at a speed of 130 r. p. m. The 
speed of countershaft for the driving wheel lathe at the 
left is 133 r. p. m. ; the speed of countershaft of the 
McCabe lathe is 130 r. p. m. ; the speed of countershaft 
of the McGregor Courlay lathe is 280 r. p. m. ; the speed 
of countershaft of the McGregor Courlay shaper is 200 
r. p. m. ; and the speed of countershaft for the Bertram 
drill is 365 r. p. m. 

The main shaft is driven from the Wheelock engine 
in the engine room, which also contains a 300 h. p. Web- 
ster heater, a Northern duplex washout pump, a 
vacuum pump and a boiler feed pump. 



New Consolidation Locomotives, Pennsylvania 
Railroad 

IN order to be prepared to handle promptly what- 
ever increased traffic may be offered during the 
coming year, the Pennsylvania Railroad has just begun 
the construction of fifteen locomotives of the most 
powerful type which has yet been designed for use on 
this railroad. This locomotive is known as "H-8-b" 
and is to be built at the Juniata shops at Altoona, Pa. 

Some idea of the character of this type of engine may 
be had from the. fact that when the tender is fully 
loaded with coal and water and the locomotive is ready 
for service on the road, its total weight will be 384,000 
pounds, nearly 200 tons. The weight of the engine 
proper, in working order, is approximately 241,000 
pounds or about 120 tons. The tender is equipped to 
carry 7,000 gallons of water and 13^4 tons of coal. 

This locomotive is a Consolidation type, having one 
pair of truck wheels and four pair of drivers. The 



truck wheels are 33 ins. in diameter, and the driving 
wheels are 62 ins. in diameter. In general design this 
locomotive is quite similar to the type "H-6-b," which 
has been in general use for quite a number of years, 
but, on account of increased weight and large drivers, 
it is capable of hauling a heavy train at somewhat 
greater speed than the former type's of freight loco- 
motives. According to the latest improved practice 
Walschaert valve motion with 14-in. piston valves is 
used to control the steam distribution in the cylinders. 
The boiler is of the standard Belpaire type, having a 
minimum inside diameter of 76^4 ins. It contains 465 
2-in. tubes, ISO ins. long. The total fire grate area is 
55.13 sq. ft., and the total heating surface is 3,83i^ sq. ft. 
The boiler is designed to safely withstand a pressure 
of 205 pounds per sq. in. The total tractive power is 
42,661. 



Briquetting of Coal 

In a recent Consular Report, the advantages of 
briquetting by the use of sulphite pitch are explained 
by Consul George E. Eager, of Barmen. The follow- 
ing extracts are given : 

This long-sought-for binding agent has been found 
in the "sulphite pitch." The material is obtained in 
the process of manufacturing sulphite cellulose. The 
w r ood is put through a washing process in lye by 
which the fiber is cleared of all resinous ingredients, 
it being pressed out from the wood pulp. Thus far 
this material has been entirely useless. Through a 
cooking process it is reduced to a highly glutinous 
substance called "sulphite pitch." 

The sulphite pitch possess many qualities wdiich 
shows its excellent advantages as a binding agent. It 
is intensely glutinous and possesses a high binding 
power. In the ordinary briquet of bituminous coal 
from 7 to 10 per cent of coal tar is used to give it the 
proper hardness, and with the use of sulphite pitch the 
same results can be obtained by the use of 5 per cent. 
There are qualities of coal and ore that can easily be 




FIG. 3— ARRANGEMENTS OF MACHINES. 



10 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



lanuarv. L909 



briquetted with from '?. to 3 per cent of the sulphite 
pitch. 

Sulphite pitch burns without smoke or odor and is 
an ideal fuel for the household as well as for industrial 
purposes. In cities where the smoke nuisance has here- 
tofore prevailed the use of briquets made with this 
sulphite pitch will form a solution of the smoke ques- 
tion. Trials have already been made with coke bri- 
quets made with this new process in blast furnaces 
and on torpedo boats wtih the most sanguine results. 

In general, sulphite pitch consists of the following 
substances : Coke, 25 to 35 per cent ; volatile matter, 
50 to 60 per cent; ashes, 8 to 12 per cent; and water, 
10 to 15 per cent. 

The latest chemical tests have proved that the per- 
centage of ashes can be materially reduced. Through 
the origin of sulphite pitch its ashes contain sulphur 
up to 20 per cent, or 2.5 per cent of the sulphite pitch. 
The sulphur, however, is tied up to iron and lime, 
which latter substances are always present in abun- 
dance, so that the sulphur remains in the ashes and 
cannot do any damage. It is true that sulphite pitch 
can be dissolved in water, and that briquets made from 
it are not waterproof; but this is of no great impor- 
tance, as in most cases a waterproof briquet is not 
needed. The sulphite-pitch briquet is, however, more 
waterproof than the lignite briquet, the making of 
which has become a flourishing industry. The sulphite 
briquet is not hygroscopic, and can be made absolutely 
waterproof, if it is necessary, by a simple special treat- 
ment. 



Cast Steel Truck Frames 

THE first step in the manufacture of cast steel 
truck frames is to obtain a metal of the required 
composition. Basic open hearth cast steel is used in the 
side frame, illustrated herewith, and is of a composi- 
tion which affords a high elastic limit. In a derail- 
ment the frames may be bent out of shape, but they 
do not break, and in most cases they may be straight- 
ened and put back into service. 

ONE-PIECE FRAME. 

The Bettendorf truck frame, which is taken as an ex- 
ample, is a one-piece casting with arch bars, columns, 
spring seat and journal boxes cast integral with the 
frame. In the first place the construction gives a simple 
design which eliminates bolts and rivets. This latter 
feature will be recognized as a very important point in 
truck frame construction when the fact is called to mind 
that the force in the repair yard is constantly replacing 
column and oil box bolts and nuts. Still, large number 
of truck bolts and nuts are missing in almost every line 
of cars, due to the fact that many cars seldom reach the 
yards where it is possible to handle these minor repairs. 
Nevertheless such minor defects may result in derail- 
ments as the truck frames are gradually weakened. 

Besides, this simplicity in design means a reduced cost 
of maintenance. Where two or more men may devote 
all of their time to these minor truck repairs with the 









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wmmr^ 








~J/ r ~ 


f"" _ 






1 


* Zj| 


m 


fe* ' 


«! 


BBF"' 


v— 7 


.- 






4 



FIG. 1- 



-PRESS IN OPERATION OF STRAIGHTENING 
SPRING SEAT. 



THE 



ordinary arch bar truck, none are required with the one- 
piece truck frame. When repairs are needed to a car 
they are of a more serious nature. 

Another point which should not be overlooked is the 
reduction in weight which the one-piece frame affords. 
To illustrate approximately these frames gave a reduc- 
tion in weight of about 1,000 lbs. per car. 

DESIGN. 

The distribution of metal is such as to effectually resist 
all stresses, allowing moreover a high factor of safety 
to which reference will be made under the description of 
tests. Metal is not wasted, however, in the frame so 
that the frame will still carry a greater number of load 
pounds per pound of truck frame, than the ordinary 
arch bar frame. This feature is not due entirely to care- 
ful designing but is made possible by the construction of 
frames. 

The truck frame is built so as to be interchangeable 
with any standard truck frame. Any width of wheel 
base, design of journal box, height of bolster opening, 
etc., are possible without in any way interfering with the 
general features of the design. 

With these frames a distance of at least 4 inches is 
obtained between lower arch bar and the top of rail. In 
this connection it may be said that the frame will skid 
along the roadbed in case of derailment, and will not tear 




FIG. 2— TRUCK FRAME SUSPENDED ON SPRING SEAT. 



January, 1909 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



11 



up the track which fact is due to the absence of loose 
bolts, nuts, and parts of frame. 

JOURNAL BOXES. 

Regarding the journal boxes, which are cast integral 
with the frame, they are made of any standard design. 
The strength of the connection between arch bars and 
journal boxes is ample, and in the test of the frame the 
connection receives a load equal to the weight of the 
car. There is a lug on the bottom of journal box which 
may be used for jacking up when the truck is under a 
car. 

In view of the fact that the journal boxes are cast 
integral with the frame, thus securing the advantages 
above mentioned, there is a guarantee to replace the en- 
tire frame if the journal boxes should fail in normal ser- 
vice or derailment. In most cases where journal boxes 
.are damaged in wreck or derailment, they can be re- 
straightened in the railroad shops. 

BOLSTER OPENINGS. 

The bolster openings are of the shape illustrated for 
the rigid bolster. The designs for Barber roller con- 




FIG. 3— SQUARING AND TESTING TRUCK FRAME TO CAPA- 
. CITY OF CAR. 

struction and swing motion bolster provide straight col- 
umn guides. There is a hole cast in the bottom arch bar, 
in which a projection on the spring plank is secured. In 
this way rigidity is overcome to the extent that the 
truck is adjustable to track irregularities, and at the 
same time flange wear on wheels and end wear on 
brasses are reduced to a minimum. 

TESTING AND SQUARING TRUCK FRAMES. 

The machine for squaring and testing side frames, 
shown in the accompanying illustrations, is a press of 
■975-ton capacity. The first operation is straightening 
the spring seat and in Fig. 1 the press is shown with the 
dies on the platen pressing down upon the spring seat. 
After the spring seat is straightened the frame is sus- 
pended on the spring seat as in Fig. 2, ready to have 
the false journals slid in position in the journal boxes. 
Fig. 3 shows the press in the act of squaring and testing 
the truck frame. The upper portion of journal box, 
where wedge bears against top wall of journal box. must 
be in line with the spring seat. Fig. 4 shows the too 
platen of press returned, the false journals slipped out 




FIG. 4— GAUGES IN JOURNAL BOXES AFTER SQUARING. 

of journal boxes and gauges in journal boxes to ascer- 
tain if the top walls of journal boxes are square with 
the spring seat. 

The load, applied to the axles, as in Fig. 3, is equal to 
the capacity of car with which the frame is to be used 
and is, therefore, four times the load which the frame 
is to carry in service. As an example a 30-ton truck 
frame is tested with a load of 30 tons and a 40-ton 
frame with a load of 40 tons. 

The truck frame is then turned upon its side, as shown 
in Fig. 5, and is straightened transversely so that the 
lugs for brasses on inside of journal box and the face 
of colum guide are thep roper distances from each other. 
The gauge is applied as in Fig. 6 to ascertain if the 
truck frame is straightened transversely. 

INSPECTION AND FINISHING DEPARTMENT. 

From the testing department the frames are removed 
by a 3-ton Pawling and Harnischfeger traveling crane 
to the finishing and inspecting department, shown in Fig. 
7. The inspector gauges the wheel base and again tests 
the frames to see that thye are square. In this de- 
partment pneumatic tools are used to chip, to gauge the 
column guides and dust guard openings and to chip up 
the journal box openings so as to produce a good fit be- 
tween box and cover. After the frames are finished they 
are painted and then taken to the assembling depart- 
ment by the traveling crane. 




FIG. 5— STRAIGHTENING TRUCK FRAME TRANSVERSELY. 



12 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[anuary, L909 




FIG. G— GAUGING TO FIND 1 1-' TRUCK [S STRAIGHTENED 
TRANSVERSELY 

ASSEW BLING. 

The number of operations required to assemble a Bet- 
tendorf truck is a minimum because of the small number 
of parts which are not riveted or bolted together. \ 
view of the assembling department is shown in Fig. 
8. All p2rts ' E the truck, including side frame . bol- 
sters, brake beams, etc., are placed within access of 
the assemblers, so as to be handled by a 1,000-lb. 
traveling hoist. A pair of mounted wheels' are run up 
on the elevated track and one side frame is placed in 
position. The wedges and brasses are then inserted 
in the journal boxes and the truck bolster se1 in po 
sition alter which the second side frame, together 
with brasses and wedges, is added. Next, the holster 
is raised up against the top arch bar and the spring 
plank and springs are slipped into position. Then 
after the brake beam is hung and brake rigging at- 
tached, the truck is completely assembled and read) 
to be placed under a car. It requires about 8 min- 
utes to assemble this truck and about !) minutes to 
dismantle it after the truck has been placed under 
a car. 

When it is necessary to replace a pair of wheels. 
there are no journal box bolts to be removed as in 
the common arch bar truck. It takes less time to dis- 
mantle the truck, illustrated herewith, for the pur- 
pose of changing wheels than it does to remove jour- 
nal box bolts which are in many cases either rusted 
or bent. 



Oil Supply for Panama Railroad Locomotives 

An order has been placed by the Panama Railroad 
Company for a 50,000-gallon steel tank and a 30-foot 
tower to be erected at Cristobal. The tank will be 
used in supplying oil to the oil-burning- locomotives, 
12 of which have been ordered and are expected on the 
Isthmus in February. The oil will be piped from the 
Union Oil Company's storage tanks at Mount Hope 
into the supply tank. This will be the only tank used 
by the Panama Railroad Company, as each locomotive 
will take enough oil at Cristobal for a round trip. — The 
Canal Record. 



Ventilation of Cars 

THE construction and operation of the Garland car 
ventilator was described in the February, L908, 

issue of the Railway Master Mechanic in connection with 
its application to the passenger coach and refrigerator 
car. A new arrangement of Garland exhaust ventilators 
for ventilating the kitchen end of dining car- and pri- 
vate cars ha- been tested out and proved efficient and 
satisfactory by the General Railway Suppl} Company, 
( hicago. 

The latter arrangement of ventilator- i- given by the 
above-mentioned company as follows: 

The dining room is .equipped with six or light ven- 
tilators applied to deck windows in the usual manner in 
which they are applied to sleeping and passenger cars. 
The amount of air taken out by each ventilator at a 
speed <>f |.~> miles per hour i- tOO cu. ft. per minute. 
Six ventilators will therefore draw out 2,400 CU. ft. of 
air per minute. As the air C3] f the dining room 

l- about 2.000 cu. ft., it will be seen that the air is 
clanged in the dining room once every minute. The 
ventilation of die car increases proportionate to the 
ed of die train; the higher the -peed, the stronger 
the ventilation. 

The kitchen is equipped with four ventilator- (two 
each side) applied to the deck window- in the usual 
manner. Two of the -ide ventilators are connected with 
the hood over the range and carry off the heat and 
-moke. ( hie of the other side ventilators is made double. 
the upper part draws from the kitchen while the lower 
1 art i- connected with the refrigerator in the kitchen 
and keep- a current of fre-h air passing through the 
refrigerator, carrying off the odor- from the stock ol 
supplies on hand. In addition to the four ventilators 
placed at the deck windows, two pairs of ventilators are 
], laced over hatches in the center of die deck of the 
kitchen. Registers are placed on the under side of the 
hatch openings to regulate the ventilation. These extra 
ventilators increase the exhaust from the kitchen and 
produce a movement of air from the dining room to- 
wards tiie kitchen instead of from the kitchen toward 
the dining room. The total exhaust of air from the 




FIG. 7— VIEW OF INSPECTING AND FINISHING DEPARTMENT. 



January, 1909 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



13 




FIG. s— VIEW IN TRUCK ASSEMBLING DEPARTMENT. 

kitchen at speed of 45 miles per hour is 2,600 cu. ft. 
per minute. The air space in the kitchen being about 
600 cu. ft., it follows that the air is changed in the 
kitchen four times every minute. 

Ventilators can be easily applied to dining cars in the 
yards without withdrawing them from service. The side 
ventilators are applied to deck sash openings, the screens 
being removed. The ventilators on top of the deck over 
the kitchen cover the hatch openings usually fitted with 
!id and screen. The height of the ventilators on the 
deck is seven inches, which is less than the height of 
the smoke jacks from the ringe or the open hatch lids. 
They are therefore fully within the clearance limit. 



Locomotive Coaling Station 

RECEXT reports from the Norfolk & Western's new 
locomotive coal and sand station at Concord, Va., 
show ihat the average lime leq^ureJ to coal the big 
through-service passenger engines is only 35 seconds, 
counting from the instant the train comes to a standstill 
until it moves away. 

This station, designed and installed by the Link-Belt 
Company, is of steel-reinforced concrete throughout. It 
is of the through-service type and includes overhead 



-J 


jjllgL 


J ' 

|MLv ■ 



storage facilities for 260 tons of coal and L0 tons of dry 
sand, ground-floor storage for 100 tons of wet sand, en- 
gine and boiler-rooms, and shed over track hopper, as 
shown in Fig. 2. 

The arrangement makes it possible to supply both coal 
and sand to engines on three tracks — the two main-line 
tracks, which it spans, and one outside track shown on 
the right in Fig. 1. The outside track in the rear is used 
for dumping coal into the track hopper and shoveling 
sand into the wet storage bins. 

Each of the three service tracks is supplied with coal 
through a Link-Belt coaling chute, the flow being con- 
trolled by a gear-operated undercut gate. Sand is de- 
livered through special swivelled telescopic spouts that 
can be adjusted to suit the position of the locomotive; 
one of these spouts serves the two inside tracks, and an- 
other the outside. All chutes and spouts are counter bal- 
anced and, when not in use, swing up and out of the way 
automatically. 




FIG. 1— LOCOMOTIVE COALING STATION, SHOWING LOCA- 
TION OF TRACKS. 



FIG. 2— LOCOMOTIVE COALING STATION, CONCORD, VA. 

The track hopper for receiving coal from the cars is 
]0 ft. wide by 12 ft. long and fitted with a patented recip- 
rocating plate, Fig. 4, which feeds the coal, in a steady, 
even supply, to an elevator of the gravity discharge type. 
This elevator, being called upon for hard, continuous 
service, is of particularly rugged construction. It con- 
sists of V-shaped steel buckets, 36 ins. long by 22 ins. 
wide by 10 ins. deep, attached every 3 ft. between two 
strands of steel chain fitted with rollers chambered to 
admit lubrication. It has a vertical travel of 60 ft. from 
the hopper to the top of pocket, and then a horizontal 
run, shown in Fig. 3, of 33 ft. over bin into which it 
discharges through two two-way chutes. Its speed is 50 
ft. per minute ; capacity, 50 tons per hour. 

The sand storage bin, sand-dryer, engine and boiler 
rooms are in the building at the base of the pocket. Two. 
openings in the upper part of the side wall of the sand 
bin are fitted with gates hinged at the bottom in such a 
manner that when let down they rest on the side of the 
car, forming a bottom that prevents spilling of sand in 
shoveling. The sand is transferred from wet stcrrge to 
the dryer as needed and by this is fed to a small belt- 



14 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



January. 1909 




PIG. 3— LOCOMOTIVE COALING STATION, SHOWING V- 
SHAPED STEEL BUCKETS. 

bucket elevator, shown to left in Fig. 3, which elevates it 
to the top of pocket and discharges it at the rate of 10 
tons an hour through a spout into the 10-ton dry sand 
Lin. 

The power equipment is a 14 h. p. steam engine and a 
20 h. p. vertical boiler. A manila rope-drive, 58 ft. cen- 
ters, is used to transmit power from the engine to the 
head shaft of the coal elevator in the lantern of building; 
an Ewart link-belt drive, 7-ft. centers, from coal elevator 
head shaft operates the sand elevator. 



Special Drill Socket 

THE advent of the expenive high speed drills has 
brought before all drill users more strongly than 
ever before the problem of the loss occasioned by twisted 
tangs and broken shanks. With the ordinary carbon 
steel drills, notwithstanding the fact that the loss was 
considerable from this source, it was generally neglected, 
and considered as an unavoidable evil. However, when 
the tang was twisted off, or the shank broken on a high 
speed drill of approximately four times the value of an 




ordinary drill, and this expensive tool thereby rendered 
useless, the men in charge of such matters began to give 
the subject some serious thought. 

About that time the American Specialty Company, Chi- 
cago, came forward with the "L'se-Em-L'p" drill socket. 
This socket is similar to the stand taper socket with two 
exceptions; one that it has a Mat on it- inside surface, 
and the other that the drift slot is somewhat longer than 
on the ordinary socket to facilitate the driving out of 
tangless drills. 

With the socket described it is only necessary to 
grind a flat on the remaining portion of the shank after 
same has been broken off, or the tang twisted off, in 
order to put the drill into immediate use, or if a flat is 
ground on a new drill the liability of trouble from this 
source is entirely eliminated. 

Several of the standard drill makers are now furnish- 
ing their drills flatted to fit this socket at the same 
price as the ordinary drill. It will be noted that flat- 
tening the drill shank to fit this socket does not in any 
way interfere with its use in the standard taper socket. 



FIG. 4— LOCOMOTIVE COALING STATION, SHOWING TRACK 
HOPPER WITH RECIPROCATING PLATE. 



Locomotive Guide Bar and Face Grinder 

THE new guide bar and general face grinder, shown 
herewith, is especially designed for grinding loco- 
motive guide bars and has recently been placed on the 
market by the Diamond Machine Company, Providence, 
R. I. The machine also operates efficiently upon grinder 
column^, water meter cases, water pipe flanges, lathe 
legs and floor plates. The wheel grinds cast iron with 
great speed. 

Among the advantages of the machine, these may be 
mentioned. Its operation is not hindered by hard iron 
'>r material of any kind. The work need not be so 
rigidly fastened as on a planer or milling machine. The 
mechanism movements are rapid compared with those of 
other machine- doing this class of work. The emery 
ring i> held in a steel-bound adjustable chuck, as on 
machines of this nature the wheel should not run un- 
supported. 

The bearings are ample, made with the best Babbitt, 
ring oiling, and well protected from dust. The end thrust 
is taken by a ball thrust-bearing. Longitudinal table 
feed is obtained by open and cross belts which are con- 
nected to heavy gearing and a rack, with automatic re- 
versing mechanism for any length of stroke, shifted by 
adjustable dogs. When hand feed is desired a clutch 
is thrown in mesh with a hand wheel. The cross feed 
is either automatic or by hand, as desired, and is capable 
of fine adjustment. An automatic pump with attach- 
ments is furnished for wet grinding on all machines. 

These machines have been' built in 84-in. and 114-in. 
lengths, for belt or motor drive. Longer machines can 
be made if desired. 

The following data apply to the 84-in. machine : 

The length of bed is 134 ins. ; the length of table is 
130 ins. and the width is 19 ^ ins. ; the length of platen 



January, 190? 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



15 




LOCOMOTIVE GUIDE BAR AND FACE GRINDER. 

(4 slots, 13/16 ins. wide) is 84 ins. and the width of 
platen is 17^4 ins. ; the table travel per minute is 20 
lineal f t. ; the total length, including table travel, is 18 
ft. 4 ins.; the total floor space required for operation is 
18 ft. 4 ins. by 7 ft. ; the wheel is of 30-in. diameter, in 
adjustable holder, and the number of revolutions per 
minute, depending on work, are from 350 to 700; the 
wheel spindle is Zy 2 ins. and wheel spindle bearing is 
3^x10 ins.; the weight, all complete with countershaft, 
is about 8,000 lbs. and with motor drive about 10,000 
lbs. 



New Union-Cinch Pipe Fitting 

THE new Union-Cinch pipe fittings were designed 
because of the difficulty of producing a satisfactory 
mechanical job of small piping with the ordinary thread- 
ed pipe and tapped fittings and due to the fact that it is 
more practical to do the work of threading in the shop 
than in the field. 

In the first place, it seems probable that the work of 
threading pipe and getting a good fit for the threads 
could be accomplished at a factory or in the shop much 




better than it is often done by means of a set of dies 
in the hands of more or less inexperienced workers, who 
are often obliged to thread a piece by holding it with 
a Stillson wrench while they try to run the die on by 
hand. After all the care possible has been exercised 
in making up a job where the pressures are rather severe, 
it is unusual not to find a number of leaks; and it has 
been noticed that these leaks usually occur where it is 
least convenient to get at them, to give the pipe another 
turn to take them up. 

These new fittings are made in sizes corresponding 
to standard iron pipe up to one inch, and are especially 
designed for use in connection with the oil pumps and 
oilers manufactured by the Sight Feed Oil Pump Com- 
pany, Milwaukee, Wis., who are manufacturers of these 
new Union Cinch fittings. 

It is possible to use ordinary rough pipe with these fit- 
tings, if care is exercised in filing the ends of the pipe 
round and smooth; but the builders of the fittings are 
prepared to furnish smooth drawn steel tubing corre- 
sponding to the iron pipe sizes on the outside diameter. 
This tubing has No. 16 gauge wall in the }£-'m. and 1-in. 
size, and No. 18 gauge wall in smaller sizes, and has, 
therefore, a larger carrying capacity than ordinary pipe. 
In fact, the J^-in. pipe size is claimed to carry almost 
as much as the ordinary ^-in. iron pipe. This steel 
tubing is said to be very cheap, thoroughly annealed and 
readily bent, and when it comes to paying the bill for 
labor and putting up a job of pipe work, the Union- 
Cinch system brings to light a number of strong argu- 
ments in its favor. 




UNION-CINCH PIPE FITTING. 



UNION-CINCH TEES. 

In the first place, a hack saw and monkey wrench are 
all the tools that are required, except where some very 
fancy work has to be done, in which case a bending rig 
of some sort is very convenient. Each fitting is a union, 
and the piping may be taken down at any point where 
a fitting is inserted. The joint is made by screwing 
down the outside nut, which presses a thin, tapered shell 
into the annular cavity around the pipe, between it and 
the fitting, as shown on sectional cut. These nuts may 
be pulled up good and hard and the soft cone shell will 
make an absolutely tight joint around the tubing, which 
is good for 1,000 lbs. pressure per square inch; or, in 



1G 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[anuary, L909 




fact, is absolutely tight under any pressure thai the tub- 
ing will stand. 

Where it is desirable to have a nice locking job, brass 
pipe may he used; although in cases where nickel-plating 
is done, the steel tubing will nickel-plate just as nicely 
as brass pipe and is much cheaper. 

This type of joint may be taken down and made up 
again any number of times without any trouble. The 
Union-Clinch system is especially valuable in the trouble- 
some work of piping up oil pumps, gravity oiling devices, 
gauges, drop pipe-, etc.. and especially in such work 
around ammonia handling machinery, because of the 
readiness with which they may hi' made up perfectly 
tighl againsl die escape of ammonia gas. 



Extension of a Car Repair Plant 

Till-". American Car & Equipment Company, of 
Chicago, started about two wars ago as brokers 

and sales agents in rebuilt anil repaired railroad ctpiip- 
ment and developed a business which resulted in the 
construction of their own plant for the rebuilding and 
repairing of freight cars that they handled. Their 
business is received from many of the representative 
railroads among which are the Rock [sland system and 
the Illinois Central. This company will undertake the 
rebuilding and repairing of steel freight cars. 

The present capacity of the plant, shown in the ac- 
companying illustration, is 25 cars per day. The 
plant is located at < hicago Heights on the Belt Line 
and, connecting with three important trunk lines, rail- 
road equipment is handled on the best possible basis to 
and from the -hop-, from all the roads of the middle 
w est. 

The plant covers ten acres at present but five more 
will be added. The repair and erecting shop has a 
capacity ol 30 cars under roof and the plant now has 
trackage f< >r o<»<i cars. 

A blacksmith and forge shop has just been finished 
and a new mill building is about to be erected. When 
the new mill building is erected the present large 
erecting shop will be used exclusively for repair work. 

A specialty is made of heavy repairs in the over- 
hauling of bad order equipment and the character of 
the work has formed the company's good reputation. 
1'hc new plant will enable the company to build new 
equipment, but the policy is that of rebuilding and re- 
pair work. 

The new plant is modern in all respects. The 
machinery is electrically operated. Pneumatic power 
is used for small tools, air hammers and drills and the 
testing of air brakes, The facilities arc such that the 
work is handled in the most expeditious manner. 
Equipment has been furnished to railroad companies 
and private car owners in all sections of this country 
and Canada. 

The business of the company is in charge of compe- 
tent officials who have had long experience in the rail- 
road business and who hold the confidence of railroad 



January 3 1909 



RAILWAY MASTEK rviJLCiiAM< 



17 



officials. Mr. H. H. Sessions, president, was for a 
number of years associated with the Pullman company 
and was general manager of the shops; Mr. 1. J. kusel. 
vice-president and general manager, has had expe- 
rience in mechanical work for a number of years; Mr. 
C. R. Powell, general superintendent of the snops, was 
formerly connected with the Illinois Cential and has 
broad experience in car repair work; Mr. W. H. 
Horme, secretary and treasurer, was formerly National 
Bank Examiner, and -Mr. B. B. Barry, sales manager 
and purchasing agent, was formerly associated with 
the C. G. W. and C. & A. railroads. The sales office 
of the company is located in the Monadnock block. 
Chicago. 



New Heavy Pattern Lathe 

ANEW 3(j-in. heavy pattern lathe with triple-geared 
head and turret on shears is now built by the 
American Tool Works Company, Cincinnati, Ohio. In 
the following description, the back gear construction, 
the turret on shears, the turret feeds and the taper at- 
tachment are particularly emphasized: 

The back gears are automatically disengaged when 
slipping pinion into internal gear, and vice versa. Longi- 
tudinal feed of carriage is controlled by a friction, and 
the cross feed by a saw-tooth clutch, operated from 
"star" handle on the apron, which is "cam actuated." 
The rack pinion in apron can be withdrawn while thread 
cutting. The feed-box, on front of the machine beneath 
the head stock, supplies three instantaneous changes for 
feeding and screw cutting, for every change of gears 
on quadrant at head end of lathe. The gears are cov- 
ered wherever possible, and all loose running gears are 
bronze bushed. 

The compound rest is fitted with a "four stud" tool 
holder, with tool resting on a separate steel base. The 
tool is clamped by the four nuts and two straps, which 
straps may be sent in the opposite direction. The com- 
pound rest may also be fitted with double T-slotted top- 
slids and equipped with regular tool posts set in tandem, 
which prevents slippage of the cutting tool, under heavy 
strains, and subsequent spoiling of the work. 

The turret on shears is of new design throughout, 
possessing many new and valuable features. It is 
equipped with a new "indexing mechanism" which is 
self compensating for wear. This mechanism is located 
at the front of turret top-slide, which brings the locking 
pin very near to the tool. This is superior to turrets 
of other makes, which locate it 
at the back, in which position 
any slight wear is multiplied 
many times by the increase dis- 
tance of the cutting tool. 

The turret can be tripped or 
revolved automatically or by 
hand, which is an original fea- 
ture. Also, the mechanism can 
be set so as to be inoperative. 



wlun wishing to run the slide back to extreme limit, 
without withdrawing the locking-pin or revolving 
thj turret. This is accomplished by the small lever shown 
near the large pilot wheel. The turret top-slide is sup- 
ported on its outer oid by a gibbed bracket attached to 
the front of the slide which travels along the V"s of the 
bed and through its support eliminates all tendency to 
spring under a long reach. This feature is original with 
us. The bracket can be removed, should the work re- 
quire that the turret slide pass over the carriage of the 
lathe. 

The bottom-slide cf the turret is moved along the bed 
by the pilot wheel shown at the rear end. It is clamped 
to the bed by two eccentrics, one at the front end and 
the other at the rear end. It is further secured from 
slipping, due to severe end-thrust, by a pawl, which, 
dropping from the turret, engages a ratchet toothed rack 
cast in the center of the lathe bed. 

The eight well-selected feeds are supplied to the tur- 
ret, ranging from .005 in. to .162 in. which are entirely 
independent of the regular carriage and apron feels. 
Turret feeds are controlled by the two "star" knobs, car- 
rying index dials, which are shown one directly above 
the other on the front of the bed near the feed box. 
The dials and pointers, thereon, indicate at once the 
feed in inches as set, and all changes can be made while 
the lathe is running. The "star" knobs operate through 
shafts, extending through the bed to the quick change 
turret-feed-box at the rear of head-stock, which is pro- 
vided with a neat and substantial cover. 

Provision is made on the compound rest slide to quick- 
ly attach the turret top-slide to same. This is very valu- 
able when wishing to impart to the turret the feeds of 
the carriage, such as in large tapping operations. In 
such a case the taps get a "positive lead," since the screw 
cutting mechanism can be engaged in the apron and the 
proper lead thereby transmitted to the turret slide, carry- 
ing the tap. This valuable feature relieves the tap of 
all "dragging at the start" and the "positive lead" pre- 
vents the reaming tendency of the tap on the hole at 
the start, which would spoil valuable work, if not pro- 
vided for in this way. This feature is also of value in 
ordinary jobs of chasing internal threads with a turret 
tool. 

Feeds of turret can be reversed, which is a valuable 
feature when wishing to "back face" or "counter-bore." 
Reversal of feeds is controlled by the lever, conveniently 




NEW 36 IN. HEAVY PATTERN LATHE. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



January, 1909 




ELECTRIC GANTRY CRANE. 

located on driving sprocket of quick-change turret-feed- 
box. 

The taper attachment is of very heavy and substantial 
construction and is so designed as to eliminate all binding 
tendencies of the part, thereby, insuring smooth and 
uniform action. It is. given a support on the bed and is 
supplied with a vernier attachment to facilitate very fine 
adjustment. It is graduated and the entire attachment 
is bolted to and travels with the carriage. It may be 
quickly engaged or disengaged at will, without disturb- 
ing the taper as set. 



Electric Gantry Crane 

THE accompanying illustration shows one of the six 
electric gantry cranes furnished the Great North- 
ern Railway by the Whiting Foundry Equipment Co., 
Harvey, 111. This, one-motor type of 100 tons capacity, 
is operated by hand and electric power. 

The trucks are of structural steel sections provided 
with bearings for the main axles to which double- 
flanged cast iron wheels are fitted. The hoisting gear- 
ing is supported on bridge girders by means of struc- 
tural framing. The drums are designed to give equal 
distribution of load upon girders. The factor of safety 
is five. 




The hoisting motor is comparatively small as only low 
speed is required. The motor is fitted with an improved 
automatic electric brake, which is operated by an elec- 
tric solenoid in circuit with the hoisting motor and is 
so arranged that it will come automatically into action 
when the electric current is off the hoisting motor cir- 
cuit. 

The principal dimensions are as follows: The span, 
center to center of runway rails, is 14 ft. 6 ins. ; the 
clearance, inside of legs, is 13 ft. ; the height from top 
of rail to underside of girder is 20 ft.; the distance from 
center to center of hook is 11 ft. ; the lift, travel of hook, 
is 14 ft. 6 ins. 



AIR PUMP UNION. 



Air Pump Union 

FOR use in connection with air pumps on locomo- 
tives, the "Kewanee" air pump union has been de- 
signed, being similar in construction to the well-known 
"Kewanee" union. These unions are manufactured by 
the National Tube Company, Pittsburg, Pa. 

With this new union there is a brass to iron thread 
connection at the ring, which means that the union can 
be disconnected and reconnected indefinitely, in view of 
the fact that brass to iron does not corrode. There is 
also a brass to iron ball joint seat, whereby the gasket 
is eliminated with its attendant annoyances. 

The unions are tested with 100 lbs. compressed air un- 
der water, and the slightest leak is detected. In the case 
of compressed air, it is difficult to locate a leak in service, 
and for this reason it is necessary to use the best joints 

in such work. 

Flat Spots on Car Wheels* 

THE damaging effect of flat wheels upon rails has 
long been acknowledged and measures have been 
taken to reduce the evil. Thirty years ago the M. C. 
B. Association called attention to this matter and adopt- 
ed a rule limiting the allowable length of flat spots to 
2 x /2 ins. The recent agitation in regard to the failures 
of steel rails in service has led to renewed interest in 
this subject on the part of railway officials. A propo- 
sition to reduce the allowable length of spot to 1}£ ins. 
was the subject of a report made by the committee on 
iron and steel structures of the A. R. E. and M. W. 
Association at their last annual meeting. (See report 
of Mr. A. J. Himes, p. 297 of the proceedings.) The 
matter is now in the hands of a joint committee of the 
A I. C. B. and M. of W. Associations. 

I wish to acknowledge here my indebtedness to Mr. 
Himes' report for some of the facts presented in this 
paper. 

When the rule for the length of flat spots was adopted 
in 1878, the maximum freight car capacity was 40,000 
lbs. and the weight of car 22,000 lbs., making a total 
weight on the wheels of 62,000 lbs. Today the 100,000- 
lb. car when loaded to its maximum capacity will weigh 

*By Prof. Chas. H. Benjamin before the Western Railway 
Club. 



January, 1909 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



19 




FIG. 1— FLAT SPOTS ON CAR WHEELS. 

nearly if not quite 150,000 lbs. The speed has even 
more influence than the weight since the energy of im- 
pact will vary directly as the weight and as the square 
of the velocity. Probably the average speed of freight 
trains has doubled in the last thirty years. It is, of 
course, true that the weight of rails has greatly increased 
in the same time. Although the new rail may be twice 
as strong as the old to resist bending between the ties, 
it does not follow that its capacity for resisting blows 
is increased in the same ratio. The damage done by 
the hammer blow of the flat wheel is liable to be of a 
local nature and may not be averted by the great depth 
and weight of rail. The violence of the blow is also 
increased by rigidity of the rail and its supporting ties 
and ballast. This is particularly true at high speeds. 

Professor E. L. Hancock, of Purdue University, in 
a paper read before the Indiana Engineering Society at 
their meeting in January, 1908, developed a mathemat- 
ical formula for the energy of impact of a flat wheel 
and reference is here made to that paper for an analysis 
of the problem. It is sufficient for my purpose to call 
attention to the following facts : 

Let A in Fig. 1 be the center of a car wheel D inches 
in diameter, revolving as shown by the arrow, and C P 
be a flat spot L inches long just beginning its contact 
with the rail. The whole wheel is turning about the 
point C and will so turn until P reaches R and the blow 
is struck on the rail. At this latter instant A will have 
reached A' and will be moving downward with a velocity 
represented by the line b c. (The angle b A' c=A C A' 
— P C R= e .) If the velocity of A', which is practically 
the same as that of the train, is assumed as v feet per 
second, then, 

C P L 

b c = v sin O =r v = v — ■ 

C B D 

If we regard the mass of the wheel and its load as 
concentrated at A and call the total weight W pounds, 
the kinetic energy of the mass just before the rail is 
struck will be: 

Wv 2 L 2 

E= • - ...(1) 

2g D 2 
Four facts are shown by this formula. The energy 
of impact will vary directly as : 



1. The weight of wheel and its load. 

2. The square of the velocity. 

3. The square of the length of flat, 
and inversely as : 

4. The square of wheel diameter. 

It is impossible to determine the force of the blow as 
this depends so largely upon the amount that the rail 
springs and gives under the impact. All we can do is 
to compare the energy of impact with that of the stand- 
ard drop test for rails. 

According to the specifications approved Sept. 1, 1907, 
by the American Society for Testing Materials, the 
standard drop test for steel rails shall be made with a 
weight of 2,000 lbs. falling the distances indicated in 
the following table. The distance between the rail sup- 
ports is to be three feet : 

Weight of rail Height of Kinetic energy 

in pounds drop in foot — 

per yard. in feet. pounds. 

45 to 55 15 30,000 

55 to 65 16 32,000 

65 to 75 17 34,000 

75 to 85 18 36,000 

85 to 100 19 . 38,000 

If we assume: 

D=33 inches 
and 

L= 2.5 inches, 
g=32.2 inches, 
and substitute these values in Equation (1), we have, 
Wv 2 
E= (2) 



If 



11200 

S=speed of train in miles per hour 
15v 



then 



22 



WS S 



E: 



(3) 



5220 
The following are some of the values of E for dif- 
ferent weights and speeds : 

ENERGY OF IMPACT IN FOOT-POUNDS OF A 2.5-IN. FLAT 
SPOT ON A 33-IN. WHEEL. 

Wgt. on Speed of train in miles per hour, 

wheel, lbs. 30 40 50 60 

10000 1725 3060 4790 6900 

15000 2587 4590 7185 10350 

20000 3450 6120 9580 13800 

If we compare these figures with those given under 

rail specifications, we find a factor of safety on a 100-lb. 

rail varying from 22 at the smallest weight and speed 

to 2.75 for the largest. If a 50-lb. rail is considered, the 

factor varies from 17.4 to 2.17. Since the impact varies 

as the square of the length of spot, reducing this length 



20 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC: 



January, 1909 




FIG. 2— FLAT SPOTS ON CAR WHEELS. 

from 2.5 to 1.75 ins. would diminish the impact about 
one-half and double the above factors of safety. 

In the foregoing brief mathematical treatment, some 
factors have been neglected such as the impact due to 
the falling of the center of the wheel before the contact 
of the flat spot with the rail, the fact that the wheel is a 
compound pendulum and that the mass can not be re- 
garded as concentrated at its center of gravity, and the 
possible bounding of the wheel from one corner of the 
flat to the other without touching the rail at high speeds. 
It is not probable that any of these will have much effect 
on the values just given. It is, however, true that the 
flat spot on a wheel is usually not straight, but is con- 
vex or perhaps slightly rounded at the ends. For these 
reasons it is extremely desirable from both a scientific 
and business point of view to determine experimentally 
the exact effect of the blow delivered by a flat wheel on 
the rail. It is hardly practicable to do this with a car 
on a straight track because of the influence of the driv- 
ing wheels of the engine and the number of wheels which 
would pass over a given point. To be satisfactory, ex- 
periments should be confined to one wheel whose con- 
dition is determined beforehand. 

The apparatus shown in Fig. 2 will permit of contin- 
uous operation of one wheel upon one section of rail 
indefinitely and permit at the same time of measurement 
of the effects of the blows. The truck is so supported 
that one wheel turns freely upon an idle pulley while 
the other wheel on the same a>de rests on a section of 
steel rail and in turning drives the latter by friction. The 
section of rail is bent to a circle lying in a horizontal 
plane and is firmly riveted or bolted to a supporting web. 
which in turn is fastened to a central hub of cast iron 
or steel. This hub turns freely on a vertical mandrel 
and is supported bv a thrust bearing- underneath. The 
rail and its attachments thus turn in a horizontal plane 
under the rotating car wheel. The portion of the rail 
immediately under the wheel is supported by friction 
rollers, which turn freely in a steel box or yoke. This 
latter forms a portion of the main casting supporting 
the hub of the rail and this casting is bolted to a wcoden 
pier so as to have a certain amount of elasticity. On the 
lower side of this casting and directly beneath the point 
of contact between wheel and rail is a hardened steel 
hammer or ball resting on a strip of soft metal. The 



soft metal is supported on a heavy anvil of cast iron 
and is fed slowly underneath the hammer by friction 
^oilers. The truck being loaded with the desired amount 
>f pi£ iron or other material, the wheels and their axles 
are rotated by means of a variable speed motor, and the 
energy of the blow delivered by a flat spot on the wheel 
is measured by the indentation of the strip of soft metal 
underneath the hammer. The amount of energy due to 
any given indentation can be readily measured by pro- 
ducing a similar indentation under a drop press. The 
curving of the rail in a horizontal direction is not suffi- 
cient to interfere with the action of the wheel and the 
energy of the blow is transmitted directly to the soft 
metal. 

It may lie noted that it is possible with this machine- 
to drive the wheels at any desired speed corresponding 
to any desired number of miles per hour and that any 
length or shape of flat spot can be readily tested. It is 
also possible to change the load as desired. 

The same apparatus can be used for determining the 
impact due to flat spots on locomotive drivers or the 
effect of the various types of counterbalancing on the rail. 

Such an apparatus can be arranged in a pit so as to 
bring the rail tested at grade and make it possible to 
run any truck or engine into position for testing with- 
out disturbing the mechanism of the truck itself, except 
as it may be necessary to attach a driving wheel. The 
results derived from the experiments can be combined 
with the mathematical reasoning in such a way as to 
make a working formula for practical use. 

\ simple modification of this apparatus would make 
it possible to test a span of rail between two supports 
the same distance apart as are the ties, and to measure 
the deflection produced by impact. It would also be pos- 
sible to run a rail for any desired length of time under 
severe conditions and determine its wear and deprecia- 
tion under these circumstances. 

In view of the fact that there is at the present time 
some discrepancy between the rules for flat wheels and 
the speed and weight of trains, and to the further fact 
that no one seems to know exactly how much damage is 
done by flat wheels, it would seem very desirable to make 
an accurate experimental determination of the forces 
involved. The figures obtained from such experiments 
would also have a bearing upon the design of steel struc- 
tures for railway use. The prominent part already taken 
bv railway men in the experimental determination of the 
strength of railway machinery and structures would lead 
one to believe that this important investigation will not 
be much longer delayed. 



Automatic Train Stop 

The block signal and train control board of the In- 
terstate Commerce Commission has given approval for 
the purpose of test of a cab signal and automatic train 
stopping device which is to be established on a branch 
line of the Philadelphia & Reading in the vicinity of 
Pottstown, Pa. 



January, 1909 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



21 



Lang Drill Socket 

rpHE main advantage claimed for the new drill 
X socket, shown herewith, is that the drill is held in 
the socket without the necessity of a tang, but by the 
use of a jig which is furnished. The drill press spindle 
may also be fitted up with a round steel key. It is claimed 
that with this method all the old drills with broken tangs 
may be used up and the good drills will not have their 
tangs broken, and more important still the sockets will 
not fall out of the drill press spindle. It is comparatively 
easy to replace worn out drill sockets and drills, but a 
worn out drill press spindle is a continual annoyance 
and source of trouble. 




HARDENED STEEL KEY 

LANG DRILL SOCKET. 

The shells of these sockets are made from 1/16 in to 
% in thicker than the standard drill socket, so that the 
insertion of the hardened steel key does not weaken 
them. These keys are made from tempered drill rod 
varying in diameter from l /% to Y% ins. These project 
one-third of their diameter into the opening. These keys 
are all pressed in socket absolutely parallel with the 
angle of the bore and central with the tang slot. The 
shank end of socket has a standard 90-degree V-groove 
(not shown in cut) milled its entire length, central with 
the tang (not shown in cut). As these keys and grooves 
are all made standard by accurate jigs, they are all inter- 
changeable with each other, allowing any combination 
of sockets. 

As shown in the illustration it is only necessary to 
grind a flat on the old worn out drills and the drift hole 
in socket is made extra long so that they can be easily 
knocked out. New drills can be ordered with the V- 
groove in shank from all makers at no additional cost. 
Drills in stock can be fixed up in a few minutes in a 










milling machine. This method insures a good true bear- 
ing the whole length of the keyboard. 

This interesting development of the drill socket is the 
invention of Mr. George R. Lang and is manufacture '1 
by the G. R. Lang Company, of Meadville, Fa. 



LANG DRILL SOCKET. 



Metal Cutting Tools Without Clearance* 

{F)y Jas. Hartness 

THIS paper sets forth a turning tool that is in- 
tended to cut without clearance. It consists of 
a cutter and a holder so constructed as to allow the 
cutter a slight oscillatory freedom in the holder. The 
center line on which the cutter oscillates is substan- 
tially coincident with the cutting edge. The oscilla- 
tion of the cutter about the center line does not affect 
the position of the edge, but it does allow the face of 
the cutter to swing around to conform to the face of 
the metal from which the chip is being severed. 

The objects of this construction are to make pos- 
sible the use of more acute cutting edges in order to 
reduce the cutting stresses; to equalize wholly or 
partly the unbalanced side pressure on the cutting 
edge ; and to obtain a rubbing contact to prevent 
lateral quivering. 

In order to bring out these objects it is necessary to 
analyze briefly some of the conditions under which 
metal is worked in a lathe, dealing particularly with 
cutting angles, clearance of cutting edges, and the im- 
portance of minimizing the tendency of the work and 
tool to separate under cutting stresses. 

No attempt is made to discuss the forms of cutting 
edges for withstanding the heat of high speed service. 
High speed tool forms have been ably and perhaps 
conclusively treated in the paper by Mr. Fred W. Tay- 
lor and its discussion, and in the papers of Dr. Nichol- 
son before this society and before the Manchester As- 
sociation of Engineers. 

The generally accepted cutting angle of greatest en- 
durance under high speed is about 75 deg., and the 
angle of least resistance, according to some of Dr. 
Nicolson's tests, is about 60 deg., with an increase 
below as well as above that angle. 

The cutting angles of the tool described in the pres- 
ent paper may be varied from the present orthodox 
angles down to 30 deg. or less, according to the nature 
of the work. 

The results obtained by Dr. Nicolson, which showed 
an increase in cutting stress for tools more acute than 
60 deg., may have been due to the cuts having been 
run without cutting oil or suitable cutting lubricant. 
Furthermore, the comparative lack of durability of 
the more acute edge below 70 deg. may have been due 
either to heat or lateral quivering or both. The heat 
would have been greatly reduced by a liquid cooling 

*From a paper presented at the New York Meeting (December 
190S) of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



January, 1909 



medium, especially one having some suitable lubricat- 
ing' qualities, and the lateral quivering may now be 
eliminated by means explained in this paper. The thin 
edge of an acute tool is obviously the least suited to 
carry off heat or to withstand the quivering incident 
to cutting. 

Having mentioned the great work of Mr. Taylor 
and co-workers and of Dr. Nicolson, it is necessary 
at once to disclaim any pretension at contributing valu- 
able data, such as are found in the papers of these 
truly scientific researchers. Nothing of the kind is 
possible at this time. All that is attempted is to sug- 
gest a scheme for widening the field of investigation. 

Instead of approaching the subject as a scientist bent 
on getting exact data regarding performance of certain 
existing forms of tools and machines, the writer's line 
of approach has been from the standpoint of a designer 
and manufacturer of lathes, and particularly lathes of 
the character of the flat turret lathe. 

THE CLASS OF WORK HERE CONSIDERED. 

The means for cutting, set forth, should be consid- 
ered from the standpoint of one who sees nothing but 
lathe work under 20 ins. in diameter, and of the kind 
usually found in any machinery building plant, wheth- 
er it is a navy yard, railroad shop, or automobile 
building plant ; not that the means are of no value in 
larger work, but being out of the writer's range of 
experience, such work was not considered in designing 
the tools described. 

A more exact description of the range of work for 
which this tool is intended would be: Lathe and tur- 
ret work under 20 ins. and over 4 or 5 ins. in diam- 
eter, and less than 8 or 10 ins. in length ; also work 
up to 2 and 3 ft. in length, of diameters under 3 to 
Sy 2 ins. and generally over V± or 1 in. 

It includes three classes of work : a, chuck work, 
having diameter generally exceeding length, and held 
wholly by a chuck or face plate; b, bar work, which 
is held in a chuck and steadied by back rests; and c. 
work having dimensions similar to bar work, but 
which must be turned on center points, with or with- 
out following and fixed steady rests. 

It will be noticed that this excludes all of that kind 
of larger and heavier lathe work in which the principal 
duty of the lathe is the rapid removal of the stock. 
In the particular branch of work under consideration 
the rapid removal of stock is important, but not para- 
mount. 

Although the field of work includes all kinds of 
steel and cast iron, this paper will deal only with the 
standard open hearth machinery steel of about 20 
points carbon. 

In work supported on centers and in chucking work, 
the connection between the work and tool includes a 
number of joints, both for sliding the tool in relation 
to the work, and for the rotation of the work. Each 
of these joints has more or less slackness, and each 
of the slides and other members is more or less frail 



in structure. With a mounting of this kind the cut- 
ting edge of the tool does not pass through the metal 
without swerving and flinching. 

TYPE OF TOOLS USED. 

In the class of work under consideration each piece 
has several diameters, with shoulders which should 
be accurately spaced and formed. Nearly all the 
shoulders required in this class of lathe work are the 
so-called square shoulders. 

In engine lathe practice these shoulders are "squared 
up" by a side tool after the other turning has been 
done by a round nose or diamond point tool, but in the 
turret lathe for bar work these shoulders arc produced 
by the same tool that takes the stock removing cut. 

The tool used in turners for bar work cuts on the 
same principle as the engine lathe side tool ; that is, 
its rake or top slope is almost wholly side slope, and 
its cutting edge stands at an angle of 90 deg. to the 
axis of the work. 

In the engine lathe a tool of this character has gen- 
erally been unsatisfactory for rapid turning, yet in the 
turret lathe this very tool seems to be universally 
used for all bar work. The difference in performance 
seems to be due to the difference in mounting. It works 
well where there is no chance of vibration, but trouble 
begins when it is used in a machine like the engine 
lathe or turret-chucking lathe in which the work is 
supported by one part of the machine and the tool by 
another, and the true path of the cutting tool through 
the metal is dependent on the entire structure of the 
machine, there being nothing to prevent quivering. 

The no-clearance tool to be described is a side tool, 
without clearance. Its under face bears flatly against 
ihe work, thereby preventing the lateral quivering 
which has previously made this type of tool inefficient. 

MEANS FOR IMPROVING EFFICIENCY. 

A machine's efficiency is proportional to its strength 
to resist its working stress. There are two ways to 
increase this efficiency; a, by strengthening the ma- 
chine; and I), by reducing the stresses for a given re- 
sult. 

In the writer's previous work the strengthening of 
the machine has been accomplished by the elimina- 
tion of unnecessary features, and placing the necessary 
joints for obtaining the various motions in the least 
objectionable positions. But since this has been so 
fully outlined in a semi-commercial treatise, entitled, 
"The Evolution of the Machine Shop," it is unneces- 
sary to make further reference to the special forms 
of design therein set forth, except to say that a single- 
slide scheme of lathe design was adopted to eliminate 
the complicated and frail construction of the multi- 
slide tool carriage which is now in almost universal 
use in all standard machine tools. 

The next step was to devise a means for minimizing 
the stress at the cutting edge, and the object of the 
present paper is to explain how this result has been 
obtained. 



January, 1909 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



23 



This reduction of stress may not be important in 
roughing work in which a flinching of the work or 
machine may be disregarded so long as the machine 
continues to crush off the metal, but for the kind of 
work mentioned in this paper it has been considered 
of first importance. 

CUTTING STRESS. 
DIRECT CUTTING STRESS. 

For the purpose of analysis the cutting stress may 
be divided into three elements : The direct cutting 
stress, the separating stress, and the tendency to 
quiver, which we will consider in turn. 

By direct cutting stress we mean that part of the 
stress that is directly downward in a lathe. With all 
other conditions unchanged, we should expect to find 
that an acute-edged tool would offer the least resist- 
ance, and that the difference in direct cutting stresses 
for tools of varying cutting angles would show a 
marked reduction in favor of the more acute tools. 

Dr. Nicolson's experiments below 60 deg., already 
mentioned showed, an increase in cutting stresses and 
a marked loss in endurance, but these tests were on 
dry cutting without the benefit of a lubricant or a cool- 
ing solution. The thin edge tool is undoubtedly bene- 
fited more than the blunt edge tool by lubricant or 
cutting medium. Just what cutting angle would be 
the best under conditions of most efficient cooling 
medium may not yet be fully known. 

That there is no marked difference in the blunter tool 
of varying cutting angles really does not affect the ' 
situation when we try the real cutting or sliding 
angles, which may be roughly stated to be efficient 
in proportion to their acuteness. 

It is obvious that the least direct cutting stress for 
a given depth and feed would be obtained by a straight- 
edge tool, and one that would take a chip in which 
there is the least molecular change. 

Crushing and partially or wholly shearing the chip 
into chunks which are three or four times the thick- 
ness of the fed undoubtedly increase the working 
stresses and heat. 

The cuts accompanying Dr. Nicolson's discussion, p. 
333, vol. 28 of Transactions, clearly illustrate the great 
distortion that takes place even in cutting with an 
acute tool of 60 deg. and a straight edge. This tool 
does not have even the disturbing element of shearing 
action at the edge of the chip, but the experiment 
shows the distortion of nearly every part of the chip. 
A tool having a round nose or a blunt edge would 
doubtless show still greater distortion. 

A flat top slope should have a straight cutting edge. 
The more the edge is rounded the greater the conflict 
of the metal crowding to the edge. The flow of metal 
on the top slope of the round nose does not move in 
one direction wholly, but tends to travel towards the 
center of the curve. The conflict of currents of metal 
which approach the center from various parts of the 
curved cutting edge increases the direct cutting stress. 



The crushing process of the present scheme of turn- 
ing is due both to the bluntness of the cutting angle 
and the shape of the edge. A curved edge should have 
a curved top slope in order to remove the chip with 
the least distortion of the metal. The curved top 
slope for this purpose would make the shape of the 
cutting edge similar to the cutting edge of a carpenter's 
round-nosed chisel. This form of tool is not offered 
as a practical form, but is mentioned to emphasize the 
unnatural flow of the chip that must take place on the 
flat top slope of a round nose tool. 

SEPARATING STRESS. 

By separating stress we mean that stress which, in 
turning a shaft, forces the tool outward radially. In- 
creasing this stress causes the work and tool to move 
apart, and results in variation in diameter, also in ir- 
regular and generally inaccurate product, particularly 
when the rough stock runs eccentric or irregular. Al- 
though this separating stress may be lessened by giv- 
ing the tool more back slope, this is possible only in 
tools taking light depth cuts. A lathe tool, however, 
which takes a cut like a side tool, gives little or no 
tendency to separate radially. 

With the side tool set at an angle of 90 deg. to the 
travel of the feed, the feeding stress does not tend to 
force the work and tool apart ; in fact, this tool may 
be set so as to produce a slightly beveled shoulder 
either side of the 90 deg. so as either to draw the work 
and tool together when making an overhanging shoul- 
der or to force the work and tool apart when produc- 
ing an external bevel. 

QUIVERING STRESS. 

The quivering stress due to the nature of the chip 
is affected by the cutting angle of the tool. The chunks 
which make up the parts of a chip are less firmly 
united in a chip taken by a tool of 70 deg. cutting 
angle than by a tool of 50 deg.. and of course the more 
firmly united chunks give a more continuous chip 
with the least vibration of stresses. 

In turret lathe practice, especially in bar work, the 
tool and work are held together by a back rest which 
follows on the surface produced by the cutter, and 
in some kinds of turret-chucking work the tools for 
interior work are mounted on boring bars which take 
bearing either in the work or in the chuck which holds 
the work. When tools get this steady support directly 
on or in the work, they are freed from the chattering 
due to the machine mounting, but not free from that 
due to their own fraility or to the intermittent flow 
of the chip as it is taken off in chunks. 

RELATIVE DESTRUCTION EFFECTS OF HEAT AND LATERAL 
QUIVERING. 

The writer is not unmindful of the effect of heat in 
the destruction of the cutting edge, and fully realizes 
that no perfection of mounting of the w r ork and tools 
will prevent destruction of the cutting edge of the tool 
by heat, but wishes to bring out the importance of 
the destructive effect of chattering which is ever pres- 



'24 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



January, 1909 



cut in standard types of machine tools. Heat is un- 
doubtedly most destriuctive "when roughing at high 
speeds, but the quivering plays a very important, if 
not the greatest part in edge destruction when finish- 
ing at the usual speeds. 

OTHER CONSIDERATIONS. 

The failure of the keen edge under normal cutting 
conditions, and its surprising endurance under some 
abnormal conditions, seem to indicate great possibilities 
open to any scheme that would maintain the best con- 
ditions. For instance, at one time, we have seen the 
edge of a diamond point broken off by an ordinarily 
heavy chip and at another time we have seen a simi- 
lar tool deeply imbedded into the metal without break- 
age, the tool having taken a plunge and lifted or 
plowed up a chip of enormous proportions without 
breaking the tool. Every lathe hand has seen this 
performance. Usually it ends with breaking the tool 
or the center of the lathe, or both, but occasionally 
the lathe is stopoed without breakage; then the lathe 
hand by great care may seperate the work and tool 
without breaking the edge. The immense chip plowed 
up by a frail tool demonstrates what a cutting tool 
can do under some conditions. 

We are also aware that under some conditions a 
cutting tool will actually sharpen itself in the process 
of cutting, yet neither of these results is regularly 
maintained. They sugest, however, the possibility of 
supplying a means by which they can be maintained 
in regular work. 

CLEARANCE. 

Since the birth of the slide rest lathe, in which the 
tool was first guided by mechanism, turning tools have 
been given clearance and it has been assumed that they 
would not cut without clearance. Of course it is well 
known that the orthodox lathe tool goes out of com- 
mission after losing its clearance, but that does not 
demonstrate that a tool cannot cut without clearance. 
It only proves that the present tools recpiire clearance 
as they are now formed and mounted. 

A tool which has been ground for clearance, and 
set in such a position that its under face is at an 
angle to the shoulder produced, presents but a small 
area to the shoulder of work when the clearance of 
the extreme edge has given way. The area is so small, 
compared with the stress of the abrading metal pass- 
ing it, that it rapidly scores and wears into a rough 
surface standing at a "negative" clearance angle. A 
tool with a negative clearance and rough surface, 
quickly goes from bad to worse. 

The tool which has by chance been set in an angle 
lathe so that a comparative large area of the under 
face rides on the wall of metal does not wear away, 
because its surface is not subjected to as great abrad- 
ing pressure per unit of area. Its area is sufficient to 
withstand abrasion. 

It Was assumed by the writer that increasing the con- 
tact of the under face of the tool asrainst the face of the 



work would make it possible to cut without clearance. 
The advantage of a no-clearance tool is that its face 
rides on a good area and supports the under edge 
against the pressure which must be borne by a tool 
having clearance. This one-sided pressure may be 
wholly or only partly relieved. 

Of course, in all of the former types of tools the cut- 
ting edge must withstand the stress, which is wholly 
one-sided, excepting for the occasional condition 
stated, in which a cutting tool obtained by chance a 
bearing on its clearance face. 

THE NO-CLEARANCE TOOL. 

In order to enable the tool to ride flatly against the 
wall of metal from which the chip is being removed, 
we have mounted it to allow a comparatively free 
swiveling action on a center line that is substantially 
coincident with the cutting edge of the tool. When 
the tool is so mounted the pressure of the chip on the 
top slope tends to throw the so-called clearance face 
against the shoulder, for the mounting allows the tool 
to swing around to the angle that may be necessary 
to fit any work form, from a straight surface in planer 
work and the nearly straight surface in work of large 
diameter down to the angle of a helix obtained by the 
coarse feed on work of relatively small diameter. 
i To be continued. ) 



Universal Tool Holder 

IT has long been recognized thai tool holders are 
a success, and tneir advantages over the older 
method of using solid forgings is undisputed. The tool 
holders thai are in general use today, however, are not 
; .11 that could be desired. They are all more or less 
clumsy and wasteful of tool steel and what is probably 
the greatest objection to their use is the fact that a 
separate holder is required for each different tool, mak- 
ing it necessary for the machinist to change his holder 
every time he wishes to make a different kind of cut. 
The Van Doren Manufacturing Company of Chicago 
are placing on the market a holder which they claim 
• \ ercomes these features. This holder was first de- 
signed for use in their own shops and proved such a 
success that they are now placing it on the market 
with the expectation that it will soon take the place of 
the old-stvle article. 

The Tait "Universal'* tool holder, as it is called, is 
made of tool steel and, as will be seen from the illus^ 




UNIVERSAL TOOL HOLDER. 



January, 1909 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



2i3 



tration, is a perfect vise capable" of holding a round, 
square or flat tool when compressed by screwing down 
on the tool post. With this holder the steel can be cut 
eft the bar in any length. This permits the use of a 
very long tool for boring and other purposes and re- 
duces the waste of tool steel in all cases to a minimum. 
With this holder there are no set screws with special 
threads to get out of order, and when it is necessary to 
sharpen the blade the holder can be withdrawn without 
turning the tool post around, obviating the necessity 
of bringing the tool rest away from the work. This 
holder is adaptable for use in screw machines, lathes, 
planers, slotters, sharpers and cut-off machines ; in 
fact, anywhere where forged tools can be used. It is 
particularly useful in repair shops. 



An English Menu Card 

AS Americans, when we think of a hotel or res- 
taurant, in our hunger and excitement we or- 
dinarily conjure up before our mind's eye a placard 




Hitihijj Salooii,^ 



American Special in connection with the 
WHITE STAR UKE, 

Li#erpool (Riverside Station)' to London (Sastou) 4 hours 

8/6. ' . 

Boiled Turbot, Lobster Sauce 

fcionst Sirloin Beef 

Cold Chicken and Ham 

f leaned Beef 

Vegetables 

Salad 

Gteangage Tare 

Gliaoas, Butter, Biscuit Ac. 

Cup of Toa_or Co flee id. 



about as long, though not quite so wide, as this page, 
bearing the legend at the top "Table <Y Hote," or, as 
the case may be, "A la Carte," and below this a list 
of the edibles, the real significance and composition of 
which we only wildly surmise and yearn to know, 
and never try to pronounce — this for the reason that 
it is fondly (or otherwise.) believed that the French- 
man discovered cooking and has ever since maintained 
a complete and absolute monopoly of the art, despite 
what "mother used to make." 

However, a lesson may be learned and a moral 
gleaned from the accompanying illustration of how 
they do it in Merry Old England. Here they spurn 
to honor the more frivolous French, plain old English 
being good enough for them, and they write it just 
roast beef, without the "a la" frills, etc. 

We may draw our own conclusions as to the gener- 
ousness of the portions served and the quality of the 
food and whether we would relish the meal as well as 
one of the famously good dollar dinners served by any 
of the numerous railroads in America. This is English, 
you know, so must be par excellence, with the English- 
man's pardon. 

This picture is printed through the courtesy of Mr. 
Tom Wyles; if you don't know him, you ought to. 
He has not expressed himself as to the comparative 
value of the dining service of English and American 
railroads. In addition to the meal he ate at a cost of 
3/6 he got this card, and he didn't say whether he took 
it as a souvenir or — but that may be another story. 
The editors vouch only for the illustration being a 
correct and truthful copy of the original, that's all. 

Concerning Some of Our Railwiy Supply Friends 

In our July issue of nineteen hundred and one we 
first introduced the Protectus Company to our read- 
ers. A picture of Mr. W. C. De Armond and Mr. F. 
L. De Armond, with their exhibit at Saratoga, ap- 
peared among the "Snap Shot" photographs of that 
convention. They now need no introduction, but it 



BY COURTESY OF MR. TOM WYLES. 




DE ARMOND. 



26 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



January, 1909 



is a pleasure to refer to the recent addition to the 
personnel of the Company and publish in this connec- 
tion the three pictures shown herewith. 

Mr. Chas. H. Spotts appeared last June as president 
of the Spotts Formulae Paint Company of Xew York 
City. Mr. Spotts is well and favorably known because 
of his connection for the past ten years as manager of 
the paint department of the Joseph Dixon Crucible 
Company, manufacturers of Dixon's silica graphite 
paint. He had severed his connection with that com- 
pany with a view of establishing a paint company In 
the vicinity of New York that would make a specialty 
of paints for structural and ornamental work. Mr. 
Spotts has made a specialty for a number of years of 
architectural and engineering specifications, and has 
had charge of the painting of such structures as the 
hotels St. Regis, Astor, Knickerbocker and -Belmont; 
Altman's new department store, the new McAdoo Ter- 
minal Buildings, the City Investment Building, Broad 
Exchange Building, as also a number of other impor- 
tant structures in New York and other cities. The 
recent legislative work done by Mr. Spotts, as chair- 
man of the legislative committee of the Eastern Paint 
Manufacturers' Association, has attracted consider- 
able attention. Associated with Mr. Spotts was Mr. 
Walter F. Swearer. 

Mr. Spotts has recently associated himself with the 
Proctectus' company, Philadelphia, as its secretary 
and Mr. Swearer becomes the New York manager, 
with headquarters at the Hudson Terminal. 



Pergonal Mention 
Mr. Edward C. Cole has been appointed traveling 
engineer of the Iowa Central, with office at Des Moines, 
Iowa, succeeding Mr. W. B. Ferris. 





MR. WALTER F. SWEARER. 



MR. CHAS. H. SPOTTS. 

Mr. J. B. Cozart. master mechanic of the Mexican 
Railway at Apizaco, Pueblo, Mex., has resigned to go 
to the Pan-American. 

Mr. T. X. Ely, chief of motive power of the Pennsyl- 
vania, has been granted a protracted leave of absence to 
visit Italy, France and Egypt. 

Mr. Harry J. Hair has been appointed foreman of the 
Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern at Seymour, Ind. He 
graduated in mechanical engineering from Purdue Uni- 
versity with the class of 1906 and has been connected 
with this road since that time. 

Mr. B. H. Lent has been reappointed road foreman 
of engines of the Arizona division of the Atchinson, 
Topeka & Santa Fe, with office at Needles, Cal. 

M. J. Powers has been appointed master mechanic 
of the Denver & Rio Grande, at Pueblo, Colo., succeed- 
ing Mr. W. A. Randow, transferred. 

Mr. W. A. George has been appointed superinten- 
dent of shops of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, 
with offices at Albuquerque, X T . Mex. 

Mr. E. J. Shoffner, foreman of the Frog and Rail 
mill of the Norfolk & Western at the Roanoke shops, 
has been appointed general foreman at Cleveland, 
Ohio, succeeding Mr. H. F. Staley, who was appointed 
master mechanic of the Carolina, Clinchfield & Ohio. 

Mr. Frederick Regan, formerly with the Chicago & 
Alton in the motive power department, has been ap- 
pointed master mechanic of the southern division of 
the Kansas City Southern, with headquarters at 
Shreveport, La. 

Mr. A. W. Horsey has been appointed master me- 
chanic of the Chalk River section of District 4 of the 
Canadian Pacific, with headquarters at Smith's Falls, 
Ont., succeeeding Mr. G. T. Fulton. 



January, 1909. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



■n 



Mr. A. "West has been appointed master mechanic of 
District 1 of the Canadian Pacific, with office at Ken- 
ora, Ont., succeeding Mr. A. H. Eager. 

Mr. Calvin Schreck has been appointed head fore- 
man of engines of the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago 
& St. Louis at Bellefontaine, Ohio. 

Mr. George K. Anderson has been appointed road 
foreman of engines of the Albuquerque division of the 
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, with office at Winslow, 
N. Mex. 

Mr. Manual Parra has been appointed master me- 
chanic of the Mexican Railway at Apizaco, Tlax, Mex., 
to succeed Mr. J. B. Cozart. 

Mr. Frank Hopper, road foreman of equipment of 
the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific at Dalhart, Tex., 
has been appointed road foreman of equipment of the 
Dakota division and part of the Minnesota division, 
with office at Estherville, Iowa. 

Mr. H. Carrick has been appointed assistant division 
master mechanic of the Oregon Short Line, with head- 
quarters at Pocatello, Idaho. 

Mr. John Reed of the mechanical department of the 
Oregon Short Line at Salt Lake City, Utah, has been 
appointed general superintendent of the Salt Lake &' 
Ogden Railway at Salt Lake City, in place of Mr. A. 
D. Pierrson, resigned. Mr. Reed is succeeded by Mr. 
George Wilson, chief clerk of the master mechanic at 
Pocatello, Idaho. 

Mr. W. L. Hudson has been appointed road foreman 
of engines of the Pittsburg division of the Pennsyl- 
vania railroad, with offices in the Union station, Pitts- 
burg, Pa., succeeding Mr. J. K. Russell, who was 
placed on the retired list December 1, after 51 years 
of service with that company. 

Mr. John Boden, master mechanic of the Ohio River 
division of the Baltimore & Ohio, has been transferred 
to Garret, Ind. Mr. H. D. Van Valen, general fore- 
man at Parkersburg, W. Va., succeeds Mr. Boden. 



Obituary 

The death of Mr. John Wohrle, Chief Car Inspector at 
Columbus, O., occurred at 6 :30 a. m. on December 6, 
1908, at his late residence, 267 East Eleventh avenue, 
Columbus, O., at the age of 62 years and 9 months. Mr. 
Wohrle was born in Columbus on February 27, 1846, 
and received his education in the Columbus public 
schools ; his parents, Mathias and Helena Wohrle were 
born in Baden, Germany, and Mr. Wohrle was brought 
up in the German-Lutherian faith. 

On February 2, 1865, he enlisted with Company G, 
185th Ohio Volunteers, and received honorable dis- 
charge from the army September 26, 1865. He was mar- 
ried at Columbus, O 1 ., in December, 1870, to Miss Anna 
Rheinhart, of Columbus; this union was blessed with 
five children, three of whom with the widow survive; 
Mr. Edward Wohrle, of New York, Mrs. Seabert and 
Miss Nettie Wohrle, both of Columbus. 



In 1867 Mr. Wohrle began active business in his na- 
tive city as builder and contractor, lie commenced his 
railroad career in 1870 with the 1 L V. Ry. in their car 
department and remained with that road until 1881, 
when he went to the N. & W. Ry., S. V. Div., at Ports- 
mouth, O. In 1894 he resigned his position with that 
road and took service with the C. S. & H. Ry. at Colum- 
bus in the capacity of general foreman of the car de- 
partment and retained that position until May 15, 1901, 
at which time he was elected by the railroad companies 
at Columbus as chief joint car inspector, which position 
he held up to the time of his death. 

Mr. Wohrle stool very high in the estimation of rail- 
road officers and his death is recognized by them as a 
distinct loss to the mechanical and car departments of 
the railroads at Columbus. His sudden death was a 
shock to his friends as he was apparently in perfect 
health up to the very hour of his death, his demise being 
caused by heart failure. His funeral took place on De- 
cember 9 and was very largely attended, many railroad 
officials from out of town being present. Interment 
was at Greenlawn Cemetery, Columbus, O. 



Trade Notes 

The General Railway Supply Company, Chicago, have moved 
from 922-923 Marquette building into large quarters, rooms 
531-532 of the same building. 

Mr. Herbert E. Stone has just become connected with the 
Dearborn Drug & Chemical Works, as manager of sales in the 
Eastern department, with headquarters in New York City. Mr. 
Stone was formerly president of the N. A. S. E., and recently 
manager of the Pittsburg office of the Chapman Valve Com- 
pany. Mr. Stone will have associated with him a corps of able 
assistants. The Dearborn company is to be congratulated upon 
the splendid addition to their selling force. 

Two years ago, the American Blower Company distributed a 
large sum of money by giving each one of their employes one 
dollar and one additional dollar for each year of continuous 
employment. The largest single sum paid was $25.00, that 
being the entire life of the company at that time. Amounts ran 
from that to one dollar; no one received less than the latter 
amount. Last year, owing to the business depression, nothing 
of this nature was done, but this year the plan above outlined 
was again adopted. 

Mr. Willis C. Squire, 209 Western Union Building, Chicago, 
111., has accepted the agency of the Falls Hollow Staybolt Com- 
pany for the railway trade in the Chicago territory, and Mr. 
Alex. S. Mitchell, 45 Broadway, New York, for the railway 
and boiler trade in the New York teritory. 

A new motor-driven Portable Mold Dryer is described in a 
circular recently sent out by the Hanna Engineering Works, 
Chicago. This dryer is made of heavy grey iron castings and 
lined with ordinary split fire brick. The air from the fan is 
regulated by dampers so that it may be forced either over or 
through the coke fire into the distributer and then through 
the pipes into any desired part of the mold, insuring an even 
pressure throughout and reaching into all pockets and angles. 

The Pilloid Company has sent out interesting data on the new 
Baker-Pilloid locomotive valve gear, which has been applied 
to a Chicago & Alton engine. 

Walch & Wyeth, Chicago, has issued on interesting circular 
on Manganesite paste, which is a non-poisonous metallic com- 
position and unites two pieces of metal as one. 



28 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



January. ]'iu:t 



The L909 edition of the Westinghouse Diary includes in- 
formation on the following subjects: High pressure 
turbine, Seblanc condenser, low pressure steam turbine, me- 
chanical stoker, mercury vapor lamps, meter testing, sto 
battery, single-phase railway system- Tungsten lamps, turbo- 
pumps and blowers and Westinghouse-Nernst lamps. It is a 
valuable asset for the mechanical engineer. 

We are indebted to the Independent Pneumatic Tool Com- 
pany, Chicago, for this interesting item concerning pneumatic 
tools on the stage: "That the importance of pneumatic tool- i- 
now more generally recognized by the public at large than ever 
before, is shown by the use of Thor hammers in Frederick 
Thompson's latest production "via Wireless" running at the Lib- 
erty theater, New York. The plot of the play revolves about the 
over-tempering of a huge experimental gun so that it will ex- 
plode under test, and throw a large government contract for an- 
other into the hands of the steel works holding the patents on 
the second gun. The second act of the play discloses an exact 
reproduction of the forge room of one of the largest steel plants 
in the country. Each side of the stage shows a row of fur- 
naces from which large billets of white hot steel are carried 
on over-head trolleys to the immense steam hammers in the 
center of the stage and forged into shape. During the action of 
the scene, the heavy thud and vibration of the steam hammers 
and the rapid blows of the Thor pneumatic hammer-., show that 
the shop forces work on utterly unconscious of the vailiany of 
tile higher officials. Jusi before the curtain falls, the much 
overheated gun forging is swung across the stage and dropped 
wtih a hiss and a cloud of sapor into the tempering bath. Mr. 
Thompson has carefully gone into all details of this scene ami 
made it one of the most realistic productions on the stage." 

The steady increase in business for the Northern Railway 
Supply Company, Chamber of Commerce building. Chicago, has 
resulted in its incorporation a- a stock company. The manufac- 
ture and sale of such specialties as the Rogers dust proof jour- 
nal box and the Neudeck Steel grain door will be continued on a 
larger scale at its several plants. The malleable iron plant at 
Benton Harbor, Mich., has been materially enlarged. The offi- 
cers of the company are as follows: Mr. John F. O'Malley, 
president: Mr. A. \\" Xeudcck, vice-president, and Mr. II. \V. 
Drew, secretary and treasurer. 

The New York Central Lines recently placed an order eleven 
all-steel postal cars. The exterior of these cars will be covered 
with steel sheathing. This is an interlocking form of steel sheath- 
ing furnished by the General Railway Supplj Company, of Chi- 
cago. 

The Industrial Instrument Company was organized by men who 
have long been engaged in the manufacture of measuring instru- 
ments, the leaders being Messrs. B. B. Bristol, E. H. Bristol, and 
W. E. Goodyear, all of Waterbury, Connecticut, who were for 
many years, active in the development of The Bristol Company, 
and in the direction of its affairs during the time of its great 
development and success. This company now owns the entire 
capital stock of the Standard Gauge Manufacturing Company. 
until recently, of Syracuse, N. Y., and of the Standard Electric 
Time Company, of Waterbury, Conn. The home office will be 
located at Foxboro, Mass., with sales offices at 50 Church street, 
Nudson Terminal, New York, and 752 Monadnock building. Chi- 
cago, 111. 

The Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company has 
again become the propert of the stockholders, after having been 
in the hand of receivers since the 23rd of October, 1007. The 
petition for the discharge of the receivers was made on Decem- 
ber 5 in Pittsburg, Pa., before Judge Young of the United States 
District Court of the Western Circuit of Pennsylvania, and 
was immediately signed by him. Mr. Cravath in addressing the 
court on behalf of the Stockholders' Committee, stated that in 
the annals of receiverships, this one stood without a parallel as 
the most successful. 



Mr. Allen Cray, president of the Cray Tile & Timber Co.. 

Evansville, Ind., has been elected president oi 
Wheel Company, St. Louis, Mo., succeeding the late Mr. John 
W. Nute. Mr. J. J. Morse, secretary-treasurer, has been made 
also general manager. 

The Carborundum Company, Niagara Falls, N. Y„ opened an 
office at 365 Frick annex, Pittsburg, Pa., January 1. Mr. W. W. 
Sanderson has been appointed manager of the Pittsburg district. 
He has been with the company many years. 

The F. H. Niles Car Company. Chicago, has been incorporated 
to manufacture, sell and rebuild freight cars. The incorporator- 
are Messrs. E. Terwilliger, E. D. Pray and A. llendrickson. The 
capital stock is $:>0,000. 

Mr. L. J. Viersen, secretary of the Kellogg Car & Equip- 
ment Company. Kankakee, 111., has been elected president, suc- 
ceeding Mr. Edwin M. Kellogg. Mr. H. Schwartzenburg has 
been elected treasurer, succeeding Mr. F. W. Kellogg, and Mr 
E. II. Ward has been elected general manager. The compam 
has planned to increase the capacity of its plant by the installa- 
tion of additional machinery and tracks. ;,s it has considerable 
work booked which guarantees such improvements. 

The Latrobe Steel & Coupler Company. Philadelphia. Pa., is 
erecting two large additions to its plant at Melrose Park. 111., 
which will increase its capacity .">() per cent. The structures will 
have dimensions of :,i) ft. by :.'::. ft. and 40 ft. by 200 ft., and 
will be of steel construction. The Riter-Conlev Manufacturing 
Company, Pitt- the contract. 

The Folger Locomotive Company. Tacoma. Wash., has been 
incorporated, with a capital stock of $1,000,000, by Mes> r s. w. 
B. Jones, T. I'.. Egan. J. A. Van Osel, W. F. Schaffer J. Loomis 
and L. W. Pratt. 

The Interlocking Journal Bearing Company, New York, has 
been incorporated to make equipment, supplies and devices for 
railways, cars and locomotives. The capital stock is $IMO,000. 
The incorporators are: Messrs. John J. Donovan, Thomas Hill 
Lowe and Noah A. Stancliffe. 

The A. I',. C. Bearing Corporation now ha- its principal offices 
in the Railway Exchange building, Chicago. Mr. F. A. Lester, 
who is in charge of all sales and purchases, states that the cor- 
poration is prepared to handle promptly its rapidly increasing 
business. 



Technical Publications 

MECHANICAL DRAWING AND ELEMENTARY MA- 
CHINE DESIGN, by John S. Reid and David Reid. Published 
b\ John Wiley & Sons. New York. Cloth binding. 433 pages, 
0x9 ins., illustrated. Price, $3.00. 

This volume is prepared to help the student apply the prin- 
ciples of mechanical drawing to the solution of problems in the 
construction of machines and their parts. Rules, formulae and 
tables are supplied and the mechanical drawing is thus supple- 
mented by data which give a thorough understanding of the 
subject. This book is an excellent treatise for technical students 
and is written so as to render the best possible assistance. ■ 

HANDBOOK OF SMALL TOOLS, by Erik Oberg. Pub- 
lished by John Wiley & Sons, New York. Cloth binding, 506 
pages, 5x8 ins., illustrated. Price, $3.00. 

This volume is a treatise on the design and construction of 
small cutting tools, and is prepared for the tool-maker, tool- 
draftsman, foreman, superintendent, etc. It provides specific in- 
formation on the following subjects: Screw-thread systems: 
methods and principles of thread-cutting, measuring threads: 
threading tools, definitions of taps; hand taps; tapper taps and 
machine taps, screw machine taps, hobs and die taps ; taper taps, 
miscellaneous taps; threading dies; plain and side milling cutters; 
miscellaneous milling cutters; reamers; drills, counterbores, hol- 
low mills and lathe arbors. 



February, 1909 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



29 



ESTABLISHE D 1878. 

Entered as Second-Class Matter June 18, 1895, at the Post Office 
at Chicago, Illinois, Under Act of March 3, 1879. 

Vol. XXXIII Chicago, F ebruary, 1909 No. 2 

CONTENTS. 

Notes of the Month 29 

Smoke Consumer 31 

New Car Wheel Plant 31 

Universal Boring, Drilling and Milling Machine 33 

Heavy Pattern Axle Lathe 34 

The Purchase of Railway Fuel Coal 35 

Electric Turntable Tractors 36 

Forty-Ton Flat Cars 37 

Elimination of Smoke 38 

The M. M. and M. C. B. Conventions 42 

Railway Business Association 43 

High Steam Pressures in Locomotive Service 44 

Announcement • • • 48 

Briquetted Coal for Locomotives 48 

Railroad Accidents 49 

The All-Steel Car 49 

Concerning Side Sheets on Wide Fire Boxes 49 

Brighter Industrial and Commercial Outlook 50 

Old Shop Tools Rejuvenated 50 

Cinder Pits 51 

Coping and Notching Machine 51 

Metal Cutting Tools Without Clearance 51 

Single Speed Pulley Gear Driven Lathe 52 

Kokomo, Marion & Western Traction Company 56 

High Duty Drill 59 

New Air Compressors 60 

Armbrust Brake Shoe 63 

Lang Tool Holder 63 

Safety-Appliance Law 63 

Metallic Sheathing 64 

Some Tool Room Specialties 64 

Car Window Fixtures 65 

Personals 66 

Trade Notes 67 

Storekeepers' Association 

The sixth annua] meeting of the Railway Storekeepers' As- 
sociation, will be held at the Auditorium Hotel, Chicago, on 
May 17, 18, and 19, 1909. Mr. J. P. Murphy, Collinwood, 
Ohio, is secretary of the association. Questions on organiza- 
tion, tools and supplies, requisitions, stock, etc., will be dis- 
cussed. 



A. S. M. E. Year Book 

The Year Book for 1909 of the American Society of Me- 
chanical Engineers was issued recently. Among the contents 
is the constitution, by-laws and rules of the association and 
a complete list of the membership. On Nov. 27, 1908, there 
were 15 honorary members, 2,322 members, 357 associates 
and 761 juniors, giving a total membership of 3,455. 



Western Canada 

Professor J. Austin Bancroft, lecturer in geology, McGill 
University, presented before the Canadian Railway Club a 
paper on Western Canada, illustrated by stereopticon views. 
The concluding paragraph is as follows: "In addition to re- 
calling to your minds some of the more important resources, 
and of presenting a general description of the broad topo- 
graphic features of 'the West,' this lecture has aimed to 
portray some of the causes which have produced the relief 
of the land of today. It is truly 'a fair land' which has been 
dealt with, and each Canadian should strive for its wholesome 



development. When a more careful, scientific study is made 
of topography, it becomes evident that when one is given 
a few facts concerning the underlying rock structures, and 
of the history of the action of the denuding forces which 
have been at work moulding the surface, that person should 
know what topographic forms to expect in a given region. 
Such a study and such knowledge should be of great value 
to those who have anything to do with the location of rail- 
ways." 



Pooling Cars 

Mr. Arthur Hale, chairman of the car efficiency committee 
of the American Railway Association, states that slow 
progress is being made in getting the railroads to pool cars. 
He says, however, that a car pool is bound to come, as that 
is the only economical way to handle and regulate freight 
car equipment, and that from $300,000,000 to $500,000,00 is 
now tied up in idle equipment. Referring to the recent in- 
crease in surplus equipment, Mr. Hale said: "I do not like 
to knock prosperity gospel, but 200,000 idle cars do not spell 
prosperity." 



Car Demurrage 

The American Association of Demurrage officers report 
that for the quarter ended June 30, 1908, the number of cars 
handled under their auspices were 5,584,265, compared with 
7,063,503 cars in the like quarter of 1907. Twenty-two differ- 
ent bureaus give the following comparison of cars reported 
and average detention of railroads and consignees: 

Quarter to 
June 30, '08. June 30, '07 

Cars, number 3,726,588 4,594,416 

Detention by railroads, days 0.34 0.42 

Detention by con'g'ns, days 1.35 1.51 

Total detention, days 1.69 1.93 



Oil Burning Locomotives 

Mr. George C. Henderson, formerly of the motive power 
department of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Ry., but 
now a consulting mechanical engineer, testified before the 
New York up-state public service commission on the ques- 
tion of the prevention of forest fires in the Adirondacks that 
the portion of the New York Central road running through 
the region could be equipped with oil-burning apparatus in 
locomotives for $55,986 and operated at annual cost over 
coal of $139,324. The Delaware & Hudson could be changed 
for $33,200 and operated at a yearly increase in cost of $41,- 
470. The New York Central's representatives submitted a 
plan for changes in coal-burning locomotives to prevent the 
escape of live coals and cinders and for the establishment 
of fire patrols in the woods with apparatus, etc., to cost the 
company $70,000 for the first year and $25,000 for operation 
yearly thereafter. Edward B. Katte, engineer of the electric 
portion of the New York Central lines, showed that electric 
operation of trains through the Adirondacks would cost a 
prohibitive figure, $9,163,000 for installation of electricity and 
$1,079,000 for annual operation. 



New Plant for Locomotive Company 

The American Locomotive Company has purchased a plot 
of 130 acres of land at Gary, Indiana, from the Gary Land 
Company, a subsidiary company of the United States Steel 
Corporation, and plans are being drawn for a new plant 
which officers of the Locomotive company say will be the 
most complete and best equipped lomomotive works in the 
world. The land purchased is twice the extent of that occu- 
pied by the largest of its present plants and when fully occu- 
pied will give employment to from 12,000 to 15.000 workmen. 



30 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



February, L909 



The land adjoins thai of the new plant of the United States 
Steel Corporation. This site was selected at Gary, 24 miles 
from Chicago, to provide for the territory where the largest 
number of railroads converge to a single commercial 
center. The Chicago district is a great railroad center and 
that district is rapidly developing in manufacturing im- 
portance, which renders it favorable as a locatoin for secur- 
ing material for building locomotives. This company now 
operates plants in Schenectady and Dunkirk, New York: 
Pittsburg and Scranton, Pennsylvania; Richmond, Virginia; 
Paterson, New Jersey; Manchester, New Hampshire, and 
Montreal, Canada. At present there is no large locomotive 
plant west of Pittsburg, and the selection of a location in 
the Chicago district provides additional locomotive building 
capacity where it is most needed for prompt and direct deliv- 
ery to a large number of railroads. The size of the new 
plant will be sufficient to provide liberally for the growing 
needs of flu- railroads for years to come. 



New Standard Type Underframe and Bo- 
gie for the Five-foot Six-inch Guage 
Lines of the Indian State Railways 

To the general designs and requirements of Messrs. Rendel 

and Robertson, new standard underl'rames have recently 
been constructed by the Leeds Forge Company (Limited), 
and also the Metropolitan Amalgamated Railway Carriage 
& Wagon Company (Limited). The last mentioned firm al- 
ready supplied to the Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway fifty- 
three of their underframes, fitted with 106 bogies, which 
latter, however, were constructed by the Leeds Forge Com- 
pany (Limited). The underframes are built Up of channel 
bars with the solebars and longitudes each strengthened by 
a strong truss rod of the queen post type. The bolster cross- 
bats to which the Baltimore ball centre and side bearings 
are bolted are made of channel bats in pairs over each bogie 
centre and run across the underframe from -<>\v to sole. The 
The bottom portion of centre pivot is bolted to the bogie 
bolster. Both top and bottom section, are fitted with bard 
ened steel balls, taking a bearing between the two races. 
The side frictions are made in three pieces, the top bolted 
to bolster crossbars, between this and the middle part work 
the I'j in. diameter hard steel balls fitted between the r. 
The centre section bears on the bottom portion which is 
bolted to bogie bolster; the bolsters can move endways slight- 
ly, and are mounted on rests of helical springs. These ball 
bearings allow bogie to take curves easily and no lubricant is 
necessary or allowed; with ordinary centre pivots and side 
friction plates, oil is used to reduce the friction, but this 
causes dust and sand to adhere to them. The bogies are pro- 
vived with side laminated bearing springs. The leading di- 
mensions are: Length over buffers, 72 ft. 2 ins.; length i 
headstock, 68 ft.; centres of bogies, is ft.; wheelbase, 11 ft.: 
length over corner pillars. 69 ft.; width over side pillars, 9 
ft. 6 ins.; approximate tare (of carriage complete I 36 tons. — 
Indian Engineering. 



Stresses in Staybolts 

Interest in the question of life of firebox staybolts and the 
effect of the vibratory action of the firebox sheets on the endur- 
ance of staybolts, is and probably always will be keen, as long 
as the present design of staying locomotive boilers obtains. - 

All kinds of hypotheses were advanced as to the actual 
movement of the sheets under the expansive action of" heat, 
but when all sophistries were exhausted the only recourse 
was to acknowledge, to paraphrase Brother Jasper's famous 
proposition of the sun, that the sheets "do move." 

The degree of movement of firebox sheets under various 
pressures and temperatures, was accurately ascertained by 
the committee on flexible staybolts appointed by the Ameri- 
can Railway Master Mechanics' Association and the results 



obtained by that committee as reported at the 1906 conven- 
tion let in considerable light on a subject that had hitherto 
been approached only by simplest conjecture. 

It is well known that staybolts never fail by tensile s'ti 
alone, the transverse stress due to the expansive action of the 
firebox sheets being the deciding factor that produces rup- 
ture of the staybolt, but the total stress to be provided for is 
a combination of tensile and transverse stresses, which are 
uch intensity in actual service as to demand not only the 
best material in staybolts, but extreme care as to the kind 
or t\ pe of staybolt used. 

To determine the ability of staybolt iron to perform its 
functions satisfactorily before application to the firebox. 
various devices have been resorted to. Among these is a 
machine which holds the iron to be tested rigidly at oik- end 
and loaded so as to produce a tensile stress equal to that 
under which the staybolt is stressed j n t i u . fi re box. While 
under this tensile stress the opposite end is rotated in a cir- 
cular path at right angles to the axis of the stayboll under 

The radius of the curve d< scribed by the vibrating end of 
the tesl piece repri deflection of the staybolt in ser- 

vice and is supposed to giv< ; fairly accurate line on the life 
of the Staybolt in the boiler. The condition-, it is s rt .n. art- 
made as nearly identical with those of actual service as pos- 
sible, excepting the temperature, and such test is no doubt 

as fair as can be made asidl from the exception noted. This 
kind of a test is. ,,f course, of value only to determine the 
endurance of staybolts of the so-called rigid types. Such 
staybolts have endured as many as 3,300 reversals of -• 
before rupture occurred, in the vibrating machine. 

of course flexible staybolt- are not supposed to resi-t any- 
thing but a tensile stress and are not. therefore, considered 
in this connection The accompanying tabulated valuer rep- 
resent calculated stress,- ,,,, various sizes of staybolt- under 
both tensile and transverse stresses for various load-, from 
which it will be seen that staybolts have an important func- 
tion in resisting the force- at work to destroy them. 

i er 
■j-r ■{■■,( r..iit .it Tension I Fib mda 

E^J: Bottom pel Bquare inch due '•• per Bquare Inch due to 
^ ._ z"f Thread load in poum I teflectlon 

~ z ~ Inches. 2000 250" 



% 0.7." 4329 .',111 6493 7575 57848 

s29 3706 1632 5558 6488 

3200 4000 1800 56 (7364 

I B54 -~' ,v 3497 H97 1896 72047 

,.017 246> 3077 3692 1308 76727 
I^eng-th of staybolts between sheets— 6 inches. 
BoiU-r pressure — 200 ms. 
Threads i_ per inch. 

Pitch of bolts between centers — 4 inches. 



115698 
93796 I 
101046 134729 

Jns,;,, 



New Six- Wheel Coupled Tank 
Locomotive 

For working suburban services, the East Tndian Railway 
Company have just lately received delivery of ten heavy six- 
wheeled coupled bogie tank locomotives, built by the Vulcan 
Foundry (Limited), of Newton-le-Willows, Lancashire. 
These engines have the 0-4-6 wheel arrangement, with the 
crank axle of the middle coupled wheels driven by a pair of 
inside cylinders to which steam is distributed by balanced 
slide valves, worked by Stephenson link motion with a rock- 
ing shaft. The cylinders are 18 ins. diameter by 26 ins. 
stroke; the coupled wheels are 4 ft. 6 ins. and the bogie wheels 
:: ft. 1 in. in diameter, the rigid wheelbase being 16 ft. and 
the total engine wheelbase 27 ft. 6 ins. The boiler barrel 
is 10 ft. 1 in. in length and has a diameter, inside, of 4 ft. 
i) 13-16 ins. The firebox is of copper and has a length (in- 
side at top) of 4 ft. 93/6 ins. and a width (inside at top) of 
3 ft. 11^ ins., the depth (at front) being 6 it 5 l /$ ins., and the 
depth (at the back) 5 ft. llj^ ins. The total heating surface 
amounts to 1,256.7 sq. ft. to which the firebox contribute 
125 sq. ft. and the tubes (236 in number and 1)4 i' 1 ?- in dia- 



February. 1909 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



31 



meter) contribute 1,131.7 sq. ft. The grate area is 21.25 sq. 
ft. The fittings include Gresham and Craven's injectors, and 
steam sanding apparatus; the U. K. Metallic Packing, and 
Hulburd's Sight Feed Lubricators. There is steam and hand 
brake for the engine and a vacuum brake for working the 
train. The tank capacity is 2,000 gals., and there is fuel 
space for 3 tons of coal. The engine has a weight of 68 
tons 15 cwts., of which 46 tons 5 cwts. is on the coupled 
wheels. — Indian Engineering. 



Smoke Consumer 

THE smoke consumer, which is shown diagrammatically 
in the accompanying drawing, is constructed after the 
patent of Karl Schleyder. The device has been applied 
and is claimed to operate satisfactorily. The following de- 
scription is an abstract from the patent sheet. 

By means of the invention the products of combustion 
which escape into the smokebox without being thoroughly 
utilized are sucked into the fire-box again for recombustion 
in such manner that the development of flame in the fire-box 
is not only not arrested, but, on the contrary, is actively as- 
sisted and the generation of steam accelerated and increased, 
while coal is economized and smoke avoided. 

The improvement consists in the products of combustion 
which are conducted from the smoke-box into the fire-box 
through the well-known suction-pipe being mixed with a suit- 
able quantity of air by special means and in the intensity of 
the suction of these products of combustion and of the air be- 
ing controlled and regulated corresponding to the chimney- 
draft. 

The suction-pipe R, which connects the smoke-box with the 
ash-pan, is secured at one end to an air-inlet casing A, lo- 
cated below the smoke-box, and at the other end to a smoke 
and air ejector B, located in the ash-pan. 

The ejector consists of a vertical cast-iron casing, having 
flanges below and above and having also a lateral flange to 
connect the pipe R. Within the casing there is located an an- 
nular perforated pipe, to which the steam injector supply pipe 
is attached. The steam passes upward through the perfora- 
tions and assists the suction action of the ejector. The 
casing is widened below, and in this enlarged part a flat cone 
is provided, the height of which can be adjusted, whereby 
the entrance of air into the ejector can be regulated. 

At the top of the casing there is connected a pipe which 
projects through the grate into the fire-box. This pipe is 
surrounded by a stack of rings, D, which present ribs on the 
inside, so that passages are formed between the pipe and the 



rings. Through these passages fresh air flows into the fire- 
box and the rings, I), and the pipe are cooled, whereby the) 
are better able to resist the action of the flames. 

Above the pipe there is located a combustion baffle, C, 
secured in inverted position, that is, with the open side down- 
ward. 

At the place where the hopper, T, of the smoke-box is 
connected with the pipe, R, the air-inlet casing, A, is provided. 
This casing is shaped similarly to the casing of the ejector, 
but is horizontally located and is connected, by means of 
flanges, with the funnel, T, and with the pipe, R. 

By the exit of steam from the annular pipe, the ejector 
and thus the entire smoke-consuming apparatus is set in 
operation, for owing to the action of the annular pipe in the 
ejector the pipe, R, casing, A, and funnel, T, will cause a 
strong draft in the direction of the fire-box, stronger than in 
the chimney itself, so that the products of combustion which 
enter the smoke-box and which otherwise would escape 
through the chimney into the air are compelled to flow back 
through the funnel T, pipe R, and ejector into the fire-boj 
again. In order, however, to cause combustion of these re- 
turned products in the fire-box not only without obstructing 
the ordinary combustion process in the latter, but so as to 
promote the same, it is necessary to mingle the returned pro- 
ducts of combustion with an ample supply of fresh air and 
to maintain the draft .in the pipe R in a definite relation to 
the draft in the chimney or in the upper part of the smoke- 
box. It is thus necessary always to know exactly the differ- 
ence between the draft in the funnel T or pipe R and that in 
the top part of the smoke-box (above the top row of boiler- 
pipes) or in the chimney, since otherwise in the event of only 
slight suction there would be practically no return of the pro- 
ducts of combustion, while in the case of an unduly strong 
draft there would be a serious waste of steam, and owing 
to the strong inrush into the fire-box the fire would be choked. 
For this purpose a differential draft-meter may be employed. 



New Car Wheel Plant 

THE Louisville Car Wheel and Railway Supply Company 
was organized in 1871 and was chartered by a special act 
of the Legislature March 22, 1872. It had the first car 
wheel plant south of the Ohio river, although some wheels had 
been made in ordinary soft iron foundries with the usual equip- 
ment of such foundries, annealing being done by keeping sand 
on the wheel, etc. The plant was quite small and was enlarged 
in 1882 to a capacity of 100 wheels a day which was stretched 
from time to time until the capacity reached 150 wheels per day 




Locomotive with Smoke Consumer of Schleyder Design. 



32 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



February, L909 



*•«* srsxAi 



is 



p 



3 



±.UA 




Layout of Wheel Foundry 

a? it now stands. In L907 they began the erection of a new 
plant located some three miles distant from the old plant and 
on the main line of the Louisville & Nashville Railroad The 
officers of the company were: Pinckney F. Green, president; 
George White, superintendent, and D. H. Cheney, secretary and 
general manager. Mr. Cheney took a leading part in designing 
and supervising the erection of the plant, but died of pneu 
monia February 22, 1908, before the machinery was installed 
He was widely known amongst the wheel men and was uni- 
versally liked and respected. His death was a great set-back 
to the work on the new plant. 

The new plant is provided with two switch tracks; one for 
shipping only, and the other principalis for receiving raw ma- 
terial, but can be also used for shipping. The plant was de- 
signed and equipped by the Whiting Foundry Equipment Com- 
pany with their straight line system; similar in detail to that 
supplied the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul. The building is 



of brick and steel construction throughout, the main building 
being 200 ft. long and 120 ft. wide, with a side hay of 60 ft 

by 30 ft., containing cupola and blower rooms. It i- equipped 
with fifteen floors of twenty-five wheels per floor, making a total 
Capacity of ST.". per day. 

The cupola room is equipped with a No. 10 Whiting cupola, 
96 in. in diameter and 52 ft. 6 in. high. It is lined to a diameter 
- in. inside. This cupola will melt at a rate of 21 tons per 
hour. Located at the sde of cupola is the blower or power 
room equipped with a No. 12 Sturtevant positive Mower and a 
Chicago Pneumatic Tool Company's air compressor with a 
capacity of 250 ft. of air per minute; both being driven with a 
.'.u h.p. alternating current motor. The charging floor, 30 ft. 
by 60 ft., i- served by two 3-ton Whiting pneumatic elevators. 
titled with 20-in. balanced air hoist. The floor is provided with 
four <ets of tracks with a transfer car at each end; the idea 




Wheel Pits with 2-Motor Electric Pitting Trolleys. 



Electrically Driven Reservoir Ladles, with Wheel Ladles and 
Ladle Trains. 



February. 1909 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



33 




General View Across Wheel Floors. 



and can accommodate six cars each. These cars are constructed 
of channels, angles and plates, and are 4 ft. by 4 ft. 6 in. with 
perforated plate shelves. This type of shelf makes it especially 
convenient for this class of work as it is easy for sliding on and 
off cores. In order to facilitate the handling of these cars a 
transfer car is provided in front of the ovens. The annealing 
pits are served by two standard Whiting pitting trolleys with 
built up structural frames, each trolley handling two wheels at 
once and thereby serving two rows of pits. They are each 
fitted with two 5 h. p. alternating current motors. They are also 
fitted with the Whiting semi-automatic pitting tongs. 

The operator's platform, reservoir, ladle, the train distributing 
iron, the hot wheel train delivering wheels to annealing pits, are 
practically duplicates of equipment furnished the Chicago, Mil- 
waukee & St. Paul. The motors were supplied by the General 
Electric Company and are three-phase alternating current. \- 
far as possible they were made in duplicate. The motors are 
distributed as follows: Reservoir ladle, 5 h. p. ; ladle trains, 5 h. 
p.; hot wheel train, 5 h. p. ; pitting trolleys, two 5 h. p. ; floor 
cranes, 15 h. p. ; blower and compressor, 50 h. p. 



being to provide for the storage of loaded cars before the heat, 
then to gradually work them off through the charging machine, 
and then down to the ground floor for fresh charges. 

In front of the cupola is placed a Whiting pneumatic charging 
machine. This machine consists of a platform hinged at a 
level above the charging platform on the side toward the cupola, 
provided with a track for the charging car, in line with station- 
ary tracks, as shown, guard, angles, and a hook for holding the 
car to the platform when being dumped. A dumping cylinder 
is properly supported by framing attached to the charging floor 
and pivoted to allow the alignment required. The piston rod is 
pivoted in a bracket attached to the under side of the platform. 
The platform is constructed of structural shapes and all joints 
are strongly riveted ; the hinge pins are of ample size and ar- 
ranged for easy removal and replacement. An apron plate is 
hinged to the platform and laps over an inclined chute in front 
of the cupola door. The controlling valve is located at any 
convenient point and is piped to the cylinder and connected with 
air supply. 

In operating, the car is run on the platform and the hook 
engaged with an eye attached to the car frame. Then the valve 
is opened to admit air into the operating cylinder and the plat- 
form is raised to the dumping posiion. Iron charges are put on 
cars with ends about 12 ins. high, but open on both sides. Coke 
cars have their ends and sides enclosed, one side being fitted 
with a hinged door. 

Through manipulation of the valve, the charge may be dis- 
tributed as desired. The level of the charge must be main- 
tained 3 to 4 ft. below the level of the door sill to get the best 
results. 

The floor cranes are equipped with a balanced air hoist. This 
type of hoist, having air under pressure on both sides of piston, 
makes it especially suitable for molding floors, its action closely 
resembling that of a hydraulic hoist. The valves for these 
hoists are attached to the structural work independent of the 
hoist and are of special heavy construction to withstand the 
heavy usage necessary for this work. 

The core room and ovens are located in a separate building. 
30 ft. wide and 80 ft. long. This building is equipped with 
two core ovens with space for a third. One core oven is 9 ft. 
wide and 16 ft. long, without side racks, and the other is 13 ft. 
wide by 16 ft. long, with side racks, both being 8 ft. high. They 
are fitted with counter balanced sliding doors. Both are fired 
from a pit in the back. The heat from fire box is distributed 
by special arrangement of flues which insures an equal distribu- 
tion of the heat, the steam and gas escaping in stack from an 
opening located at the floor line. For firing up they are pro- 
vided with a damper located at top of oven which opens to 
allow the escape of smoke and closes as soon as they obtain 
a clear fire. Each oven is provided with two lines of tracks 



Universal Boring, Drilling and Milling 
Machine 

THE universal horizontal boring, drilling and milling ma- 
chine, shown in the accompanying cut, has been designed 
upon the unit system so as to make possible the construc- 
tion practically from the same pattern of the universal boring, 
drilling and milling machine, the plain boring, drilling and 
milling machine, and the plan milling machine. 

These machines are built with the constant speed drive, motor 
drive or cone drive. When motor drive is applied to the con- 
stant speed box, constant speed motors are used and the speed 
variations are all made in the box. 

Attention is called to the constant speed drive which is fitted 
with long shafts, long bearings all of which are bronze bushed 
and run in oil and are non-clogging. The gears are all steel 
and also run in oil. The speed changes in this box are 12 in 
number and reverse for running the spindle in either direction. 

The heavy back gear drive is applied close up to the front 
main bearing of the spindle. This box gives two changes of 
speeds which are suitable for boring and facing with flat cutters 
which are the most common and frequent operations. Starting 
and stopping the spindle is also done by this one lever which 
is handy to the operator. 

A friction clutch is not used for starting the machine or 
stopping it, but the transmitter gear is thrown out, leaving all 
parts at rest except the constant speed shaft which simply spins 
around in oil. 




Universal Boring, Driling and Milling Machine. Built by J. 
Coffman, Franklin. Pa. 



;!i 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



February, L909 



The feed box is fitted with steel gears which gives feeds fin< 
enough for the most delicate- tools. It also has strength and 
power to drive cuts milling or boring up to ' ^ - in. feeds to oxu 
turn of the spindle. 

The over arm has long been considered indispensable in mill- 
ing. As applied in boring on this machine it makes it possibh 
in long spans, where a number of holes are to be bored in line, 
to support the bar in the center. This permits of the us 
several cutters at one time, and overcomes the. disagreeable fea- 
ture of chatter which is more or less attendant with the use of 
long bars. It will also supply the place of many special fixtures 

and in use is readily appreciated. 

I he universal machine is titled with compensating driving 
head which not only takes up the looseness which will come in 
the bar, hut also by the use of collet clamps the bar rigid for 
end milling. This feature is always valuable in accurate boring. 

A tl ieel spindh- nose plate with slotted face i- also 

a pari of the driver head, which takes a design of face mill 
that is screwed on with spanner wrench and driven with key, 
permitting the running of mills and fixtures in either direction 

.Mill arbors are centered by taper hole in spindh and driven 
by key and collar from nose plate, which gives a \ er\ powerful 
and rigid dim to slab, gang, and formed cutters. 

This machine, used as a milling machine, is capable of pro 
during ai the minimum cost all kinds of milling operations that 
come within the range of a plain milling machine. All feed 
shafts are provided with safety pins and collars. Graduated 
dials of very large diameter to facilitate the accurate production 
of work are placed on all kvi\ shaft;. The screw for longitudi- 
nal travel of table is placed in the center of bed, insuring free 
movements and permanent alignment. All moving parts are 
provided with gibs for taking up wear. 



Heavy Pattern Axle Lathe 

THE accompanying illustrations show an extra heavy design 
in axle lathe construction, with an extremelj powerful 
drive, rigid construction and everj convenience that the 
character of axle turning would demand. 

The bed is of very massive construction, cross girths being of 
box section. A longitudinal member of box section is cast m 
the center of the bed, extending its length parallel to the outer 
walls, and is fur the purpose of further stiffening the cross 
girths. The walls of the bed are heav\ and the metal dovetails 
on the upper and lower edges are as ncarh equal a- possible 
The ends of the bed are cut awa\ to facilitate the removal of 
tailstock, or permit of a reasonable overhang for emergency cases 
In addition to the front and "ear \"s with the inner flat tracks 
an additional 15-degree plain surface has been machined upon 
the bed in order to accommodate the bearing of carriage upon 
bed. 




Driving Shaft with Carriage Bearing Upon Bed. 

For simplicity in design and great possibilities for delivering 

power to the cut. the drive ..n this lathe is partcularly note 
worthy. Power is applied to a constanl speed pulley of lar^e 
diameter, wide face, running at a high velocity. The variation 
in speed is obtained by sliding gears which run in a bath of 
oil. \ll shafts are carried in bushed positive ring oiled bearings. 
All gearing is of steel The driving shaft is ,,f large diameter 
and held in alignment bj a number of journal blocks bolted to 
'he bed. There is no overhang on the pinion of the main driving 
since the shaft is supported on either side of it in long 
bearings. The large year meshing with this pinion is placed in 

the center of the driving head, and as with the pinion ha- a 

double bearing. A powerful compensating driver is secured to 
-ear in the head, the dogs of which are faced with steel bolts 

All feed years are of steel. The speed of the splined feed rod is 
effected by the gear train driving, from the main shaft through 
a change year box, giving three feeds which may be changed 
w bile the lathe is in operation. 

Particular attention is called to the compact box construc- 
tion of the apron which is tongued and grooved into the car- 




The Lodge and Shipley Axle Lathe. 



February. 1909 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



35 



riage. all gears being of steel. In addition to the clamping ar- 
rangement of apron to carriage, the apron is further supported 
by a third V cast in bed, and in such position as to be directly 
under the apron. The purpose of this construction is to sup- 
port the apron at the bottom for both vertical and transverse 
stress. The spring of the apron due to the thrust from rack 
pinion is thus effectively overcome. 

Considering now the carriage, we find that in addition to the 
bearing on the V's on the front and rear shear of the bed, it 
also has a flat bearing or track on the inside of the front shear. 
A further angular bearing of 45 degrees tends to secure a per- 
manent alignment of carriage with bed. The carriage bearing 
upon bed is considered of importance in view of the extreme 
thrust from the burnisher as well as from heavy cutting. Water 
troughs are provided around the tool slide and wings of carriage. 
The tool post is arranged with hardened toothed plates interlock- 
ing with the tool and effectively preventing any possibility of the 
tool swiveling or slipping under the heaviest cuts. The tool 
slide is of steel. 

The tailstocks are of massive construction and firmly bolted 
to bed. The clamps are brought to the top of spindle barrel. A 
pawl, engaging with rack, cast in bed, is attached to each tail- 
stock, this design tending to relieve the strain on clamping bolts 
and overcome the thrust of heavy cutting, when blunt cutting 
tool angles are used. The tailstock at driving end has a sta- 
tionary spindle with no transverse adjustment, the necessary 
adjustment being obtained from the spindle of the second tail- 
stock, which is also provided with a transverse adjustment. The 
plug clamps for binding the tail spindles are of improved design, 
two instead of one for each tailstock. and placed at the top of 
the spindle barrel. 

The flat bearing surfaces are carefully scraped to fit. Ample 
provision is made for delivering an adequate supply of water 
to the tools, all journals being copiously supplied with oil by 
means of positive automatic oil rings. 



The Purchase of Railway Fuel Coal* 

THE purchase of railway fuel coal is an important item, 
but after all a comparatively easy one ; getting the right 
grade, at the right time with the right weight, and securing 
empty cars to load are, at times, more difficult problems. 

There is plenty of coal, too much in fact; the mines do 
not work as regular as they should and as a result neither 
mines or miners can be depended on to work with mechani- 
cal smoothness. Habit is everything, and while the mines 
are idle waiting for men, care, orders, repairs, or some one 
of the thousand other things that shut mines down, the rail- 
roads go on burning coal. Of late you would think that 
a secret service department was a necessity in order to keep 
up with prospective shut-downs, the causes ranging from the 
size of the bit used in boring slot holes, up through the item 
of supplying a grade of powder that does not suit, the color 
of a new pit mule, etc. "Shut her down" is the sovereign 
remedy for the coal miners' ailments, and no other business 
on earth seems to suffer to the same extent from this un- 
certainty. 

The officers of the Miners' Union, generally, appreciate 
this condition and they are struggling with it, but the poly- 
glot races that go to make up the mine workers have at times 
conflicting views, and so they "stop her." For the man to 
whom it is up to, to get the stuff there are two remedies, 
eternal watchfulness or a large stock, and the last is an ex- 
pensive luxury, tying up as it does capital and equipment, 
the consumer over the strike period. That, however, is not his 
rioration and theft, the railroad paying 5 per cent on the 
money tied up in the stock. 



♦Paper presented before the Western Railway Club by Eugene 
McAuIlffe. general fuel agent, Rock Island-Frisco lines. 



Every two years it is (he fashion lor the miners to t;,l-. a 
ten weeks' vacation; the next one i^ due March 31, 1910, 
and a couple of months before that we ;ill get busy, the 
miner getting out double the usual quality of coal to tide the 
consumer over the strike period. That, however, i-> not his 
intention; he works for money to tide himself and family 
over, but the result is the same. The real lo^er is the eon 
sumer, the loss to railroads storing coal, including labor, 
depreciation of coal with consequent increase in operating 
expense, per diem, on cars and inconvenience to regular 
business easily equal to forty or fifty cents per ton. When 
the spring fishing season is over, the stock piles exhausted, it 
is "back to the mines" and forgetfulness. 

Here I wish to ask you a question: Can we not avoid this 
bi-ennial shut down and prevent this waste of energy and 
material? If the two parties to the conflict, employer and 
employee, cannot get together without assistance, cannot 
such be rendered in the shape of a National Arbitration 
Committee with a conciliation law like that now in force in 
Canada, the miners to go on producing coal to meet the re- 
quirements in the mean time? This is a live question and 
one the railroads are interested in. 

The money and labor spent by the railroads in getting 
ready for these shut downs, not including that used in clean- 
ing up idle mines at the end of the shut down period, would 
pay for side tracks, shop extensions, track scales and other 
betterments required by the average railroad to properly 
serve its patrons. 

Remember, these differences which of late have come at 
two year intervals do not reach the proportions of a strike; 
they are stoppages of production only, and they take place 
with automatic precision at 4 p. m. of March 31st, if that 
date does not fall on Sunday, in which case 4 p. m. of March 
30th is the time. 

The coal miner knows when he works with extra force in 
February and March that his labor is being piled up to de- 
feat him, but that makes no difference; he cleans up his room 
the last day, sends up his tools and goes home to wait. In 
the meantime the Convention Hall at Indianapolis echoes to 
flights of oratory which is principally of the four-flushing 
variety; intellectual giants on both the miners' and the opera- 
tors' sides thresh the air, while the railroad fuel departments 
are wearing the life out of the division forces to unload coal, 
to waste and deteriorate from handling and the elements. 
The orators mean to be honest, but it is time for the con- 
sumer to demand that a scale and condition that can be 
used for twenty-two months be continued in force until a 
new agreement is made; continuity of service pending the 
making of a new wage agreement is just as essential on the 
part of the coal miner as it is on the part of the locomotive 
engineer, when practically one hundred percent of the men 
employed act as they do in a concerted manner through the 
medium of their organization. 

I opened this paper with a statement; most papers con- 
tain figures. I will make use of but one example. I said 
that the volume of railroad fuel used in the United State- 
annually assumes large proportions. It equalled in 1907. 
115,000,000 tons, or 2,875,000 car loads of 40-ton capacity, 
which set end to end counting 40 feet to the car, the "Cut" 
would be 21,780 miles long. The day's consumption equals 
7876 cars, or a string 60 miles long. The railroads burned 
about 24 per cent of the total coal mined in the United States 
in 1907. These are the only figures I will make use of. 

Buying coal is a business; so is buying anything else. The 
man who studies his dress and looks carefully into his pur- 
chases usually appears best. If he is a smoker and he buys 
his own cigars, he smokes a better grade than he would if he 
left the matter to his wife to attend to. I mention these 
things with the view of suggesting that buying coal should 



3G 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



February, L909 



be studied, and made somebody's business, and railroads 
should pay cash for their coal and not try to pay part cash 
and part cars, as it has been charged was the practice a few 
years ago on certain roads. 

Fuel contracts should not be given as a reward for commer- 
cial tonnage. When you get the contractor's tonnage you 
are liable to lose that of his competitor; they both pay the 
same rates of freight. Quality and price coupled with relia- 
bility of delivery are the conditions that should govern. 

Dividing contract tonnage on a percentage basis is not a 
good thing either. It eliminates all competition as to price 
and grade. No man should have a cinch on anything in this 
world except health and family; keep him hustling for the 
rest and you are helping him most. When you do make 
contracts keep in touch with your contractor; know him if 
he shirks, lose him when the time comes, tying to those who 
tie to you. If one of your contractors suffers bad luck and 
cannot meet his tonnage obligation, reduce the pressure and 
levy a little heavier on the others. When he in turn is riding 
the tidal wave you can even up. If your contractor is on 
your rails you will find at times that he has problems and 
you can well afford to help meet them if he is the kind of a man 
you want to do business with. This again suggests speciali- 
zation. Somebody must make fuel purchasing his business. 
The empty car is always a live issue. Paradoxical as it may 
seem, coal car shortages on a railroad always go hand in 
hand with coal shortages; plenty of coal, plenty of cars, 
but this is not an argument for tying up cars. The man who 
is responsible for the coal supply should, at least, be on 
speaking terms with the man who distributes the cars; they 
should keep in close touch and thus together work out many 
problems that will tend to economy. 

The buyer usually has a close acquaintance with both the 
coal and the railroad operating man. That makes it possible 
for him to act as a go-between, and he can, if he will, do 
much through a force of competent inspectors to secure a 
maximum loading of cars as well as the proper disposition of 
foreign equipment. The fuel man, if lie handles the invoi 
can do much to smooth the path of the freight claim agenl 
in settling claims and finding a disposition for refused coal. 
These gentlemen should also nod when they meet in the 
elevator. 

The Mechanical and the Fuel Departments should hold a 
close relation to each other. When an engine crew has lost 
time or set out tonnage, charging it to the coal suggests the 
line of least resistance, besides the coal does not talk back; 
it is not there to do so. That does not mean that we do not 
get bad coal; it frequently comes good to-day, and tomorrow- 
things at a certain mine go to the bad. Some of the worst 
coal I ever saw went over the screens when an inspector, or 
perhaps the superintendent was watching it. Somehow coal 
miners expect you to kick and when you do not they think- 
that they can relax, and gradually the standard lowers till 
the battle cry is sounded, when they take a fresh hold. The 
best inspection is that which can command on the part of 
the inspector the whole force of the producers' organization to 
the end that good coal will be produced. 

I do not believe it is the proper thing for the purchaser to 
employ men to stand around coal mines all day looking at 
the coal that goes into the car. That means that the buyer 
is furnishing superintendance that the seller should provide 
and pay for. There is a disposition on the part of the pro- 
ducer to lean on the railroad fuel inspector. I have often 
been asked to put my complaint in writing "so we can show- 
it to the men." This is a plain confession that the job is too 
big for the mine superintendent, and he should be braced up 
to the extent of being forced to run his own business or else 
he should be relieved. There should be but one head to a 
coal business and the fuel inspector should not be a. neces- 
sity, at least as far as exacting contract grade of fuel is con- 



cerned. Personally I intend gradually withdrawing the in- 
spectors in my department from the mines and instead put 
them on work that the railroad company should look after. 
The purchase side as well as the selling side of the coal busi- 
ness calls for the application of honest principles. There is 
no difference between the seller who shirks his contract obli- 
gation in order to gain temporarily a few cents a ton, and 
the buyer who takes advantage of a hard luck market to 
Ip ten cents a ton on a few car loads of coal. Winn a 
railroad fuel purchasing agent finds it necessary to relieve an 
industry that is out of coal, do so, by charging it the regular 
commercial freight rate as the law requires, turning the coal 
over to the coal company which produced it, exacting a credit 
memo for amount paid, letting the coal company invoice 
direct. If you have to take a few cars of outside coal off the 
hands of some shipper, pay him what your contract price will 
stand, grade and freight charges considered, collecting car 
service again as the law and the published tariffs demand. 
The livest item in the coal line to-day is the question of car 
lot weights, both empty and loaded. There is very little dis- 
honesty practiced in the handling of weights of carlot coal, 
but there are many inaccuracies. One car has an overweight, 
the next one an underweight, the gentleman who gets good 
measure does not complain, he who suffers the shortage 
howls Lei us all, coal operators, selling agents and consum- 
ers, be frank and agree that the fifty-ton coal car loaded gross 
to as much as 156,000 pounds, calls for jam up track scales. 
well set. maintained, and handled. We should get together 
on thi- and handle the question in a businesslike way and 
quit talking about it. 

The producing railroad should carry a correct tare weight 
on its cars, weigh the commodity and weigh it right. Weight 
is a factor equal in importance to that of the rate, when 
figuring the freight on a car of coal. Every railroad having 
a mileage warranting same should have a weighing bureau 
with a competent man in charge of same. When the rail- 
road is properly equipped to weigh carlot freight it should 
do the work and then as a carrier stand behind its own 
figures. Due consideration should be given to what can be 
classed as legitimate shrinkage of coal weights, particularly 
that due to the evaporation of contained moisture. 

It may not be improper to say here that with coal cars 
tquipped with the vertical plane coupler, maintained to the 
standard height as required by law, weights can be accurately 
obtained without uncoupling at either end. 

I have demonstrated this by a dozen separate tests includ- 
ing several hundred cars, and as a result of these investiga- 
tions, personally made, I stand committed to the belief that 
cars when cut at one end can be weighed with accuracy pro- 
viding they are stopped on the scale, this position, insuring 
correct weights, with the minimum expenditure of time and 
expense. 

This is not a scholarly paper and it does not even attempt 
to exhaust the subject. If it provokes any discussion of the 
matter on the part of those more competent to handle same, 
I will have accomplished something. 



Electric Turntable Tractors 

NO where is it more evident that modern conditions demand 
the use of modern appliances than in the operation of 
locomotive turntables. The sight of from four to twelve 
men struggling to turn a locomotive is still a familiar one, but 
far less common than a few years ago. It is too expensive, not 
only in the cost of labor but also in reducing the capacity of 
the engine house. The electric tractor has proved one of the 
best solutions of the problem of turntable operation wherever 
power is available, owing to the simplicity of operation, relia- 
bility and low cost of maintenance. 

The accompanying illustration shows a standard Nichols 



February. 1909 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



37 




Electric Turntable Tractor. 

tractor attached to an 85-ft. heavy duty turntable. This was :« There are many engine houses where but few locomotives are 

built by Geo. P. Nichols & Bro., Old Colony building, Chicago, turned and where it is necessary to call a lot of men away 

who have made a special study of the application of electric from their regular work every time an engine must be turned, 

power to turntables, and have equipped nearly 200 tables of which is expensive and causes confusion. With an electric 

practically every type and make, on nearly every important rail- tractor at such P oints an °P erat0r need not be ke f 1 t °" the 

, . ., table all the time, and it is simply necessary to call out one 

road system in the country. , , '.,..,,. , . . , , . , . 

man who has familiarized himself with the operation of the 

The Nichols tractor consists essentially of a heavy triangular tractor to turn the table 

steel frame, attached to the table by means of hinges at two ♦ « » 

points widely separated, the weight being balanced almost ex* 17 + T 171 + C* 

actly on the single traction wheel traveling on the circular rail ^ 

in the pit. On this frame the entire mechanism is mounted, The specifications for the 80,000-lb. capacity flat cars, 

and above is the operator's cab, the platform and floor of which whlch were gently ordered by the Escanaba & Lake Su- 

cover and protect the motor and machinery. A sheet metal P enor Railr ° ad Company, are as follows: 

housing encloses the machinery on the sides, and protects it general dimensions 

from the weather. In the cab are located the steel' switch box, Len S th ov er end sills , 41 ft. 

controller, sand box lever, brake lever and, when desired, an Wldth over Slde Sllls 9 ft - 

and places the operator near the ends of the rails he is match- Hei S ht ' to P of rai1 to to P of floor 4 ft. 2 in. 

ing up. It also simplifies the connections to the sand box and Hei ^ ht ' to P of rail to center of drawbar 2 ft - 10 H in. 

hj-akg Distance between truck centers 30 ft. 

., ri , „ . .... , Distance from face of end sill to center of truck.. 5 ft. 6 in. 

Whether the installation is new or old it is extremely de- ^ , , , , _ ,, _ . 

. ,, , . , . , , : Truck wheel base 5 ft. 5 in. 

sirable to bring the current underground through conduits to , T „„ 

, - , , , , , . . . . . , ■ • .... SPECIFICATIONS 

the center of the table. In spite of the many varieties of turn- c - < CM , 

, , . : , . . Side Sills — 

table centers in use, in onlv three cases has it been necessary to /t< \ r\t \ i r it • • e -.o • *i ci 

,,".., , A . (Two) Of long leaf yellow pine; size 5x12 in-, x 41 ft. 

resort to the overhead type of collector, one of these being on n , c -,, 

r • 1 i-i r. • i • , 11 Center Sills — 

account of occasional high water. Suitable swivel collectors /T - v ,-*.? 1 1 r n • r n • .« c* 

. , , (Four) Of long leaf yellow pine; size 5x9 in. x 40 ft. 

have been developed and standardized for everv type of table. T , A - , c -n 

r J .* Intermediate Sills — 

Either direct current of any voltage or alternating current of /t> \ r^r i i r n • * « • *« r* 

. , . (Two) Of long leat yellow pine; size 5x9 in. x 40 ft. 

any phase, cycle or voltage, may be used. At many points p , o-ji 

where the railroad company has no power plant of its own, (Two) Qf whhe oak; size gx9 Jn x g ft 4 j n 

electric current may be bought at reasonable rates from outside Draft Timbers 

companies. (Four) Of white oak; size 5x7^ in. x 5 ft. 8V 2 in. 

So satisfactory have the Nichols tractors proved in service Deadwoods — 

that most of the users have kept increasing their equipment, (Two) Of oak; size 6x8 in. x 3 ft. 

five or six systems having from twelve to sixteen each. Many Subsills — 

of these tractors have been in continuous use for four or five (Four) Of oak, between bolsters and needle beams; size 

years with no shut-downs or expense for repairs. One is serv- 4 X 5 in. x 9 ft. 10 in. 

ing an engine house that sends out an average of 400 locomo- Subsills — 

tives every 24 hours. Several others serve even busier houses (Two) Of oak, 4x5 in. x 8 ft. 

with no interruptions or delays. For such service hand power Flooring — - 

is out of the question, and other forms of power tractors, which Of yellow pine, shiplapped, 1)4 in. thick x 4 in. wide, 

are very desirable where electricity is not available, are not Needle Beams — 

?ufficiently reliable under all conditions of weather and care. (Two) Oak, 4^x8^x9 ft. 



38 RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC February, L909 

Body Bolsters- Elimination of Smoke 

Bcttcndorf make, for so, 000 1!>. capacity cars, including x .1, ,-,,,,• .1 \ r- ■ 1 , ■ • . • 

,, . , . , ..',-. A ' llK ' ^yu^st 01 the American Civic Federation, which is 

malleable iron center plates and side bearings. l\ • , _ , , ,, „ . „ , ,, . ... 

- (i . ' rl interested 111 the so-called smoke nuisance. Mr A \\ . 

Dratt Ciear — , -i 1 , 1 , , 

... . lt , , . bibbs, general superintendent of motive power of the 

Miner, with tandem springs. . ... . 

-. . I P . Pennsylvania Railroad, prepared a paper which m part is as fol- 

Drawbar Springs — . ' 

lOWS : 
(Four per car) Each having capacity <>l 32,000 lbs. 

_ , J METHODS 01 SOLVING 1'Koi 

L ouplcrs — , r . 11,,,, , , 

~.. . , ,.,,,. , , 1 1 vt • , 'he means which the railroad has at its command tor the ehm- 

Climax Automatic, with 5x5 shanks, made by the National . 

.- ,, , , _ ~ ination ol smoke are: 

Malleable Castings Company. ... ,... • , . , , , , , 

,. R . 1. ._ '' ,rst — ' ,K ' ;isc "' comparatively smokeless fuel; 

,, r , . • ,. , r~ 0111111/ Second — The use of devices of various kinds which may allow 

Westinghouse Air Brake Company, Schedule, II. I., lor , . . , , , J 

... " the use ot otherwise smokj fuels: and 

freight cars. .... . . .... , ' , . 

I bird — 1 he education of the men operating locomotives and 

Follower Plates— supervising their work. 

of soft steel, 1/ 2 x6x8 in. FV . F , AVAILABLE . 

Drawbar Yokes— h j_ cvi( j ( . n , that , 1k . ra ,iroads must produce power with the 

Of soft steel, 1x4x2 ft., 5/ 2 in. long. flK ., of ,, R . C()Un(y {hrin ^h wlnch llu . v nin ;m(1 a gUnce at a 

King Bolts geological map of this country, will convince anyone that bitu- 

134 in. diameter x 22 in. in length. minous coal is , liat wjt)l which tlns qiK . stl „ n mus( , H . ^,, K . d 

Brake Shafts Anthracite is confined to practically a few counties in the East- 

VA in. diameter x 3 ft. 6 in. long. en] part of Pennsylvania. The amount of anthracite mined is a 

Truss Rods— Irjtlc mon . (han -„ ,„„,,„„, tons eacn vcar It j s , ]k . ; (k . al fuc j 

(Eight per car) 1% in. diameter with ends upset to 1', in. for domestic purposes and for use in plants where its cost is 

and properly secured by turnbjickles. ,„„ prohibitive. The total amount is so limited, however, that 

Brake Levers and Connections- wefe tlu . (k . m;m(1 (() , K . „„ t)))s fud ;ili , iu . , lu . supply ^y be 

All in accordance with M. C. B. standards. inadequate, in illustration of which we submit the following 

stake Pockets statement of the consumption for the fiscal year ending June 30, 

Ten on each side of car, each pocket secured by two V 4 in. ,« M , T , OI1 twenty railroads, which, from their geographical loca- 

U Bolts - tion, would naturally have the first claims on this fuel, for the 

Grab Irons and Steps— reasQn flwt tlu . y au . m .. [U . >{ , )u . anthracite field) viz . 

All M. C. B. standard dimensions, Anthracite Bituminous 

Queen Posts— (Tons). Coal (Tons). 

II in. deep, of malleable iron. Pennsylvania Railroad Company ...... 61,297.25 7,159,627.55 

trucks Pennsylvania Company 2,128,994.00 

Channel Irons— Northern Central Railway 22,364.00 604,856.00 

37 lbs. per foot. Regular 13 in. (arm -u section for freighl I'hila.. Baltimore & Washington R. R 637 i 

cars - Long Island Railroad 156,494.84 155,< 

Wheels— p g h., Cincinnati, Chicago & St. I. R> 1,758,501.00 

650 lbs. each, made by the Griffin Car Wheel Company, un- Baltimore & Ohio Railroad 20,451.05 4,782,434.25 

der M. C. B. specifications and tests x v Central & Hudson River R.R.... 216,624.00 1,242,476.00 

Axles— Michigan Central Railroad 1,245,628.00 

Of M. C. B. dimensions; for so. ooo lbs capacity cars, made Lak e shore & Michigan Southern Ry 1,998,902.00 

by Willard Sons and Bell, under M. C. B. specifications Lake Erie & Western R. R 300,613.00 

and tests. _\\ w York. Chicago & St. Louis R R 539,614.00 

Journal Boxes— Central Railroad of New Jersey 607,617.00 318,348.50 

Malleable iron, National Malleable Castings Company Delaware & Hudson Company 902,769.00 196,183.00 

make, of M. C. B. dimensions, for SO.000 lb. capacity cars. \ Y.. New Haven & Hartford R. R. . 34,268.00 1,830,701.00 

Journal Bearings— Boston & Maine Railroad 1,440,454.00 

M. C. B. standard for 80,000 lb. capacity cars. { ; rw Railrna(1 263,158.00 2,216,058.00 

Journal Bearing Keys— Philadelphia & Reading Railway 1,145,134.70 903,565.10 

M. C. B. standard for 80,000 lb. capacity cars. Lehigh Valley Railroad 835,398.51 99,065.36 

Arch Bars— Delaware, Lackawanna & Western R. R. 1,312,907.00 342,142.00 

Of steel; M. C. B. dimensions; top bar 1 ' _> in. x 4 ' _> in. in MIXED COALS, not smokm 

section; botton bar H/ 8 in. x V/ 2 in. section. These roads consume annually some 39 3-10 million tons, b l / 2 
Tie Bar — million tons of which is anthracite. It will be observed that 
5^x45^ in. in section. some of the anthracite roads use considerable amounts of bitu- 
Bolster Springs — minous coal. In many cases this bituminous coal is used as an 
Of M. C. B. standard dimensions, for 80,000 lb. capacity admixture in order to make it possible to burn under locomotive 
cars. conditions, the very small sizes of anthracite otherwise not avail- 
Bolsters — able. This mixture of two coals is not smokeless. Assuming 
Bettendorf make, for 80,000 lb. capacity cars, or an ap- ,i :at tne entire consumption of these roads were anthracite, it 
proved design. u jH be seen that this small group alone would consume more 
Brake Beams — than one-half of the total amount of anthracite mined. While 
"Diamond Special" or Monarch type, made by the Chicago suc h action would doubtless stimulate the production, it would 
Railway Equipment Company. b ut hasten the disappearance of this most valuable fuel, to say 
Bolts — nothing of the enhancement in price which would most as- 
Column and journal box bolts, of M. C. B. standard dimen- srredly follow and directly affect every householder now de- 
sions. pendent on this fuel. Granting that the anthracite thus ab- 
Painting — sorbed by the railroads were replaced by bituminous coal for 
Cars to be painted and lettered with a good grade of paint, domestic purposes, the smoke situation would be far worse than 
consisting of tw-o coats, well brushed in. at present because the numerous small domestic fires, with the 



February. 1909 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



39 



usually imperfect combustion, produce more total smoke than 
would the same amount of bituminous coal burned in locomo- 
tive furnaces. The item of cost to the railroads would be such 
a tremendous increase in their expenses as to make it abso- 
lutely prohibitive. A recent study of this subject showed that 
on nineteen of the principal roads, the fuel bill exceeded 11.4 
per cent of the total operating expense, or nearly 8 per cent 
of the gross earnings. 

COKE. 

The total production of coke is about 36 million tons annually, 
which is almost entirely used in metallurgical work, for which 
there is no substitute. While it may be admitted that the pro- 
duction of coke could be largely increased, it should be remem- 
bered that in the production of coke from bituminous coal, there 
is an initial waste of about one-third of the heating value of 
the fuel, with further losses from breakage in handling, it is 
evident that this attempted solution would be an unpardonable 
waste of our natural resources. 

However, in the endeavor to obviate smoke, a great many at- 
tempts have been made to use coke, and the records of the tests 
show that the results have been very unsatisfactory, owing to 
the difficulty with which the fuel is handled, at times the heat 
being entirely too intense and at others the fire being almost 
slopped up by the ashes produced. It must not be forgotten that 
in the process of burning coal to coke, the ash originally in the 
coal remains in the coke, so that in burning a ton of coke, much 
more ash results than from the consumption of a ton of the 
coal from which it was made. The coke, when used, is satis- 
factory in but one particular, namely, its freedom from smoke. 

The reason that anthracite and coke are smokeless is because 
of the large percentage of fixed carbon and the small percentage 
of volatile or flame-and-smoke producing material, for instance, 
the fixed carbon may run as high as 90 per cent, volatile mat- 
ter not over 4 per cent ; the remainder being ash and sulphur. 

BITUMINOUS COAL. 

Of bituminous coal, somewhat over 400,000,000 tons are mined 
annually, and the total consumption of this fuel by the railroads 
of this country is estimated to closely approximate 100,000,000 
tons. This railroad consumption, it will be noticed, is almost 
sufficient to exhaust the present total production of both anthra- 
cite and coke, so that we may as well admit that this being a 
bituminous coal country, it is this fuel alone that we must con- 
sider in solving this smoke problem, although possibly in certain 
restricted localities we may be justified in entirely dsregarding 
all questions of expense and using only smokeless fuel ; this for 
the sole purpose of controlling the smoke. 

CHEMISTRY OF BITUMINOUS COALS. 

The composition of our various bituminous coals differs 
widely. Some of them are relatively smokeless. Chemically, 
these are characterized by the great amount of fixed carbon and 
the small amount of volatile or flame-and-smoke producing con- 
stituents. Approximately, these may range from 70 to 80 per 
cent fixed carbon, from 15 to 22 per cent volatile matter, the 
remainder being moisture, ash and sulphur. On the other hand, 
some of the highly bituminous coals will contain less than 50 
per cent fixed carbon, and over 40 per cent volatile material, and 
it is with such wide variations in composition that the question 
must be settled. 

It is customary to group under the head of "volatile material" 
all the substances which will distill from the coal when heated 
in a closed tube, but on examination it is found that the com- 
position of this material is quite complex, and it does not follow 
at all that the volatile material of one coal differs only in amount 
from that of another grade. While much has yet to be learned 
of the ultimate composition of this material, it is safe to say that 
some coals contain more of the smoke or soot producing con- 
stituents than others. In other words, some bituminous coals 
while containing approximately the same percentage of volatile 
material, are more difficult to burn without the emission of 
smoke. 

The low-volatile bituminous coals have, unfortunately, the pe- 



culiarity that they are extremely friable and even though mined 
in lumpy form, will, very speedily break up into small size, and 
although this docs not interfere with their usefulness where 
burned slowly, it is a very serious hindrance to their use in 
locomotive boilers when worked to the fullest capacity, for the 
reason that the powerful draft throws out of the chimney a very 
large part of the fuel put into the firebox, and while at low 
rates of combustion this is the most efficient of our bituminous 
coals, this condition does not hold true when the demands on 
the locomotive are increased. For locomotive purposes, the 
physical structure of the coal is actually more important than 
the chemical composition. The important requirements are that 
the coal shall be fairly lumpy; that it shall be fairly uniform in 
size ; that it shall not readily break up in the atmosphere ; and 
that it shall retain its form in the firebox. When these condi- 
tions are met, such fuel can be burned with comparatively little 
smoke, owing to the possibility of maintaining a thin bright fire. 

BRIQUETTES. 

A possibility of the future, not yet fully developed, is the use 
of smokeless or low-volatile coals made into briquettes by the 
addition of suitable binding material, after which the fuel is 
pressed into large blocks. This practice, long known and utilized 
abroad, is now being developed in this country, very intelligent 
work being done by the United States Geological Survey, and 
while at present the cost of fuel so produced is so high as to 
be prohibitive, it is hoped that this method of preparing fuel 
may ultimately prove a factor in relieving the smoke nuisance. 
The conservation of our natural resources makes it imperative 
that we should be able to utilize all sizes and kinds of coal, so 
that instead of selecting the best of the coal and leaving the 
inferior grades in the mine, the vein which is being mined should 
have all the fuel removed, as otherwise, the settling of the 
ground causes the total loss of all the unmined fuel. To the 
extent that briquetting helps to attain this result, its extension 
is desirable. 

OIL FUEL. 

Oil fuel is largely used in some parts of the Southwest, where 
there are great deposits of oil, otherwise of little value. Owing 
to the distance and the difficulties of transportation, it is not 
likely that this fuel can be considered as one available for rail- 
roads other than those in the territory where such oil abounds, 
and may be dismissed from our consideration. 

To recapitulate : Anthracite, coke and low-volatile bituminous 
coal are all being used, to a greater or lesser extent, at various 
points where the smoke condition is most pronounced, in order 
to minimize the annoyance, but, as has been pointed out, the 
extension of the use of such fuels is distinctly limited, and the 
great question remains : By what appliances or methods, without 
annoyance to the community, shall we successfully burn the 
bituminous coal which must be our reliance? 

REQUIREMENTS FOR SMOKELESS COMBUSTION. 

There is probably no railroad of importance which has not 
from time to time introduced appliances for this purpose. The 
basis on which such devices are planned, is as follows : 

First — To distill the volatile gases at as uniform a rate as 
possible. 

Second — To present to the burning gases an adequate supply 
of air to effect complete combustion. 

Third — To thoroughly mix this air with the gases. 

Fourth — To effect this mixture while the gases are still at a 
very high temperature. 

Fifth — To allow sufficient time for this mixture and combus- 
tion of the air and gases to take place before the heat is ab- 
sorbed and the temperature reduced below the combustion point. 

With these five conditions complied with, the whole difficulty 
is overcome, and just insofar as the devices meet these five con- 
ditions are they successful. 

DFVICES. 

A bare mention of all these devices would be tedious, but it 
may not be amiss to indicate some of the methods by which 
this has been attempted. 



40 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



February, 1909 



["he first condition is the manual one of introducing the coal 
steadily and in small quantities, preferably allowing it to coke 
mar the door. 

The brick arch placed across the lower forward end of the 
firebox and inclined upward and towards the rear, to act as a 
baffle to increase the distance that the burning gases must How 
before the cooling of the flame is effected. In this process, the 
arch becomes intensely hot, thus maintaining the high tempera- 
ture while the firedoor is momentarily opened. This device 
partly meets conditions 4 and 5 and when supplemented by judi- 
cious air admission above the fire, partly meets the last four con- 
ditions. This, one of the oldest devices, is probably the best and 
was once the general standard for locomotives of the Pennsyl- 
vania and other railroads. The reason why it was not main- 
tained is that its presence in the firebox is a very serious ob- 
stacle to the proper and frequent inspection of the interior, on 
the perfection of which examination safety hinges. The arch 
remains incandescent for a long period, thus making proper in- 
spection impracticable. The other reason for its disuse is that 
the locomotive is a power plant of such concentrated character 
and so highly forced that the arch alone without very intelligent 
firing, will not prevent smoke. To illustrate, it is perfectly prac- 
ticable to operate at moderate power with such an absence of 
smoke that for periods of more than one-half hour not a particle 
of smoke will be visible, but let the conditions change, now shut- 
ting off, now working to the utmost limit of capacity, and smoke 
at once appears because the device will not adapt itself to these 
extreme conditions. 

Other devices embody one or more of the following: Air pipes 
through the sides of the firebox to admit air to meet conditions 
:.' and 3 ; this is only partially effective. Again, air pipes more 
or Jess exposed to the heat of the fire so as to preheat the air, 
are tried, thus attempting to meet conditions 2, 3 and 4. The 
difficulty with this type is that the heat of the fire usually de- 
stroys the device. Still others employ steam jets, sometimes 
superheated, to thoroughly mix the gases and comply with con- 
ditions 2 and 3. Then there is the constantly recurring attempt 
to bring back to the firebox some of the smokebox gases, as well 
as the partly burned cinders, there collected. This has never 
been devoleped to an extent to afford any promise. 

AUTOMATIC STOKERS. 

In this connection, while considering devices, we cannot omit 
all reference to the question of automatic stokers. The general 
progress demands transferring the burden of great manual ex- 
ertion from the man to a machine, the latter doing the hard work 
and the man supervising the action of the machine. With this 
end in view, a great deal has been and is being done in the di- 
rection of developing automatic stokers which will do the firing 
with a certain amount of manual supervision. Of these devices, 
quite a number have been devised and put into use on locomo- 
tives. So far, they have not proven satisfactory and, from their 
imperfections, have not improved the smoke conditions, but the 
demand for them is so urgently recognized by the railroads, not 
only from the mere smoke question, but also on account of the 
saving in money and relief to labor that there is ground for 
hope that in the comparatively near future a satisfactory auto- 
matic stoker will be developed. The problem is a most difficult 
one, and at present some of the brightest and most practical 
minds are at work on a solution, and although it is difficult to 
predict how soon success may be attained, it is certain that de- 
cided progress is being effected. 

The automatic stoker, when perfected, promises to be one of 
the most effective appliances to aid in the suppression of smoke, 
for the reason that it does not become tired from the hard work 
and, consequently, should do as well after hours of service as in 
the beginning; the contrary is the case with the man. For this 
reason the stoker, when perfected, will come to stay. 

The gist of the matter is that devices alone, unless supple- 
mented by intelligent and unremitting attention, never long 
survive. They start with a flare of trumpets; they show a 



decided improvement over previous conditions; then less is 
heard of them; and, finally, when inquiry is made, it is found 
that they have been removed as inefficient. The real reason 
is, that while new they received a degree of attention that 
makes them more or less successful, and the credit is ascribed 
largely to the device when it is actually due to the care. 

Evidently, the real line of progress is to stimulate and main- 
tain the intelligent care, and it is in the latter direction that 
the most progress is being made, and where there is the 
greatest hope for the future. 

SUPERVISION. 

Let us now consider what we believe to be the ultimate 
solution of the problem, without which the best fuel, and the 
districts containing a certain number of locomotives and men. 
In some cases it is the practice for these assistants to have 
subordinates to instruct in firing, although the tendency is to 
put in this position, men taken from the ranks of the engine- 
men, so that their rank will carry authority to instruct both 
enginemen and firemen. In addition, smoke inspectors, whose 
entire duty is to report locomotives emitting black smoke, 
are stationed at various points along the division. 

PRINTED INSTRUCTIONS. 

The management has prepared definite and uniform instruc- 
tions in printed form, which have been placed in the hands 
of all nun responsible for operating, firing and attending to 
locomotives on the road and at terminals. From these in- 
structions we quote the following which pertain particularly 
to the elimination of smoke, namely: 

"Enginemen and firemen must work together so as to save 
coal and reduce smoke. 

"The burning of bituminous coal in a locomotive requires 
air, which must be admitted through the grates and through 
the tire-door." 

"Smoke means waste of coal and must be avoided." 

"Large quantities of coal placed in the firebox at one time 
cool down the fire, cause smoke and waste coal; small quan- 
best appliances, will not be effective in reducing smoke, 
namely, the education and supervision of the men running 
and firing locomotives. 

It must be remembered that on a large railroad system, 
there are thousands of men firing and handling locomotives: 
First, we have the engine-man, who runs the machine and 
upon whose careful and judicious handling the ease of proper 
firing largely depends; secondly, we have the fireman, whose 
skill and interest in properly firing the locomotive must never 
flag for an instant ; third, we have engine-preparers and ash- 
pitmen at engine houses, who must understand how to clean 
Did fires and build new ones with a minimum amount of smoke. 

With the rapid growth of business and consequent increase 
in the number of employes, it must be realized that super- 
vision in this sense requires a large force of men, for the rea- 
son that owing to the extent of the territory over which any 
group of locomotives and men run, following up any particu- 
lar set of men is a very different proposition from that of 
supervising a very much greater number of men grouped in 
some one place, as, for instance, in a large power house. 

The supervision to be effective involves, first, accurate in- 
struction, and, secondly, repeated personal visitation to see 
whether this is followed, and, third, discipline if the instruc- 
tion is persistently disregarded, either from inability or in- 
difference, and the correction of abuses, such as the improper 
preparation of the locomotive for the run. 

To show how this supervision is being effected, it must be 
understood that the organization of the railroad is practically 
a military one. On each division the man in charge of the 
enginemen and firemen, under the superintendent, is the road 
foreman of engines, who has assistants, each in charge of 
tities at regular intervals will keep the fire bright, prevent 
smoke and take less coal to keep up steam pressure." 



February. 1909 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



41 



"'"Lumps of coal should be broken in pieces not larger than 
3 ins. 

"A bright and level fire over the whole grate must be car- 
ried wherever possible. When a sloping fire is used, no 
more coal should be banked at the door than is necessary." 

"To prevent smoke and to save coal, the fire-door must be 
placed on or against the latch after firing coal or using the 
scraper, slash-bar or hook, and when on siding, in yards, at 
terminals, or before starting." 

"'Before the throttle is closed, the blower must be used and 
the door placed on the latch. Firemen must stop firing long 
enough before steam is shut off to prevent smoke and waste 
of coal." 

Under present day conditions, more supervision is required 
than formerly, on account of the rapid increase in railway 
business, necessitating the employment and promotion of 
men who have not been through the long course of probation 
formerly the rule. Furthermore, the importance of educating 
and developing intelligent supervising officers in order to 
reach the men, is of late being recognized. At Altoona, there 
has been installed a testing plant consisting of a locomotive 
whose driving wheels rest on suitable supporting wheel placed 
underneath and taking the place of the usual track, the whole 
locomotive being firmly connected to a dynamometer that 
maintains it in position while recording the work performed 
by the locomotive, so that it is operated in the usual way and 
produces the usual pull. It is otherwise stationary, subject to 
careful inspection and test entirely impracticable with the 
same locomotive running free on the road. By means of 
this plant, which is entirely devoted to the purpose of secur- 
ing information, this road is educating its officers interested 
in the fuel question to its possibilities, so that they may 
thoroughly understand how to instruct the men to carry out 
the definite printed instructions. 

Furthermore, this road is recognizing the necessity for 
greater supervision by the appointment of a greater number 
of supervising officers so that the number of men under the 
jurisdiction of each will be small enough to admit of con- 
stant personal contact. 

It must not be forgotten in this connection, that the cost 
of the supervision mentioned in the foregoing, .is a very seri- 
ous burden on the cost of operation, and while the railroads 
would not provide such supervision but for the belief that it 
will yield adequate return, or from realization of the duties 
which the railroads owe the public, there must be a limit to 
the amount of money which they can so expend. 

As stated before, the cost of fuel is from 8 to 11 per cent 
of the total operating cost of a railroad, and, therefore, econ- 
omy in the consumption of fuel is one of the most obvious 
ways of reducing operating expenses. Fortunately, the meth- 
ods described in the foregoing for the elimination of smoke 
from locomotives, are also those which must be followed in 
order to obtain the maximum economy in locomotive fuel 
consumption; in other words, the crew making the least 
smoke is also apt to save the most coal. It follows, there- 
fore, that the railroads have a direct financial interest in the 
elimination of smoke to the lowest possible limit. 

It should be clearly understood that there is no one remedy 
which can be generally applied. Each situation must be 
treated as a separate problem, giving attention to such points 
as the character of the road as to grades, the loading and 
speed of the trains, the distance which must be run through 
thickly populated districts, and whether we are considering a 
terminal or a through station. For instance, the remedy 
which has so improved the Washington situation will not 
apply to Baltimore, because the latter is a through station 
having adverse grades on each side. The Chicago situation, 
with Illinois coal, is still another problem. In brief, an in- 
telligent study of the local conditions must be made in each 
case. 



It will be noted that so far, nothing has been said of the 
possible solution by electrification. 

This company, as you know, is now engaged in the devel- 
opment of terminals in the neighborhood of New York city, 
where electric traction is the only thing to be considered, 
owing to the use of deep sub-aqueous tunnels. This com- 
pany is also operating, in the State of New Jersey, a fairly 
'long line on which multiple-unit electric trains are operated. 
While avoiding technicalities, we will briefly state that the 
multiple-unit system of electric traction consists of nothing 
more than an electric road on which either single cars or sec- 
tions of two or more cars — each car having its separate motor 
and control apparatus — are formed in trains, all the motors 
being operated by one motorman. This form of transit is 
doubtless familiar to all of you and is feasible on the road in 
question, insofar as passenger movement is concerned, be- 
cause it is, in a measure, an isolated road and does not have 
to face many of the problems of long-distance transportation, 
but the freight business has to be handled by steam locomo- 
tives. 

In the New York installation, we are confronted by the 
problem of both multiple-unit electric trains and of through 
trains hauled by electric locomotives. It is but fair to say 
that while the multiple-unit train seems to be fairly well 
worked out, the problem of the electric locomotive is far 
from a satisfactory solution, and although unremitting atten- 
tion has been given to the subject for years past, it still re- 
mains in the experimental stage. 

In the same locality — namely on the New York Central 
and the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroads — are 
two other systems of electric traction. In the former, electric 
current is transmitted to the train by means of contact of a slid- 
ing shoe with a third-rail placed at the side of the running track, 
while on the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, the 
transmission is from a suitably supported trolley wire placed 
above the tracks. Both methods have serious objections, but 
the question of an electric locomotive of adequate power and of 
thoroughly good stability for running, has yet to be devel- 
oped. 

The cost of everything electric is tremendous. The elec- 
tric locomotives, such as they are, cost more than double 
the steam locomotives that they replace, and with this but 
a small part of the story has been told, as we must add the 
cost of track preparation, of the power plants, and all that 
goes to make the electric system as a whole. 

The demand has frequently been made that if not the entire 
cross country line, the cities or terminals should be electrified. In 
some cases the same demand has been made where cities are 
not terminals for any but a small, proportion of the trains 
running into them. Such a demand would involve two loco- 
motive terminals, one on each side of the city, electrification 
of the space within the city limits, a supply of special electric 
locomotives and the delay of a double stop, to say nothing 
of the difficulties due to the interruption of such functions as 
the steam heating of trains. To offset the cost of this, there 
is no saving whatever in operation; on the contrary, the op- 
erating cost is largely increased. If the railroads could stand 
the burden of cost, it is certain that the public itself would 
not tolerate unnecessary delays of this kind. Naturally, the 
roads hesitate to undertake new electrifications, not only on 
account of the expense, but also because it is wise to learn 
the lesson of the mistakes of one installation and thus avoid 
their repetition at another. 

While anything of the kind is possible from an unlimited 
expenditure of money, we do not hesitate to say that the time 
has not yet come when the enormous outlay of capital for the 
purpose of electrification of the railroads would be justified 
by the returns, and, further, we assert that the capital thus 
diverted would be far more useful in other directions. 



[2 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



February, 1909 



The M. M. and M. C. B. Conventions 

rhe first official circular of the Railway Supply Manufac- 
turers' Association was issued by the secretary, Earl G. F. 
Smith, on Jan. 8th. It is given in part as follows: 

Location and Dates. — The next annual convention of the 
American Railway Master Mechanics' Association will be 
held in Atlantic City, N. J., June 16, 17, and IS, 1 <>09 ; and 
that of the Master Car Builders' Association will he held 
in the same place June 21, 22 and :.':;, 1909. The railway 
men will meet in Convention on Young's Million Dollar 
Pier, where they met in the conventions of 1908. The ex- 
hibits and the offices of The Railway Supply Manufacturers' 
Association will again be located on the said pier with the 
exception of the track exhibits, which will be placed as they 
were in 1908 on the tracks of the Philadelphia & Reading 
Railway on Mississippi avenue immediately adjoining the 
Boardwalk and about 200 yards from the convention pk-r. 

Membership Dues and Badges. — Membership dues in The 
Railway Supply Manufacturers' Association are $25.00 per 
year and carry with them one badge. Additional badges may 
be obtained by members for their representatives and ladies 
in actual attendance at the conventions for the sum of $5.00 
per badge. Children under fifteen years of age accom- 
panied by parents or guardians will he admitted without 
badges. Lost badges cannot be replaced and any found 
should be returned to the Enrollment Committee. Members 
are urged to pay their membership dues at once. 

Exhibit Arrangements. — Contract has been let lor the erec- 
tion of exhibit structures, partly of a new design, which are 
expected to exceed in beauty and attractive effect anything 
we have had hitherto. The contract provides for 59,000 square 
feet of exhibit space, exclusive of aisles, and the arrange- 
ments are such that forty cents per square foot will cover 
the cost of erecting structures and providing the various 
facilities mentioned in this paragraph. The color scheme 
will be green and wdiite. All roofs will Ik- water tight and 
all booths not in permanent buildings will be protected from 
the weather with canvas curtain- The floors of all aisles 
that are under roof and of all booths, except those in Ma- 
chinery Hall which are to be stained, will be covered with 
Crex matting. A telephone will be provided between every 
two exhibitors with free local service from Monday, June l I. 
to Thursday, June 24. A reasonable amount of power for 
operating exhibits will be furnished without extra charge 
from 8:30 a. m. to 6.00 p. m. as follows: Electricity, direct 
current at 110 volts, 220 volts or 550 volts: steam at ion 
lbs. pressure; compressed air and illuminating gas. Fresh 
water will also be furnished. Terminals from which a supply 



oi any of these items may be drawn will be brought to the 
exhibitor's booth, provided the requirements are stated in 
the application for space. Empty crates and boxes will be 
removed from booth, Stored, and returned to booth without 
extra charge. Rubbish will be removed and the aisles kept 
clean. One standard, or name, sign about nine inches high 
and approximately the width of the booth in length -will be 
furnished and lettered in paint as directed by the exhibitor. 
A sign board, corresponding to that of the name sign and to 
be hung immediately beneath the name sign, will be fur 
nished without charge but the exhibitor is expected to bear the 
expense f lettering it. P. E. Lane, contractor, who can be 
found opposite the pier, offers to do this lettering at twenty 
cents per lineal foot. Referring to the enclosed diagram: 
The main convention entrance will open from the Boardwalk 
into the center of main building and the enrollment and other 
offices of our association will be located just inside this en- 
trance. The center of this building will be a lobby, outlined 
with ferns, plants and (lowers, and furnished with rugs and 
chairs. The exhibit structure in this building will con-i-t 
of pedestals, supporting pots of ferns or flowers, and joined 
by chains. Signs will be hung from the ceiling. These 
spaces are restricted to light and clean exhibits or reception 
rooms, and it is desired that the exhibitors occupying these 
booths make the interiors as attractive as possible for the 
reason that they will look out upon the ball-room floor. Ex- 
hibitors accepting this space do so with the understanding 
that their booths may be used on the nights of the balls for 
the convenience of our members and guests. Machinery 
Hall, which in intended for heavy machinery, will have ex- 
hibit space- marked off by a low open construction. Signs 
will hang from the ceiling. In place of matting in this build- 
ing a stained pine floor will be laid over the floor used in 1908, 
and where it is made necessary by very heavy exhibits a two 
inch planking will be laid and stained. The aisles will be 
covered with matting. Aquarium Court will have the column 
construction of previous years. There will be an arbor effect 
around the aquarium. The upper floor of Exhibition Build- 
ing, known last year a- Marine Hall, will not be used, and 
the lower floor, formerly known as Amusement Room, will 
have ceiling and walls plastered with curved cornice, all cal- 
cimined white. The cornices will be formed along girders 
and sidewalls, making ten lines extending the full length of 
the building. Eight candle-power electric lamps will be 
placed two feet apart along each cornice and will be lighted 
throughout the day. This means that each aisle will have 
two row- of these lights and each booth a row at the front 
and a row at the back. The booths will be outlined with a 
panel effect and burlap, a- last year, except that they will 



SUMMARY OF SPACE 



Annex Court and Annex 


Exhibition Hill 


A^u-O-, 


KUchinerrtUU 


Main Building 


5p«, N U mb.r. 


Fr* B U«. 
b, Daptb 




Sp.c. Number. 


Fro...,. 

!■> Depth 


Wit If 


_ . 


Fr**t*c* 


AmW 
«*.p~. 


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hf D. p .k 


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hal 








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l~i 






im 


400 


Irr.r.1*, 


1950 


300-335 I odd uid** S »> 


lllllllll 


102 


201 


lrrtmUr 


208 


100 


hr^U. 


7*1 


1 


11.21 


•75 


401 




1490 


338-337 




242 


203-200 *dd 


till 


182 


102-147 «44«»4....) 


till 


1*1 


4 


27 . 25 


•71 


407-411 oddi 


10.20 


200 


338-339 


18 >20 


380 


200 


lrr*V*Ur 


1800 


US 


. '.• 


•00 


e.» .dd ..d .... 


■ ••IS 


450 


410 * 


Irr.,ul.r 


1070 


3SO-3B5 lodd«nd.T..t 


lrr*f«Ur 


102 


21C2II 


" 


700 








10-11 


lrr.,.1- 


120 


413-451 (odd tad ma] 


10 m 14.2 


142 


38*- 3*7 




182 


212 




120 








12-21 add »»d .... 


• ■10 


M 


454 


27* 20 


M0 


386 


18»27 


480 


214-230 


10 BlS 


'» 








24-25 


ImnW 


120 


45S 


30.20 


600 




















2*-31 


It.lS 


450 


456-497 (odd>nd •*«») 


10b II 


150 




















1X40 

42-45 .J d ..d .... | 


40.1S 
14. 7 


1000 
■ •2 



iliijjtilfll'j'sif 'I'iliti*?:?':";": " [ 



[?rf]iMlM3Mil[ILiI?ilSli!iil ! L*JM-»i <*%*wA^M&MMte£. 



.©- ! 







February. 1909 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



13 



have bay fronts. The entrances to this building from Aquar- 
ium Court will be heightened as high as the ceiling will per- 
mit. A second exit will be provided at the seaward end of 
the east aisle, corresponding to the inclined plane used 
last year at the end of the west aisle, except that the grade 
of both inclines will be lessened by extending them. Annex 
Court contains large spaces which may be built largely to 
suit occupants. The Annex will have the column and panel 
construction substantially as in 1908. Very heavy exhibits 
cannot be placed in the Annex. Nearby and next to the 
ocean will be placed a fountain with ferns and plants and sur- 
rounded with benches. A summary of the space available 
will be found on the diagram. 

Application for Space. — If it is your intention to exhibit at 
the 1909 conventions, application should be made on the en- 
closed forms and mailed in duplicate to the Secretary, 345 
Old Colon}- Building, Chicago, 111., so as to reach that office 
not later than February 13, 1909. No application will be con- 
sidered unless accompanied by St. Louie draft, payable to 
R. H. Weatherly, treasurer, fully covering membership dues 
i $25.00) and the erection and use of exhibit structures on 
the space applied for at the rate of forty (40c) per square 
foot. There is on the pier some space for which we furnish 
no structures or facilities, and such space can be had with- 
out charge. 

Assignment of Space. — On February 15, 1909, in Chicago, 
space will be assigned to all exhibitors who have made appli- 
cation prior to that date. The procedure will be substantially 
the same as in 1908. The exhibitors, if any, whose require- 
ments, in the judgment of the Exhibit Committee, make it 
imperative that they be speedily taken care of, will be as- 
signed space first. Lots will then be drawn to determine 
the order in which exhibitors may chose space. If a repre- 
sentative of the exhibitor is present, he may choose in his 
turn; if there is no representative present, the application will 
be used as a guide in assigning the best space possible. 
Kindly indicate on the application blank the location of 
space you prefer in the order of your preference. 



Railway Business Association 

By G. M. Basford 

FOR sixty days out of the one hundred and twenty days 
of the life of the Railway Business Association it has 
been the good fortune of the writer to be associated 
with this unique movement, and it is with regret that pres- 
sure of his own work makes it necessary for him to turn 
over to other hands the official duties of the position of sec- 
retary. A pleasant obligation will be fulfilled if some addi- 
tional light may be thrown upon the accomplishments and 
possibilities of the work of the association from the inside. 

It is doubtful if any association has ever before in such a 
brief period received such co-operation and recognition. 
Never before have the commercial interests dealing directly 
with the railroads been organized in such a way as this. 

For very well understood reasons the railroads have not 
yet begun to share in the return of prosperity and while many 
commercial interests are busier than they were, those con- 
cerned in supplying railroads with material and equipment 
have been unable to secure orders sufficient to put their men 
back on full time. This serious situation brought together 
our members in an effort to effect a change in public opin- 
ion which would lead to an improvement of the general rail- 
road situation and aid in restoring normal conditions. 

This movement was not only necessary but timely. The 
pendulum of popular sentiment had swung adversely to the 
railroads and swung too far, as indicated by a large amount 
of legislation, which affected the transportation interests by 
increasing the cost of railroad operation, while curtailing- 
re venues. 



At a recent dinner in New York the statement was made 
that during the years 1900 and loo? the British Parliament 

enacted 114 laws for the government of Great Britain and 
Colonies, whereas during the same time Congress and the 
State Legislatures of the United States enacted 35,000 laws. 
It is reasonable to doubt that 12,000 wise laws per year, can 
be enacted in any country. The thinking people who con- 
stitute the safeguard of the nation had begun to recogniz< 
that the railroad interests could not he adversely affected by 
restrictive legislation without affecting all other human in- 
terests. There has been no general sentiment in favor of 
weakening restriction of railroads, but there is a growing 
conviction that restriction must be intelligent. 

The way in which the members of the Association rallied 
to the call is scarcely more impressive than the ready sup- 
port of the commercial public. By a combination of very im- 
portant manufacturing concerns into a good-natured associa 
tion, public opinion has crystallized to a gratifying extent and 
legislators, both State and National, have heard from the 
people in a voice devoid of quavering. 

Some of the largest commercial associations have been 
ready and willing, at the suggestion of this Association, to 
make pacific utterances. Responses from the largest citie- 
and from National Associations covering the entire country- 
have been surprising. The voice asking for legislative quiet 
and for true statesmanship with respect to railroad enact- 
ments has come from many directions and from many inter- 
ests, some of them being entirely separated from railroad 
affairs. Those, for instance, who make and sell shoes have 
co-operated through their National organizations to indicate 
appreciation of the fact that the welfare of those concerned 
in transportation is involved with their own welfare to such 
an extent as to justify a long step from their beaten paths 
to correct the unfortunate situation in which our members 
find themselves. 

One reason for this co-operation lies in the recognition 
of the fact that the personnel of the Association is remark- 
able in- including men known for the most successful engi- 
neering, manufacturing and commercial achievements. Some 
of our constituent concerns are as large commercially as a 
fairly large railroad. Our Association has conflicting com- 
petitive interests, all united in the bond of good fellowship 
to carry out the plan which makes for the common good. 
This plan is conducted absolutely independently' of the rail- 
roads. It has been shown for the first time to be possible for 
influences outside of the railroads to band together to pro- 
mote by organized action a realization of the inter-depend- 
ence between the public and the transportation interests. 

Our activities are by this time very r well known. In four 
months the fact has been demonstrated that the people are 
ready not only to acknowledge what the railroads have done 
for the country, but to give transportation questions the 
consideration which they deserve. To turn the light on ob- 
scure questions affecting the relations between the people 
and the railroads, tending to prevent extremes in legislation, 
constitutes a permanent work for this organization. 

Not all the work already accomplished has been easy - . The 
railroads as well as the public have their part to do and the 
work of the Association will include efforts to bring about 
a permanent friendly relationship. This cannot be done in 
a short time. 

One of the most effective elements of the success of this 
Association is the generous good fellowship of its members. 
The organization already extends into sixteen States and of- 
ten competitive interests in the same city are United in local 
achievement. No discordant notes are heard in the conduct 
of its affairs and it is inconceivable that any will be heard 
under the leadership of such a personality as that of the 
President of the Association, sustained by. and. enjoying the 
constant counsel of the able, energetic and potential men who 
compose its general executive committee. These two months 



44 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



February, 190!) 



in the executive office have been so crowded with important 
development that they have seemed exceedingly short. 

At the outset reasonable doubt of the possibilities of the 
movement may have been justified. Some may have felt 
that it was too intangible and experimental t<> win their 
in>tant support. Now there is no room for doubt. It is no 
longer experimental. The writer regrets thai because of 
compelling business obligations, he cannot continue in direct 
co-operation with a work so inspiring. This brief time has 
convinced«him that the need for the organization was great, 
the field for its efforts wide, the plan of its work effective. 

It is equally clear that so much remains to be done as 
to justify the question: How can any concern engaged in 
supplying the railroads with their requirements, delaj enroll- 
ment in the Railway Business Association' 



i to 




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2 A 6 8 10 12 14. 

Reverse lever Notch 
FiG. 1 



Reverse lever Notch 
Fig. 2 



High Steam Pressures in Locomotive 
Service* 

FOR many years past there has been a gradual hut never- 
theless a steady increase in the pressure of steam employed 
in American locomotive service. Between 1860 and ; - 
pressure of 100 lbs. per sq. in. was common. Before 1890 practice 
had carried the limit beyond 150 lbs. At the present time 200 
lbs. is most common, hut an occasional resort to pressures above 
this limit suggests a disposition to exceed it. 

High steam-pressure does not necessarily imply high power 
Jt is hut one of the factor- upon which power depends. The 
forces which are set up by the action of (tie engine are as much 
dependent upon cylinder volume as upon boiler pressure, and 
when the pressure is once determined the cylinders may he de- 
signed for any power. The limit in any case is to he found when 
the boiler can no longer generate sufficient steam to supply 
them. The relation between pressure and power is therefore 
only an indirect one. But anything which makes the boiler of a 
locomotive more efficient in the generation of steam, or the 
engines more economical in their use of steam, will permit an 
extension in the limit of power. If, for example, it can be 
shown that higher steam-pressure promotes economy in the 
use of steam, higher steam-pressure at once becomes an indirect 
means for increasing power. The fact to be emphasized is that 
an argument in favor of higher steam-pressures must concern 
itself with the effects produced upon the economic performance 
of the boiler or engine. 

Preparations for an Experimental Study. — In view of the 
facts stated, and with the hope of ascertaining a logical basis 
from which to determine what the pressure should be for a sim- 
ple locomotive, using saturated steam, it was long ago deter- 
mined to undertake an experimental study of the problem upon 
the testing plant of Purdue University. A few experiments in- 
volving the use of different steam-pressures in locomotive service 
were made at Purdue as early as 1895, but as the boiler of the 
locomotive then upon the testing-plant was not capable of with- 
standing pressures greater than 150 lbs., these early tests were 
limited in their scope. The matter was. however, regarded as 
of such importance that in designing a new locomotive for use 
upon the plant, a pressure of 250 lbs. was specified — a limit which 
then was and still is considerably in advance of practice. Thus 
equipped, an elaborate investigation was outlined, involving a 
series of tests under six different pressures, representing a suffi- 
cient number of different speeds and cut-offs to define the per- 
formance of the locomotive under a great range of conditions. 
But the expense of operating the locomotive under very high 
steam-pressures proved to be so great that the limited funds 
which could be devoted to the operations of the laboratory, in 
combination with the demands of students, which could be most 
easily satisfied by work under lower pressures, made it impracti- 
cable for a time to proceed with the work. A grant from the 



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Fig. 5 
Figs. 1 to 6 — High 



Rt vtnte Lived Ntrci 
FiG. 6 
Steara Pressures. 



Carnegie Institution of Washington was announced late in the 
Fall of 1903. The first test in the Carnegie series was run Feb- 
ruary 15, 1904, and the last August 7. I'm;, \ registering counter 
attached to the locomotive shews that between these dates the 
locomotive drivers made 3,113,333 revolutions, which is equiva- 
lent to 14,1)72 miles. 

The Tests. — The tests outlined included a series of runs for 
v hich tin average pressure was to be, respectively. 240. 220. 200 
180, 160, and 120 lbs., a range which extends far below and 
will above pressures which are common in present practice. It 
was planned to have the tests of each series sufficiently numerous 
to define completely the performance of the engine when oper- 
and under a number of different speeds and when using steam 
in the cylinders under several degrees of expansion. As far as 
practicable, each test was to be of sufficient duration to permit 
the efficiency of the engine and boiler to be accurately deter 
mined, but where this could not be done cards were to be taken. 
A prccisi statement of the conditions under which, in the de- 
velopment of 'his plan, the tests were actually run, is set forth 
diagrammatically in Figs. 1 to 6 accompanving. in which vertical 
distances represent speed, and horizontal distances the point of 
cut-off as determined by the notch occupied by the latch of the 
reverse lever, counting from the center forward. Each complete 
circle in these diagrams represents an efficiency test, and each 
dotted circle, a shorter test under conditions involving the de- 
velopment of power in excess of that which could be constantly 
sustained. The numerals within the circles refer to the labor- 
atory numbers by which the several tests are identified. 

The locomotive upon which the tests were made is that regu- 
larly employed in the laboratory of Purdue University, where 
it is known as Schnectady No. 2. It was ordered of the Schenec- 
tady Locomotive Works in 1807. In selecting a second locomo- 
tive which should serve the purposes of the Purdue testing-plant 
it was decided to have the boiler of substantially the same 



DO 



^OAjOJli 



♦Abstract of report by W. F. M. Goss to Carnegie Institution of 
Washington, from University of Illinois Bulletin. 




Fig. 7 — Outline Elevation of Lotomotive. 



February, 1909 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



45 



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55560 


58340 


150 


29.1 


27.1 


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1.67 


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140 


57390 


60260 


171 


27.7 


26.3 


5.05 


1.23 


6.28 


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59220 


62180 


192 


26.6 


25.7 


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61050 


64100 


213 


26.0 


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62880 


66020 


234 


25.5 


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220 


64710 


67940 


255 


25.1 


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120 


55560 


61120 


181 


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2.59 


13.24 


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57390 


63130 


203 


27.7 


25.4 


8.31 


2.02 


10.33 


160 


59220 


65140 


225 


26.6 


25.0 


6.02 


1.46 


7.48 


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180 


61050 


67150 


247 


26.0 


24.6 


5.38 


1.31 


6.69 


r 


120 


55560 


63890 


211 


29.1 


25.3 


13.06 


3.17 


16.23 


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234 

257 


27.7 


24.8 


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59220 


68100 


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24.5 


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1.92 


9.82 


20 


120 


55560 


66670 


241 


29.1 


24.7 


15.12 


3.67 


18.79 



Table 1 — Total Saving When a Possible Increase in Weight is 
Utilized as a Means of Increasing Boiler Pressure. 

capacity as that of the locomotive previously employed in the 
laboratory and which in later years has been known as Schenec- 
tady No. 1. In some other respects the new locomotive differed 
from its predecessor. Its boiler was designed to operate under 
pressures as high as 250 lbs., a limit which was then 25 per cent 
higher than the maximum employed in practice. Horizontal 
seams are butt-jointed with welt strips inside and out, and are 
sextuple-riveted. The design of its cylinders and saddle is such 
as readily to permit the conversion of the simple engine into a 
two-cylinder compound. The driving-wheels of the new locomo- 
tive are of* larger diameter than those of Schenectady No. 1. 
The principal characteristics of the locomotive are as follows : 

Type 4-4-0 

Total weight • pounds 109 000 

Weight on four drivers pounds 61 000 

Valves; type, Richardson balanced 

Maximum travel • • inches 6 

Outside lap inches V/% 

Inside lap inches 

Ports : 

Length inches 12 . 

Width of steam port inches 1 . 5 

Width of exhaust port inches 3.0 

Total wheel base feet 23 

Rigid wheel base feet 8 . 5 

Cylinders : 

Diameter . inches 16 

Stroke inches 24 

Drivers, diameter front tire.. inches 69.25 

Boilers, (style, extended wagon-top:) 

Diameter of front end inches 52 

Number of tubes - 200 

Gage of tube . 12 

Diameter of tube ' inches 2 

Length of tube . feet 11.5 

Length of fire-box inches 72.06 

Width of firebox inches 34.25 

Depth of fire-box inches 79 . 00 

Heating-surface in fire-box* square feet 126.0 

Heating-surface in tubes, water side. .. .square feet 1196.00 

Heating-surface in tubes, fire side square feet 1086.00 

Total heating-surface including water 

side of tubes square feet 1322.00 

Total heating-surface, including fire 

side of tubes square feet 1212.00 

Total heating-surface, value accepted 

for use in all calculations square feet 1322.00 

Ratio of total heating-surface based on 
water side of tubes to that based on 

fire side of tubes . 1.091 

Grate area square feet 17 . 00 

Thickness of crown-sheet inches is 

Thickness of tube sheet inches -is 

Thickness of side and back sheets inches Y% 



Diameter of stay-bolts inches 1 

Diameter of radial stays inches V/% 

Driving-axle journals: 

Diameter inches IY2 

Length inches 8^ 

A SUMMARY OF CONCLUSIONS. 

The results of the study concerning the value of high steam- 
pressures in locomotive service may be summarized as follows: 

1. — The results apply only to practice involving single-expan- 
sion locomotives u§ing saturated steam. Pressures specified 
are to be accepted as running pressures. They are not neces- 
sarily those at which safety valves open. 

2. — Tests have been made to determine the performance of a 
typical locomotive when operating under a variety of conditions 
with reference to speed, power, and steam-pressure. The results 
of one hundred such tests have been recorded. 

3. — The steam consumption under normal conditions of run- 
ning has been established as follows : 

Boiler pressure 120 lb., steam per indicated h.-p. hour 29.1 lb. 

Boiler pressure 140 lb., steam per indicated h.-p. hour 27.7 lb. 

Boiler pressure 160 lb., steam per indicated h.-p. hour 26.6 lb. 

Boiler pressure 180 lb., steam per indicated h.-p. hour 26.0 lb. 

Boiler pressure 200 lb., steam per indicated h.-p. hour 25.5 lb. 

Boiler pressure 220 lb., steam per indicated h.-p. hour 25.1 lb. 

Boiler pressure 240 lb., steam per indicated h.-p. hour 24.7 lb. 

4. — The results show that the higher the pressure, the smaller 
the possible gain resulting from a given increment of pressure. 
An increase of pressure from 160 to 200 lbs. results in a saving 
of 1.1 lb. of steam per horse-power hour, while a similar change 
from 200 lbs. to 240 lbs. improves the performance only to the 
extent of 0.8 per horsepower hour. 

5. — The coal consumption under normal conditions of running 
has been established as follows : 

Boiler pressure 120 lb., coal per indicated h.-p. hour 4.00 lb. 

Boiler pressure 140 lb., coal per indicated h.-p. hour 3.77 lb. 

Boiler pressure 160 lb., coal per indicated h.-p. hour 3.59 lb. 

Boiler pressure 180 lb., coal per indicated h.-p. hour 3.50 lb. 

Boiler pressure 200 lb., coal per indicated h.-p. hour 3.43 lb. 

Boiler pressure 220 lb., coal per indicated h.-p. hour 3.37 lb. 

Boiler pressure 240 lb., coal per indicated h.-p. hour 3.31 lb. 

6. — An increase of pressure from 160 to 200 lbs. results in a 
saving of 0.16 lb. of coal per horse-power hour, while a similar 
change from 200 to 240 lbs. results in a saving of but 0.12 lb. 

7. — Under service conditions, the improvement in performance 
with increase of pressure will depend upon the degree of perfec- 
tion attending the maintenance of the locomotive. The values 
quoted in the preceding paragraphs assume a high order of main- 
tenance. If this is lacking, it may easily happen that the saving 
which is anticipated through the adoption of higher pressures will 
entirely disappear. 

8. — The difficulties to be met in the maintenance both of boiler 
and cylinders increase with increase of pressure. 

9. — The results supply an accurate measure by which to deter- 
mine the- advantage of increasing the capacity of a boiler. For 







Weight of 

Partsof a 

Typical 

Locomotive 




Heating- 


Increase 








Boiler- 




surface of 
Typical 
Locomo- 


of Heating- 
surface Ob- 
tainable by 




Saving in 
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of 

Weight 
per cent 


Selected 
as Bases 

pounds 


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Cylinders, 
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pounds 


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crease of 
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per cent 


ance 
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pounds 




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sq. ft. 


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sq. ft. 




percent 


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2778 


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234.7 


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2869 


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242.5 


12.12 


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250.1 


12.50 


3.04 


180 


61050 


3052 


2000 


257.7 


12.88 


3.13 




200 


62880 


3144 


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265.3 


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3.22 


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64710 


3235 


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272.9 


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331 


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5556 


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469.4 


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11.41 



-Saving When a Possible Increase in Weight is Utilized as 
a Means of Increasing Heating Surface. 



if. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



February, L90!) 



the development of a given power, any increase in boiler capacity 
brings its return in improved performance without adding to the 
cost of maintenance or opening any new avenues for incidental 
losses. As a means to improvement, it is more certain than thai 
which is offered by increase of pressure. 

10. — As the scale of pressure is ascended, an opportunity to 
further increase the weight of a locomotive should in many ease- 
find expression in the design of a boiler of increased capacity 
rather than in one for higher pressures. 

11. — Assuming 180 lbs. pressure to have been accepted as stand 
aril, and assuming the maintenance to be of the highest order, it 
will lie found good practice to utilize any allowable increase in 
weight by providing a larger boiler rather than by providing a 
stronger boiler to permit higher pressures. 

12. — Wherever the maintenance is not of the highest order, 
the standard running pressure should be below ISO lbs. 

13. — Wherever the water which must be used in boilers con- 
tains foaming or scale-making admixtures, best result- are likely 
to be secured by fixing the running pressure below the limit of 
180 lbs. 

14. — A simple locomotive using saturated -team will render 
good and efficient service when the running pressure is as low as 
160 lbs.; under most favorable conditions, no argument is to be 



















































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5 fO 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 

Fi-). 8 — Steam Consumption Under Different Pressures. 

found in the economic performance of the engine which can 
justify the use of pressures greater than 200 lbs.. 

CONCLUSIONS CONCERNING nOILER-PRESSCRE VS. BOILER CAPACITY 

VS A MEANS OF INCREASING THE EFFICIENCY OF A 

SINGLE-EXPANSION LOCOMOTIVE. 

In the data on these tests an analysis was given showing the 
saving- which may result in locomotive service, first, by increas- 
ing the pressure, the boiler capacity remaining unchanged, and 
second, by increasing- the heating-surface, the pressure remaining 
unchanged. A summary of the conclusions is presented in Figs. 
9 to 14 in which the full line represents the gain through increase 
of boiler-pressure and the dotted line the corresponding gain 
through increase of boiler capacity. The values for these dia- 
grams are taken directly from Tables 1 and 2. It will be seen 
that starting with pressures which are comparatively low, the 
most pronounced results are those to be derived from increments 
of pressure. With each rise in pressure, however, the chance for 
gain through further increase diminishes. With a starting-point 
as high as 180 lbs., the saving through increased pressure is but 
slightly greater than that which may result through increased 
boiler capacity. 

The fact should be emphasized that the conclusions above de- 
scribed are based upon data which lead back to the question of 



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Fig. 9 — High Steam Pressures in Locomotive Service. 

Coal consumption. The gains which are referred to are measured 
in terms of coal which may l>e saved in the development of a 
given amount of power. It will be remembered that conditions 
which permit a saving in coal will, by tin- sacrifice of such 

ipen the way for the development of greater power, but tin 
uuestion as defined is one concerning economy in the use of furl 
It is this question only with which the diagrams (Figs. U to 
1 I) deal. 

There are other measures which may be applied to the per- 
formance of a locomotive which, if employed in the present case 
would show some difference in the real values of the two curve- 
( Fig. 9 to 14). The indefinite character of these measures pre- 
vents their being directly applied as corrections to the result- 
already deduced, but their effect may be pointed out. Thus, the 
cxtenl to which an increase "i pressure will improve perform- 
ance ha- been defined, but the definition assumes freedom from 
leakage. If. therefore, leakage is allowed to exist, the result 
defined is not secured. Moreover, an increase of pressure in- 
creases the chance of loss through leakage. s ( , that to secure the 
advantage which has been defined, there must be some increase 
in the amount of attention bestowed, and this, in whatever form 
it may appear, means expense, the effect of which is to reduce 
the net gain which ii is possible to derive through increase of 
pressure Again, in parts of the country where the water-supply 
is bad, any increase of pressure will involve increased expense 
in the more careful and more extensive treatment of feed-water. 
or in the increased cost of boiler repairs, or in detentions aris- 
ing from failure of injector, or from all of these sources com- 
bined. The effect of such expense is to reduce the net gain 
which it is possible to derive through increase of pressure. These 



16 



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Fig. 10 — High Steam Pressures in Locomotive Service. 



February. 1909 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



47 













































































































































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Fig. 11 — High Steam Pressures in Locomotive Service, 
•statements call attention to the fact that the gains which have 
"been defined as resulting from increase of pressure (Figs. 9 to 
14) are to be regarded as the maximum gross ; as maximum be- 
cause they are based upon results derived from a locomotive 
which was at all times maintained in the highest possible condi- 
tion, and as gross because on the road, conditions are likely 
to be introduced which will necessitate deductions therefrom. 

The relation which has been established showing the gain to 
be derived through increased boiler capacity is subject to but few 
qualifying conditions. It rests upon the fact that for the devel- 
opment of a given power a large boiler will work at a lower rate 
of evaporation per unit area of heating-surface than a smaller 
one. The saving which results from diminishing the rate of 
•evaporation is sure ; whether the boiler is clean or foul, tight or 
leaky, or whether the feed-water is good or bad, the reduced 
rate of evaporation will bring its sure return in the form of 
increased efficiency. An increase in the size of a boiler will in- 
volve some increase in the cost of maintenance, but such increase 
is slight and of a sort which has not ben regarded in the 
discussion involving boilers designed for higher pressures. 

Keeping in mind the fact that as applied to conditions of ser- 
vice the line A is likely to be less stable in its position than B, 
"facts set forth by Figs. 9 to 14 may be briefly reviewed. 

Basing comparisons upon an initial pressure of 120 lbs., (Fig. 
9). a 5 per cent increase in weight, when utilized in securing a 
stronger boiler, will improve the efficiency 8.5 per cent, while if 
utilized in securing a larger boiler, the improvement will be a 
trifle less than 3 per cent. Arguing from this base, the advantage 
to be derived from an increase of pressure is great. If, however 
the increase in weight exceeds 10 per cent, the curve A ceases to 
diverge from B and if both curves are sufficiently extended, they 
will meet, all of which is proof of the fact that the rate of gain 
is greatest for relatively small increments of weight. 



16 



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Fig. 13 — High Steam Pressures in Locomotive Service. 

Basing comparisons upon an initial pressure of 140 lbs. (Fig 
10), the relative advantage of increasing the pressure diminishes, 
though oil the basis of a 5 per cent increase in weight it is still 
double that to be obtained by increasing the capacity. 

Basing comparisons upon an initial pressure of 160 lbs. (Fig 
11), the advantage to be gained by increasing the pressure over 
that which may be had by increasing the capacity is very small 
so small in fact that slight droop in the curve of increased 
presure (A) would cause it to disappear. As the curve B may 
be regarded as fixed, while A, through imperfect maintenance 
of boiler or engine, may fall, the argument is not strong in favor 
of increasing pressure beyond the limit of 160 lbs. 

Basing comparisons upon an initial pressure of 180 lbs., (Fig. 
12), the advantage under ideal conditions of increasing the pres- 
sure, as compared with that resulting from increasing the capac- 
ity, has a maximum value of approximately one-half of 1 per 
cent. In view of the incidental losses upon the road the practi- 
cal value of the advantage is nil. The curves A and B (Fig. 8), 
constitute therefore no argument in favor of increasing pressure 
beyond the limit of 180 lbs. 

Basing comparisons upon an initial pressure of 200 lbs., (Fig. 
13). it appears that under ideal conditions either the pressure or 
the capacity may be increased with equal advantage, this being 
in effect a strong argument in- favor of increased capacity rather 
than of higher pressure. 

Basing comparisons upon a pressure of 220 lbs., (Fig. 14), it 
appears that even under ideal conditions of maintenance the gain 
in efficiency resulting from an increase of pressure is less than 
that resulting from an increase of capacity. In view of this 
fact, no possible excuse can be found for increasing pressure 
above the limit of 220 lbs. 



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Fig. 14 — High Steam Pressures in Locomotive Service. 



48 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



February, L909 



y^SIEE^ fccHAKig 

Established 1 878 

Published by THE RAILWAY LIST COMPANY 



WILLIAM E. MACRAW, Pres. and Treas. WARREN EDWARDS, Manager 
CHARLES S. MYERS, Vlce-Pres. NORMAN F. REHM, Editor 

Office of Publication: 315 Dearborn Street, Chicago 
Eastern Office: 50 Church Street, New York 

A Monthly Railway Journal 

Devoted to the interests of railway power, car equipment, shops, 
machinery and supplies. 

Communications on any topic suitable to our columns are solicited. 

Subscription price, $2.00 a year; to foreign countries, $2.50, free of 
postage. Single copies, 20 cents. Advertising rates given on 
application to the office, by mail or in person. 

In remitting make all checks payable to The Railway List Company. 

Papers should reach subscribers by the first of the month at the 
latest. Kindly notify us at once of any delay or failure to 
receive any issue and another copy will be very gladly sent. 

Entered as Second-Class Matter June 18, 1895, at the Post Office 
at Chicago, Illinois, I'nder Act of March 3: 1879. 



Vol. XXXIII Chicago, February, 1909 



No. 2 



Announcement 

WITH this issue the Railway Master Mechanic becomes 
the property of The Railway List Company, publishers 
of The Monthly Official Railway List, and will be issued 
henceforth as a companion publication of the "Red List." 

Bruce V. Crandall, President of the Crandall Publishing Com- 
pany, from whom the paper has been purchased, has disposed of 
Ihe property in order to devote more time to special advertising 
work, in which field he has been engaged somewhat extensively 
of late. 

The Railway Master Mechanic needs no introduction to 
the great body of mechanical officials. It was established in 
1878, and numbers among its readers many officials who 
have gained the summit of their calling since it first ap- 
peared to the world. 

The Railway Master Mechanic carries its purpose and 
mission in the meaning of its name. It was founded with 
the idea of publishing and disseminating the news of the 
mechanical department of the railways of America. Since 
that time the office of superintendent of motive power has 
been created, in addition to the office of master mechanic, 
but the name of the journal has never been changed. The 
Railway Master Mechanic has had its fat and lean periods, 
but through all these years and the changes since its founda- 
tion it has made and maintained hosts of friends and patrons 
who will continue to watch its growth with interest and de- 
votion. 

The mechanical department of the railways of America, 
spending hundreds of millions of dollars for supplies and 
equipments annually and employing thousands of skilled 
men, is the field to which the Railway Master Mechanic is 



devoted. There is not a manufacturer of a tool or machine 
used in the railway shops or in the operation of trains, but 
who is interested in its pages; there is not a railway official 
from the round house foreman to the president of the road 
himself, who would not be benefitted by a careful perusal 
of its columns every month. The fact that many of the 
highest officials of this country hold the Railway Master 
Mechanic in the highest esteem, is proof of it- value to all. 

There are many railway shops where the Railway Master 
MECHANIC is used continually as a reference. The best asset of 
any journal is its good will and the number of Railway Master 
Mechanics found in railway shops attest the high favor in 
which it stands among the officials who want to learn and suc- 
ceed. To these men it appeals so strongly because it has always 
been the object of its editors to fill its pages with new ideas in 
shop practice, machine design and the latest and best news in all 
branches of mechanical engineering pertaining to shops, cars and 
motive power. 

The life and value of any publication depends upon its 
circulation, quality and quantity of course considered. The 
contents of the paper must be of such a nature as to gain 
and hold the subscriber in order that the announcement of 
the advertiser may be profitable to him. These ideas will 
be carried out along broader and more progressive lines than 
has been possible heretofore. The publishers want more 
readers and will proceed at once to get them by making a 
better journal each month than the one preceding, and by 
interesting more railway officials, personally and individually, in 
the Railway Master Mechanic 

There will be some changes in the Railway Master 
MECHANIC with the object of improving it and raising it to 
the highest standard possible. The announcement of these 
plans will be made from time to time as the features to be 
inaugurated are to appear. 

The Railway Master Mechanic has been and will con- 
tinue to be a favorite advertising medium for the supply 
manufacturer who has anything to sell to the mechanical 
department of the railroads, because of its editorial policy, 
and on account of its circulation among mechanical officials. 

This issue being the first under the new ownership, effort 
has been made to make it as attractive and interesting as the 
short time would permit. Moving into new quarters, organiz- 
ing and arranging necessary details, has made it impossible 
to bring it out as early as desirable. 

The new management of the Railway Master Mechanic 
will strive at all times to give the maximum of service at the 
minimum of cost, feeling confident of the verdict. 

Briquetted Coal for Locomotives 

THE use of briquetted coal on locomotives has been the sub- 
ject of much investigation in recent years and data on this 
subject is presented in a bulletin of the U. S. Geological 
Survey, by Prof. W. F. M. Goss. Comparative series of tests 
were made at the Altoona testing plant of the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road on natural coals and briquets made from same. These tests 
indicated that there was very little deterioration of the briquets 
from handling, that the evaporative efficiency of the boiler was 
increased and that the smoke density was somewhat less. Re- 
garding locomotive service particularly it was shown that the 
briquets gave a marked increase in efficiency, an increase in boiler 
capacity, and a decrease in the production of smoke. 



February, 1909 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



49 



The briquet industry in Germany has been so developed that 
in the year 1906, the output of the Rheinisch-Westfahsches Koh- 
len-Syndiket of coal, coke and briquets was in short tons about 
seventy-six million, thirteen million, and two million eight hun- 
dred thousand respectively. The briquets are only made to dis- 
pose of the fine coals, as it is not profitable to crush coal to sup- 
ply material for same as the briquetting process is an expensive 
cne, costing from $1.20 to $1.50 per ton. In the district in which 
this Syndiket operates coke is produced in large quantities and 
the breeze from the coke ovens is used as a binder for the 
briquets. 

Regarding the use of briquets on German locomotives it is the 
opinion of German motive power officials that the best briquets 
are not as satisfactory as the best coal, and while they object 
to the practice of using briquets solely they believe that a fuel 
of half briquets and half coal is satisfactory. In fast passenger 
service one-fourth of the total fuel is frequently of briquets and 
this is placed on the top in the tender so as to be fired when 
starting the engine. It is believed, however, that the briquets 
can be stored with greater facility and handled with less loss 
than ordinary fuels. 

The locomotive road tests which were made on the Missouri 
Pacific, the Lake Shore & Michigan Central, the Chicago, Bur- 
lington & Quincy, and the Chicago & Eastern Illinois railroads, 
to the number of 100, indicated that coal in form of briquets 
"gives a higher evaporative efficiency and that there is a decrease 
is smoke density, together with an elimination of objectionable 
clinkers. On sixteen comparative tests over the Atlantic Coast 
Line Railroad, there were 5,397 ton's of coal consumed per trip 
and 5,062 tons of briquets consumed. These tests showed from 
a practical standpoint that the briquets were satisfactory. 

On the Chesapeake & Ohio Railway a series of comparative 
tests were also made and these tests proved that the briquets 
ignited freely, made an intensely hot fire and were in most re- 
spects entirely satisfactory. 

On several European roads specifications have been drawn up 
covering the production of briquetted fuel. In these specifica- 
tions the quality of a coal is defined, the nature of the pitch and 
the quantity to be used is stated and the tests for the briquets 
are given. 

In consideration of the data which is given in the bulletin 
referred to above and of which brief mention has been made 
here, it may be assumed that the use of briquets will become 
more general, but that the manufacture today is not such as 
to give a fuel of material advantage over the natural coal. 
For this reason the briquet at the present time must be 
made from the slack or fine coal which cannot be readily 
transported or used. 



.N 



Railroad Accidents 

previous issues of the Railway Master Mechanic, the 



I large decrease in railroad accidents since October, 1907, 
has been noted. In the Accident Bulletin for the quarter, 
July, August and September 1908, it is shown that the num- 
ber of casualties is again increasing. 

Among the reasons for the low records in three previous 
quarters was the heavy reduction in traffic as well as in 
number of employees. In July, 1908, there was a decided 
increase in this direction, and it is to this that we may credit 
the increase in casualties to passengers and employees. 

In the quarter ending September, 1908, the number of em- 
ployees killed increased 17 per cent over the previous 
quarter; the number of employees killed in train accidents 
increased 39 per cent; the number of passengers killed from 
causes other than train accidents increased 30 per cent, 
and the number of passengers killed in train accidents in- 
creased about 300 per cent. The latter figure shows how im- 
portant it is to continue a systematic investigation of the 
signaling systems now in use. It is found, however, that 
eight of the more serious accidents occurred on the lines 



where the block system was not in use. Regarding the col- 
lisions and derailments in the quarter mentioned above, there 
was a total of 2,567 or 1,170 collisions and 1,397 derailments. 
The number of employees killed in coupling increased 
from thirty to thirty-nine for the quarter ending September, 
1908. The accidents in coupling and uncoupling cars were 
due to reasons given in previous statements, and included 
such as the adjustment of coupler with foot, the coupling of 
damaged cars, uncoupling without using lever, riding car to 
uncouple and unexpected movement of cars. Now we may 
expect a greater increase in railroad accidents as traffic in- 
creases, but it is to be hoped that the earnest attempts to 
prevent the same may be felt in the coming year. 



The Ail-Steel Car 

AVERY interesting debate was held a short time ago at 
a meeting of the Car Foremen's Association of Chi- 
cago, in which question of wood versus steel cars 
was the subject. In this discussion the cost of all-steel cars 
was one of the important factors, and it was shown that the 
steel car exceeded the wood car in cost by about 50 per cent. 
While this cost may be materially reduced, there is no doubt 
that the all-steel car will not reach in cost the lower figure 
for the wooden car or composite car. 

The cost, however, is not the only important factor in 
determining the value to the railroads of one car as against 
the other. The cost of repairs as viewed in several ways is 
very important. It is contended that the wood car can be 
repaired more easily than the steel car as the material for 
repairs is always on hand, thus keeping the cars in service. 
On the other hand the steel car is said to require few re- 
pairs, that is the minor repairs do not put it out of service. 
It is very difficult to determine a fair comparative percentage 
of each type car that is out of service for defects in consider- 
ation of the life of steel and wood cars that are now in use. 
Some figures were given, however, on this point and were 
amplified by comparison of figures both for loss of service 
and cost of switching. It was estimated that there would be 
a saving of $10,000 per year by a road using 50,000 steel cars 
exclusive of saving that might arise through the difference 
in the cost of repairs. 

An objection was made to the all-steel box car, in that it 
is not adapted for general use, in view of the fact that these 
cars would become very hot, when closed and sealed in hot 
weather, and also on account of rust and sweating of the 
car. 

The discussions do not relate to the composite car which 
is generally., considered the best car that can be built for 
certain purposes, at least at the present time. The builders 
of all-steel cars, particularly all steel box cars, are imp-roving 
their designs and it may be in the very near future that the 
more important objections or at least the valid ones will be 
eliminated. In the above notes on the discussion all points 
that were brought out are not included, as it was intended 
merely to give a general idea of opinions that may be held 
by railroad men. The statements are not credited to the 
speakers because they were elected to take one side or the 
other of the question, and therefore offered all possible evi- 
dence to win the debate for their side. 



Concerning Side Sheets on Wide Fire 
Boxes 

IN regard to the life of side sheets in the wide fire boxes 
of modern locomotives a general discussion of the ques- 
tion was given at a recent meeting of the Western Rail- 
way Club. Mr. C. A. Seley advanced several theories, one 
in particular regarding the slope of the fire box and its rela- 
tion to the circulation of the water. He suggested that the 
side sheets should be sloped or curved outward from above 



50 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



February, L909 



the fire line in order to produce a more rapid circulation and 
a wiping effect that would carry off the steam bubbles from 
the side sheets. This idea was advanced in view of the fact 
that water transmits the heat more readily than steam and 
thereby prevents overheating of the side sheets 

In the discussion of this question Mr. M. 11. Wickhorst 
stated that his observations led him to believe that the over- 
heating of the side sheets was due mainly to the formation 
of scale or the deposit of mud. When this condition arises 
the fire box sheets become corrugated, which renders them 
practically useless. 

In connection with this discussion the question arose as to 
where the failures of side sheets occurred, that is, whether 
they occurred on the road or in the shop. The data given 
by Mr. Wickhorst showed that nearly all failures occurred 
in the shop, either in washing or after the boilers had become 
cold. These results indicate that a method of washing boil- 
ers should be used, which will keep the boiler continuously 
warm or at least above 150 degrees Fahr. 

In Mr. J. P. De Voy's discussion of this question he re- 
ferred to the Prairie and Atlantic type locomotives which 
were built by the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul, after de- 
signs which he recommended. The fire box on these loco- 
motives is 60 ins. wide and is what may be termed medium 
wide. There is a 4-in. water space and in reference to this 
Mr. De Voy believes that it may be increased to 8 ins. ad- 
vantageously. 

In closing the discussion Mr. Seley stated that in present- 
ing the paper it was his idea to find some reason why the 
side sheets on modern fire boxes were lasting only about 
one-third as long as those in the old-style boxes. The reason 
for this decrease of life is very difficult to determine, as there 
are no exact methods of arriving at the conditions that exist 
inside a locomotive boiler. One gentleman in discussing the 
question stated that a test had been made which proved that 
there was a film of steam about three-eighths of an inch 
from the side sheet. If this condition really exists there is 
no doubt that it destroys the ready transmission of heal from 
the side sheet to the water, and thereby has a very great 
effect in bringing about the destruction of the fire bos 

A suggestion was made that the old records of the rail- 
road companies should be investigated and the tire boxes of 
different widths and forms should be classified with a view 
to obtaining a systematic record of failure- and their depend- 
ence on the construction of the lire box. 



Brighter Industrial and Commercial 
Outlook 

RECOVERY from the industrial inaction, which dates 
from about November, 1907, is progressing in spiral 
form, not steadily forward, so that any one may see 
and feel assured of the gradually regained ground. There 
was quite a little spurt towards a restored activity immediate- 
ly after the late presidential election. It lasted well into 
December, and the newspapers loudly proclaimed the joyous 
tidings, but the undoubted gain then made in shop activities 
did not last. The trend of things again pointed downward. 
Now there are evidences that another change has come. 

Manufacturers of cars and of various supplies for railroad 
use report that orders are again coming in. It is possible 
that this renewed burst of activity like its predecessor, may 
be more or less temporary in character, but chances are that 
it will carry the industrial activities a little closer to perfec- 
tion and that the recurring inaction, if it follows, will be less 
noticeable. In brief the tendencies of manufacture arc dis- 
tinctively upward. 

It is to be remembered also that the railway supply branch 
of manufacture was far more seriously crippled by the finan- 
cial tempest of some sixteen months ago than most other de- 
partments of manufacture. The manufacturer of agricultural 



machinery scarcely felt the restricting influences, for the 
farmers in all parts of the country, and even abroad, have 
been generally blessed with abundant crops, and with good 
prices for the same, SO that their economic status was not 
affected detrimentally. The present outlook for the maker 
of goods that go for consumption or ultimate use chiefly to 
the farmer is brightness itself. Railway traffic in the purely 
agricultural states has suffered far less than in centers of 
high-keyed manufacture, like Pittsburg, for example. The 
assured prosperity of the agriculturist is bound to spread 
gradually until it involves the other important branches of 
industry. 

The production of pig iron in the United States was in 
round figures last year sixteen million tons, as compared 
with twenty-six million, in 1907, which was the record of all 
the years. Of that shrinkage the greatest loss came from the 
railroads. The carriers are by far the largest consumers of 
iron and steel products in the land and, since the market for 
iron and steel is generally regarded as one of the most accu- 
rate barometers of general trade, that is accessible to general 
observation, the importance of the railroad policies as to pur- 
chases and extensions becomes apparent. This activity of 
tlu- railroads comes well along towards the end of the pro- 
cession, for purchases are not made by the presidents and 
general managers, as a rule, until traffic so improves as to 
warrant the expenditure. The traffic represents the aggre- 
gate state of manufacture and commerce throughout the 
country. The revival of industry must precede, in the ordi- 
nary if event-, the brisk buying of supplies by the 
railroad-. Having this in mind, the railroad earnings com- 
pared with a year ago, are cause for congratulation, for freight 
rate- are about on a parity with those of a year ago and in- 
creased earnings, therefore, mean increased tonnage. 

No doubt, the present partial drag upon industry i- in large 
measure due to the pending tariff legislation, for if there is 
"genuine" revision, it mean- reduced duties and consequently 
lower price- for foreign material used by American manufac- 
turers Every sales agent know- how keen the average busi- 
ness man i- to take advantage of possible reductions in the 
costs of hi- material and how he will dally with time when 
that possibility present- itself, It i- to be hoped that this 
tariff revision will be pushed to conclusion in the early 
months of the incoming administration, and there is no 
reason to doubt that it will be, for the political powers of the 
land are well aware of this repressive influence of prospect- 
ive tariff change upon general trade and commerce and will 
see to it that all possible haste in legislation will be made. 
There are heard many predictions that by midsummer the 
tariff revision will have been accomplished, and in the mean- 
time there is no reason to doubt steady progress towards 
prosperity. The mere necessities of buyers and users will 
force a certain amount of immediate and early buying. 



Old Shop Tools Rejuvenated 

THIS caption covers a multitude of undesirable relics that 
would have found repose in the junk pile, but for the 
fact they represented a certain value in the annual inventory. 
Such tools are found in some of the best equipped shops and 
remain in service because they can be made to do some 
classes of rough work at a rate not too expensive when 
character of labor and wage is considered. 

Old tools with their narrow belts and weak gear systems 
are not heavy dividend earners, but if they must be retained 
in service, the logical procedure is to get the most work out 
of them possible and that proposition is not a difficult one 
to meet when the problem is correctly approached. 

A machine that was properly designed, that is. had the 
metal distributed in its make-up on mechanical lines, may 
always be put in shape to do good work and produce results 
never dreamed of by its builder, on the plain belt basis, and 



February. 1909 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



51 



also when run with back-gear, provided the latter have teeth 
strong enough to stand up under the stresses of increased 
power input, and many of them are so well, designed in this 
particular as to meet all requirements. 

It will be understood that the life of a machine tool as 
measured by years of service does not mean that such tool is 
unfit for the strenuous push of modern shop practice, for it 
can be given another lease of useful life if the narrow belts 
are discarded and an electric motor is installed as a direct 
drive. 

This scheme has been worked out to the betterment of 
output in many instances where it was impossible to replace 
an old tool by a modern one owing to the inability to get an 
appropriation covering the cost, and in many cases of this 
kind where tools have not only been unproductive, but an 
actual loss to the management, they have been put in con- 
dition to make a showing in economy of output by the 
simple application of a motor to the machine. 



Cinder Pits 

Editor, Railway Master Mechanic: 

The method of taking care of cinders at our shop is very 
primitive. We have an ordinary cinder pit, 90 ft. long with 
a depressed track running alongside on which cars are stored 
and the cinders, shoveled out of the pit into cars. 

It requires the service of two men per day to keep the 
cinder pit clean. I have had no experience with either the 
locomotive or gantry cranes. I have read in different me- 
chanical papers as to their usefulness. 

It cost us on an average of $2.00 per day to keep the cin- 
der pit clean. 

Yours truly, 

Georgia. M. M. 



Editor, Railway Master Mechanic: 

We have a depressed cinder track and all cinders are shov- 
eled from the cinder pits into the cars by hand. There is no 
doubt, whatever, that cinder pits with water in which the 
cinders fall when removed from the ash pans and from which 
the cinders are afterward loaded in cars by a locomotive 
crane, is the best arrangement that I have ever seen and re- 
duces the cost to a minimum. 

I believe that by using one of these cranes that a car of 
cinders can be loaded for about 12 or 15 cents, while by 
using depressed track it will cost in the neighborhood of 
$2.50 or $3.00 per car. 

The locomotive crane may also be used for loading of 
wheels and other material around the repair yards and shops, 
and is an ideal arrangement. 

Yours truly, 

Illinois. M. M. 



Coping and Notching Machine 

THE machine, illustrated herewith, was recently furnished 
the Elgin, Joliet & Eastern Railway by the Long and All- 
statter Company, Hamilton, Ohio. It is a combined ma- 
chine for coping and notching, and the tools shown are for 
coping and notching, and, when these tools are removed, the 
slide is so constructed, that punching tools, six or eight in num- 
ber, adjustable between centers, arranged with gags so as to 
make them operative or inoperative, at the will of the user, and 
suitable for punching the web or flanges of I-beams, channels. 
etc., can be attached. 

The slot in the lower jaw is intended for the I-beam to pass 
through, and the flanges rest on the upper part (dies) in proper 
position for being punched, and when the beam is turned half 
way over, it is then in position for punching the web. The 
punching tools, running from front to rear in a straight line, 
can be used for this work and also for punching connections, etc. 




Coping and Notching Machine. 

The front tool is for notching ; the center tool cuts the flange, 
and the tool nearest the throat of the machine trims the web ; 
another tool near the front on one side does notching of various 
kinds and cuts away the web, when desired.. 

This machine may also be used with special tools, for cut- 
ting off I-beams, and of course it can be used as a single punch- 
ing machine. Two angles can be bolted together and both 
punched at the same time. Two channels can be mounted in 
the same way, both flanges resting on the dies, same as I-beams. 

The slide is arranged with "T" slots running from front to 
rear for holding the tools. This machine is arranged for side 
or angle drive, by belt, through miter gears as shown. It has 
automatic stop that brings slide to rest at the completion of 
each stroke, and this can be set so it will stop the machine at 
any part of the stroke. 



Metal Cutting Tools Without Clearance 

(Continued from January issue) 

A tool so mounted either swings automatically to adapt itself 
to angularity of feed, or may be swung by hand as soon as the 
cut is started. Its natural tendency holds it snugly against the 
metal, but the force may be varied from one that equalizes the 
stress on each side of the cutting edge down to a very slight 
stress which only holds the tool in no-clearance position. An im- 
portant feature is that the tool is free to swing around to offset 
the unequal wear on the "clearance" face. 

In the early experiments the cutters used were clamped rigidly 
in a holder, which in turn was pivotally mounted on a fixed 
holder. The cutting edge of the tool was "so located as to stand 
exactly on the center line of the swiveling holder. 

In the later experiments the scheme has been simplified by 
loosely mounting the cutter itself, providing it with a round bot- 
tom struck from a center line which is near the cutting corner 
of the tool. The cutting edge is usually standing at an angle to 
its center line of swivel, giving the tool a front slope. The 
scheme of inclining the cutting edge to the line of the swivel was 
adopted for the purpose of using a bar-shaped tool in which its 
shape could be maintained by grinding, for with this shape grind- 
ing back the end provides for the wearing down of the top edge. 
This gives tine tool a front slope when *he swiveling center is 
kept horizontal. In some cases it may be well to tilt the holder to 
an angle that brings the. cutting edge horizontal. 

This departure from the ideal center position of the line of 
swivel is not sufficient to cause anjr trouble. In fact, the pivotal 
line need not be exactly parallel to the cutting edge, neither is it 
necessary to have it very near the center line of swivel. It is 
probable that under some conditions the cutting edge may advan- 



52 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



February, 190J 



lageously be located either above or below or on either side of 
the cutting edge. The exact location of the cutting edge relative 
to the center of oscillation partly determines the pressure with 
which the chip is taken. 

The extreme top edge of the tool, in some instances, has been 
slightly flattened on the acuter angles, the flat measuring from 
about 1-64 in. to 1-32 in., and standing either 90 deg. from the 
so-called clearance face or sloping in either direction. Very 
god results were obtained by giving it a negative side slope stand- 
ing at a maximum angle of from 10 deg. to 15 deg. from the 
horizontal. This top flat seems to make a good resting place for 
the false edge, and it may be that its successful operation is de- 
pendent on the false edge. 

One interesting phase of those experiments has been the com- 
parative willingness on the part of the tool to relieve the car- 
riage of the duty of feeding. This first became apparent when 
"thrown out." This self-feeding feature, of course, cannot apply 
the carriage continued to advance after the feed, had been 
to the action of planers, boring mills, or work of large diameter. 
It is mentioned here only to indicate the absence of resistance 
to the feeding motion under some conditions. 

The ultimate outcome of the use of acute angle tools may be 
to allow each tool to take a heavy cut on small diameters to de- 
termine its own feed. In the turret lathe this would be a dis- 
tinct advantage. 

CHIP LIFTER AND CONTROL 

The chip produced by the acute angle tools is a continuous 
chip possessing great lateral strength. The continuous chip i- 
preferred by any operator who has had experience with hot chips 
thrown off by tools of blunter angles, but while this particular 
feature enables him to observe the action of the tool closel) 
without risk, the continuous chip in itself becomes troublesome, 
if allowed to run too long without breaking. In some of the first 
experiments with this tool chips having a depth of about ■'* in 
and produced by a feed of six to the inch, wire found exceedingly 
troublesome, especially when allowed to run out to length-- of 5 
to 15 ft. 

The lateral stiffness of the chip of the more acute tool made 
it possible to increase the tearing open or splitting effect which 
occurs in cutting metals. To increase the tearing action it is 
necessary to allow the chip, after it has passed from the edge of 
the tool, to pass over a lifter in the form of a wedge, either 
formed integrally with the tool or placed in the path of the 
chip near the tool, having an angle that not only assists in tear- 
ing the metal ahead of the tool, but also relieves the slope of 
the tool near the edge from an important part of the labor. 

In other words, a chip possessing lateral strength made it 
possible to carry an important part of the cutting or splitting 
tion farther away from the extreme edge. The heat generated by 
this part of the work, because of its position, of course in no way 
reduces the life of the extreme cutting edge. Experiments with 
the chip-lifting scheme seem to indicate that under ideal condi- 
tions the duty of the extreme edge of the tool may be simply to 
cut through metal which may be under more or less of a tear- 
ing or spliting stress. 

Although this chip lifting effect may be produced by a top 
slope having a curved surface, it has seemed best for the conven- 
ience of grinding the tool on an ordinary wheel to keep the top 
slope of the cutter a flat surface, and to introduce this chip- 
lifter as a separate member, either as a part of the tool holder or 
in conjunction with the chip-breaker to be described. 

Although it is, as was stated, a satisfaction to be able to stand 
near the cutting tool and to have some assurance of the direction 
in which the chip will travel, and to know that it is integral and 
not shooting out in hot chunks at all angles from the tool point. 
a continuous chip is nevertheless troublesome. Even with blunt 
tools, the curling chips which are sometimes used to illustrate 
ideal working conditions of a machine require the constant atten- 
tion of the operator, and either a very large receptacle which 
doubles the floor space required for the machine or the almost 



constant attendance of an extra man for removing the chips from 
the room. 

The use of the more acute angles increases the chip trouble, 
and may in some instances make it advisable to retain the blunt 
cutting angles, or at least, tools which produce tolerable chips. 

For turning bar work in the turret lathe it has seemed best to 
adopt a chip-breaker which produces a fracture by placing an 
obstruction in the path of the chip at such an angle that the chip 
is bent, either by lifting or depressing, or both, shortly after it 
has left the tool, to an extent beyond its breaking point. In 
order to employ the chip-lifter most efficiently for the purpose of 
relieving the top slope of the cutting tool, the writer has preferred 
to use a chip-breaker which depended on depressing the chip after 
it passed over the chip-lifting incline. A breaker of this kind 
break> the chip in lengths varying from l / 2 to 3 ins. 

CONCLUSIONS 

The no-clearance cutter relieves the edge from the one-sided 
pressure. 

It prolongs the life of the cutter by allowing abrasion on its 
face without producing negative clearance. 

It prevents lateral quivering. 

It converts the lip angle into cutting angle, which for a tool 
of given form constitutes a gain of from 5 to 10 deg. in cutting 
angle. 

It has extended the working range of the side tool which gives 
the minimum separating stress. 

It has made possible the use of acute-angled tools which 
reduce the cutting stress, thereby increasing the output of 
machine^ which have been limited by lack of pulling power. 

The reduction of the cutting and separating stresses has in- 
creased the accuracy (or output, which is generally intercon- 
vertible with accurac\ ) >mt nearly all lathe work. 

Tin- reduction also increases the output which has been lim- 
ited mostly by the frailness or the slenderness of the work. 



Single Speed Pulley Gear Driven Lathe 

THE new L8-in. single-speed pulley, gear-driven lathe, shown 
herewith, is built by the \\ hitcomb-Blaisdell Machine Tool 
Company, Worcester, Mass. The new form of clutch 
used in making the speed changes is the principal feature of the 
design and this construction involves a principle upon which a 
basic patent lias been received. 

The geared headstock is shown in Figs. 1, 2 and 3. Referring 
to Fig. 3, power is received at driving pulley A, which is keyed 
to shaft B. The shaft B revolves in fixed bearings in the 
head-stock and carries pinions G G and G keyed to it, and has 
pinion teeth cut on it at G. These four pinions mesh with cor- 
responding gears D h D?, D*. D t , which normally revolve loosely 
on friction shaft E. Either one of clutch bodies Fi, F 2 and F«. 
and gear H, may. however, be engaged with the corresponding 
gear D , etc., by means of clutches G, etc., whose construction 




Fig. 1 — Single-Speed Pulley, Gear Driven Lathe. 



February. 1909 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



53 



is described later. Four rates of speed may be given to shaft E 
when pulley A is running at constant speed. 

Shaft E carries gear H keyed to it, and has pinion teeth cut 
in it at /. H and / mesh with gears K and L; K is keyed to 
clutch member M. L and M may be connected by clutches N, 
and Nx respectively, with clutch bodies Ox and 2 , which are 
keyed to the spindle P. The four speeds, which may be given 
shaft E are thus doubled, giving eight speeds for the spindle. 

The construction of clutches G and N is seen in the detailed 
views at the right of Fig. 3. This form of clutch is a positive 
friction clutch, its engagement taking a measurable amount of 
time and allowing some slipping of the engagement surfaces, 
which obviates the severe shock met with at high speeds in 
positive clutches. On the other hand, the uncertain driving 
power and excessive slippage met with in friction clutches is 
avoided. 

The expansion ring Qx in the upper clutch is hung on a pin 
Ri, which is fast to the revolving gear Dx- This ring is thus 
always rotating when the driving pulley is in motion. The open 
end of ring has pivoted to it a lever Si, which through the me- 
dium of strut Tx may be made to spread the ring open, engaging 
the inner diameter of Fx, and thus connecting Dx and E. The 
movement of the lever for thus operating the clutch is effected 
by the sliding spline V, which has keyed to it series of cams 
Uij U2, etc. When this spline is shifted axially on shaft E to 
bring cam Ux in the path of the revolving letter 5\ (the direction 
of revolution being immaterial), the latter, as soon as it strikes 
Ux, is forced outward, spreading ring Qx and engaging the clutch. 
If clutch ring Qx and lever 6"i are revolving in the direction of 
the arrow and shaft £ is being started from a state of rest, 
the rotation of the ring and lever will cause the latter to ride 
up on the cam until the clutch is fully engaged, when, since E 
is rotating at the same rate as Qx, the relative movement of Si 
and Ui will cease so that the clutch will not be tightened more 
than is necessary to carry the load. If slippage occurs at any 
time, this will simply cause lever Sx to ride still further over the 
cam, tightening the clutch still further. Any slippage thus 
tightens the clutch the exact' amount required to carry the 
extra strain. 

An interesting point in the design of this clutch is the means 




Fig. 2 — Arrangement of Gearing. 

of relieving the face of the clutch ring for the oil, where the 
driving surfaces come together. Clutch surfaces which run in 
oil must be grooved so as to allow the parts to come quickly to 
a bearing. In the case of this clutch, it was found necessary 
to groove the periphery of rings Qx, to such an extent that the 
bearing area was divided into about J4-in. squares, separated by 
oil channels. This permits the lubricant to be squeezed out al- 
most instantly. With larger undrained areas, the squeezing out 
of the oil would take time, and as long as it remained, the full 
driving force would come from the engagement of lever Sx and 
cam Ux ; these parts, with the acute contact surface between 
them, could not have been made strong enough to stand the 
strain of the full driving power, so this complete grooving is 
necessary for the operation of the clutch. 

The clutch adjusting itself, each time it is used, to the amount 
required by the load. The amount of slippage that takes place 




Fig. 3 — Head Stock Spindle, Showing Gearing, and Positive Action Friction Clutches Which Control Speed Changes. 



54 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



February, 1909 




— t-^i — 




Fig. 4 — Feed Change Mechanism; Double Sliding Key for Gear Box. 



before the clutch is engaged is predetermined by the shape of 
the acting surfaces of the lever and cam. as there is no possi- 
bility of the parts ever slipping for more than the merest frac- 
tion of a revolution. This durability of the wearing surfaces is 
enhanced by the method of mounting rings Q,, etc., which are 
provided with circular tongues at a, entering corresponding 
grooves in members D,, etc. In their open positions, these 
tongues fit closely the small diameter of the grooves, thus center- 
ing the rings in members F\, etc., and holding them entirely free 
from these members, so that there is no rubbing of parts not in 
action. When the rings arc spread open to engage their re 
spective members, the free fit on the outside diameter of tongue 
a permits them to engage freely and without restraint. 

Spline V carries four cams Ui, Ut, etc., which engage corre- 
sponding arms -S\. etc. In the position shown, a movement of 
spline V to the left will bring U\ out from under lever Si, al- 
lowing it to drop and tints, releasing the clutch. Continued 
movement brings cam V... under lever S . thus engaging this 
clutch. A further movement to the left carries U» beyond Si 
and engages Ui with 5V The position farthest toward the 
left brings U\ and S\ in engagement. In the reversed motion, 
the same sequence is gone through in reverse order. This 
movement of spline V is effected by its connection at the left- 
hand end with sliding rod W, which passes through shaft E. 
This rod has pinion teeth cut on its extreme right end, engaging 
a pinion on stud X, which is in turn connected by gearing with 
the crank shown at the front of the main bearing of the head- 
stock in Fig. 1. The four positions of the spline and the four 
corresponding speeds are indicated by the dial pointer shown 
Clutches N\ and N-> are identical in principle with clutches Gi. 
G - 2, etc., though they differ slightly in construction, as shown in 
the lower face view at the right of Fig. 3. In these clutches 
cams Ui, etc., are replaced by pins Y, and Y t , which engage 
levers Z 4 and Zi. These pins are fast in the sliding collar Z 3 
which is shifted by means of the vertical lever shown at the 
front of the head-stock in Fig. 1. Owing to the comparatively 
slow motion of gear L, two pins, Y\ are provided, while but one 
pin Yi is used. This insures rapid action in the clutch even at 
slow speeds. 

A detail in die construction of the head may be noticed at /: 
this is a spring plunger which may be pressed into engagement 
with corresponding notches in the face of member Oi which is 
keyed to the spindle. It is thus possible to lock the spindle for 
unscrewing chucks, faceplates, etc., from the nose. 

Provision is made in this lathe for thirty-two changes of feed for 
turning or threading, without removing or changing the gear- 
ing. Figs. 2 and 4 show how this is effected. The feed driving 
gear A on the spindle is connected through the usual reversing 



tumbler gearing on sector B. Gear C is keyed te shaft D; this 
shafl is slotted for sliding key E, operated through collar F by 
horizontal lever Ft, Key E may be sel to drive either of gears 
G and // ; these are separated by the hardened internal collar 
shown, which withdraws the key from one before it engages 
with the other. Gears G and // mesh with the corresponding 
gears / and K keyed to tlie hub of pinion /.. which thus may be 
given cither of two rates of speed. L and A.' engage gears M and 
on shaft .V (seen best in detail at the upper right-hand of Fig. 
1 1 through a sliding key arrangement exactly similar to that in 
the shaft D. Either of gears O and M may be engaged to N by 
the shifting of collar Q, and the horizontal handle Q\ attached 
to it. Shaft N thus has four rales of speed, which are trans- 
mitted through gears /' and R to shaft V. in the feed box proper. 
This feed box is of the sliding key variety, but differs radi- 
cally from the usual type in the details of its construction. The 
reason for this will be apparent in the line drawing, Fig. 4. 
Gears 7,, T 2 1\. etc.. are keyed to -haft S, which, as explained, 
i an be connected with the spindle in four different ratios. These 
years mesh with mating gears U\, Ut, Ut, etc., on sliding shaft 
V. These gears are engaged with /'. in turn, by keys W\ and Wt, 
which are pivoted to /'. and are connected with each other by 
the spring and interlocking surface shown, so that when one 
moves into engagement the other drops out, and vice versa. This 
alternate movement in and out of engagement is effected by 
the hardened washers placed between each of the gears. As V 
in Fig. 4 is shifted to the right, the washer between Ut and Ut 
throws key Wx out of engagement and puts a tension on the 
spring connecting //', and Wt, so that the latter is thrown into 
engagement with the spline in gear Ut, as soon as it comes into 
position to do so. A further movement of V disengages Wt and 
throws Jf\ into engagement with Ut. The order of engagement 
as V is shifted to the right is thus. Ut, Ut, Ut, Ut, etc. 

V is shifted by means of a sleeve Z attached to its outer end, 
which has rack teeth cut in it meshing with pinion Y, at the 
lower end of the vertical rock shaft shown in Figs. 2 and 4. 
This shaft has a handle or knob X, and carries a dial with fig- 
ures corresponding with the pair of gears engaged. Referring 
to the feed and thread plate at the front of the head-stock, the 
operator may find the number of threads per inch given by each 
of these eight positions, in combination with the four changes 
effected by the horizontal levers. The feeds are five times as 
fine as the threads. 

The advantages of this form of gear box lie in the short 
axial movement required for the sliding keys, and the corres- 
pondingly compact arrangement of the controlling mechanism 
for the eight changes. Owing to. the fact that when one of the 



February, 1909 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



55 




Fig. 5 — Adjustable Friction Drive for Apron Feeds. 

keys is in engagement the other is withdrawn, there is little wear 
on the hardened washers separating the gears. A much better 
selection of threads has been provided in this box than usual 
owing to the fact that the gears have not been limited to even 
pitches. Where it was necessary in the gear box, in obtaining 
a desired ratio, to employ fractional pitches, this has been done 
without hesitation, so that the pitches of different gears vary, 
though they are most of them about nine diametral. Each of 
gears L\ and U 2 has six splines in its bore, so that they engage 
quickly. Provision is made for disconnecting either the feed rod 
or the lead-screw from the feeding mechanism, by means of the 
sliding gear and sliding clutch shown at the right of Fig. 4. 

The details of the carriage construction follow the standard 
practice of the builders in most particulars. There are, however, 
two point of improvement which are worth mentioning. One of 
them relates to the friction drive for the feed. This is shown in 
section and plan in Fig. 5. The worm A, keyed to the feed rod, 
engages a worm wheel B, which normally revolves loosely on 
clutch body C. Split friction ring D, pinned to C, may be spread 
apart by the double levers E, so that the worm wheel drives C 
and the pinion F , to which, in turn, C is pinned. Levers E are 
spread apart by turning bolt G so that the circular portion of its 
head, instead of the flat portion, is brought around between the 
ends of the levers. Bolt G is turned by knob H on the outside 
of the carriage. The improvement in its construction lies par- 
ticularly in the method of adjusting the clutch from the outside. 
This is done by nut /, which draws in bolt G against the pressure 
of the spring under its head. Owing to the conical shape of the 
round portion of the head of G, the axial movement operates to 
spread the levers further part, and thus adjustment is made for 
wear. 

Another improvement in the construction of the carriage relates 
to a threading device which has been provided. This is shown 
in Fig. 6. The principle of the arrangement is the same as that 
employed on other makes of lathes for indicating the points at 





which to throw in the half-nut to "catch the thread" when run- 
ning the carriage back by hand for a new cut in threading. Worm- 
wheel •A' meshes with the lead-screw and is always in engagement 
with it. This is connected by gearing in the ratio of 2 to 1 with 
the vertical shaft L, which carries at its upper end a revolving 
dial having graduations indicated by a stationary pointer. The 
improvement consists in providing three concentric circles for 
these graduations, one for even pitches, one for odd pitches, and 
a third for half pitches. This provision makes it possible to 
catch the thread much quicker on even pitches than would other- 
wise be the case, while the cutting of half pitches is provided for. 
This is not usually done. The pointer is moved toward or away 
from the center to agree with the circle of graduation- it is 
desired to read. It is evident from the dial that the wormwheel 
K has a pitch circumference of 4 inches. 

The tail-stock clamping arrangement, shown in Fig. 7, is orig- 
inal with this lathe. The tail-stock is clamped to the bed at the 
four corners by means of hand-wheel N. This is keyed to the 
threaded stud O, which may thus be screwed down against the 
hardened plate bearing in lever P. This latter is fulcrumed at a 
against the under side of the tailstock, and has a spherical boss at 
b, which bears against a hardened plate on clamping lever Q. This 
latter is hung from spherically seated nuts on studs R, which 
form a fulcrum for it. The outside ends at c bear on the under 
side of the ways of the bed, clamping the tail-stock at the front 
end. Pressure is also transmitted from lever P through lever Q 
to the outer end of lever .S\ which in a similar way through sim- 




Fig. 6 — Screw Cutting Dial for Throwing in Split Nut. 



Fig. 7 — Tail Stock, Method of Clamping. 

ilar bearing points d, clamps the rear end of the tail-stock. 
Springs near bearing points c and d throw the clamping surfaces 
out of engagement when hand-wheel N is screwed back to relieve 
the pressure. The advantages of this arrangement lie in the very 
firm clamping which can be obtained, and in the handiness of the 
operation, it being necessary to make but one movement to clamp 
the tail-stock. Ordinarily there are at least two, and sometimes 
four nuts to be tightened. The workman is often careless about 
this, tightening only one. With this arrangement, the clamping 
action is simultaneous at the four corners with but one move- 
ment. Of course in adjusting the tail-stock, it is necessary to so 
set the nuts or studs R that the clamping action is evenly dis- 
tributed. 

Among the advantages of this lathe is that common to all 
lathes of the single pulley constant speed type, namely, that of 
delivering the same horse-power through all the changes of spin- 
dle speeds. In addition, this lathe never has to be slowed down 
to make any change in speeds or feeds, all of which may be 
effected by an unskilled operator, at full speed, or under the heav- 
iest cuts. All the gearing in the head runs in oil, and it has 
been found to require no attention after many months of continu- 
ous operation, and then the only requirement was that of 
refilling with oil. The construction will thus be seen to pos- 
sess marked advantages from the standpoints of both opera- 
tion and maintenance. We are indebted to the Whitcomb- 
Blaisdell Machine Tool Company for a copy of the data given 
in Machinery and the photographs of the machine. 



oC 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



February, 1909 



Kokomo, Marion & Western Traction 
Company 

AS an illustration of what may be accomplished in build- 
ing up an existing electric railway, lighting and 
power distributing system, and at the same time 
strengthening the industrial position of an entire community, 
the management of the Kokomo, Marion & Western Trac- 
tion Company furnishes one of the most striking and in- 
structive examples to be met with anywhere in the country. 
At the time ownership of the system was assumed by the 
interests now in control, less than four years ago, there was 
a small street railway and electric lighting plant, having no 
greater output than 500 kw„ a few miles of trackage wholly 
within the city of Kokomo, and circuits containing several 
hundred arc and incandescent lamps. Today 22,000 incan 
descent and 395 arc lamps in and about Kokomo arc supplied 
with electric 'current and more than one-half of the coin 
pany's customers have various electric household devices; 
factories in the vicinity take upwards of 1,000 hp. daily in 
current for operating motors; the street railway system 
has been extended to a trackage of ten miles, and a finely 
equipped interurban line of 28 miles in length extends from 
Kokomo, a city of about 18,000 inhabitants, to Marion, having 
a population of 26,000, through several large towns situated 
in a rich, closely tilled agricultural country. Further exteii 
sioiis art' projected to Terre Haute and Lafayette on the 
west, distant respectively 1 :J0 and 79 miles from the eastern 
terminus of the road. Among the principal places on the 
line now in operation are Greentown and Swayzee, each of 
about 2,000 people; Sycamore, Sinis, Ilerbst and Roseberg. 

NEW STEAM TURBINE POWER PLANT 

Among outward signs of progress, however, the. most 
prominent is the development of the new power station, 
which has recently been equipped with two Allis-Chalmers 
steam turbines and generators having an aggregate normal 
capacity of 2,000 kw. and delivering two-phase, 60-cycle cur- 
rent at a terminal pressure of 2,300 volts. The first of these 
machines, put in operation February 21, 1907, was found so 
satisfactory that a second unit of identical construction was 
ordered, the latter being placed on the line December 7th 
of the same year. The units will be described at some 
length farther along in this article, but, in order to obtain 
a comprehensive view of the entire equipment and operation 
•of the road we will begin with the unloading of fuel from 
which the electric energy is primarily derived and follow the 
course taken by this power from the time it is first trans- 
formed in the furnaces until it has reached the end of its 
period of service. 

COAL HANDLING SYSTEM 

Coal, consisting of a comparatively low grade of Indiana 
screenings, is brought in on a spur from the Lake Erie & 
Western Railway and unloaded through a trestle extending 
the entire length of the firing room, so that it is heaped 
up in front of iron doors opening upon the several furnaces. 
From these piles it is shoveled directly into the furnaces, 
which are so arranged as to obtain a relatively high heat 
value from the fuel — with the exercise of good manage- 
ment. Removal of ashes is accomplished by an inexpensive 
device. Instead of the customary ash-pit with track and 
cars, there has been installed a tunnel and screw conveyor 
through which the ashes are constantly transferred to a pit 
outside the building. There, by means of a bucket elevator 
and inclined conveyor, the material is discharged to storage 
bins at one side of the building and unloaded into cars, 
which take it to points along the line where it can be used 
as ballast. 

BOILER AND STACKS 

The boiler equipment, set on concrete foundations reaching 
to bed rock, consists of three batteries, two of which include 
four Stirling boilers, each having a capacity of 235 h.p., and 



the third comprising one Atlas water-tube boiler with a 
capacity of 400 h.p. Two of the Stirling boilers discharge 
into one stack 6 ft. x 80 ft., constructed entirely of steel, 
and the remaining two, with the Atlas boiler, into a stack 
<; ft. x 125 ft., also of steel. The shorter of these stacks is 
equipped with an engine driven blower, made by the Sturte- 
vant Company, by means of which enough draft can be in- 
duced to give large temporary overload capacity to the two 
boilers with which it is connected. The boiler room has 
ventilators at the top and is very commodious, with room 
for considerable additional capacity. 

STEAM HEADEH AND PIPING 
A main steam header 12 ins. in diameter, located above 
the pump compartment in the steam turbine room, is in the 
form of a loop, from which each turbine unit it fed by a 
7-in. pipe. Gate valves are placed between each battery of 
boilers and between each turbine inlet, these valves being of 
the Crane type with rising stems. There is also a 4^-in. 
auxiliaray header. A proper arrangement of valves enables 
any part of the plant to be supplied from any boiler at will. 
All of the piping is made as short and direct as possible 
and heat insulation is provided in the shape of heavy cover- 
ing of the pattern furnished by the Johns-Manville Company. 
Long bends to provide for expansion, have, of course, been 
used wherever necessary, and the system includes Cochrane 
steam separators. 

FEED WATER HEATER AND PUMPS 

The condensers and all of the other auxiliaries exhaust into 
ichrane heater (with Sorge water purifier) where a tem- 
perature of from 200 to 212 F. — never less than 200° — is 
constantly maintained. Water may be drawn from either 
the condenser suction or discharge pipes, from a deep well or 
from the city mains, and discharged into an elevated tank 
which feeds by gravity into the heater and from there by 
gravity into the boiler feed pumps; or the water may be by- 
passed directly to the boiler. 

Two Worthington pumps are used for supplying the tank 
over tin heater and two Dean pumps for boiler feed. Either 
one of any of these two is, however, of sufficient capacity to 
take care of the water system of the entire plant. The for- 
mer are now being displaced by a centrifugal pump with 
2!/2-in. discharge, driven by an induction motor supplied with 
current directly from the main generator busses through a 
step-down transformer; but the steam pumps will be held 
in reserve. 

WATER SUPPLY 

Water for condensation and boiler feed is. taken from a 
creek, about 350 ft. distant, through a 16-in. cast iron pipe, 
and discharged back to the stream through 20-in. tile. The 
water is drawn from a concrete basin in the creek, 7 ft. 
square inside and extending 6 ft. below low water mark, with 
walls extending to high water mark and a gate on the down 
stream side where the water enters. This gate can readily 
be closed down tight, when desired, and the water exhausted 
by pumps in the power plant, so as to facilitate cleaning the 
basin of sand and mud. 

STEAM TURBINES 

The turbine operating floor is 514 ft. above the boiler and 
pump room floor, 11 ft. above the basement floor and 30 ft. 
below the roof trusses, the foundation of each generating 
unit being kept entirely separate from the steel frame of the 
concrete flooring. Overhead is a 10-ton crane, hand oper- 
ated. 

In this room are placed two horizontal steam turbines 
and generators, of 1,000 kw. capacity each, a 330 kw. engine 
driven alternator operated in parallel with them, the excit- 
ers for these units, and sub-station apparatus, transformers, 
switchboard, etc., as later described. 

Incorporated in these turbines are the various patented 
features controlled by their builders, Allis-Chalmers, among 
which may be mentioned channel-shaped shrouds protecting 



February, 1909 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



57 



the ends of the blading from injury; machine cut slots in the 
foundation rings insuring accurate spacing of the blades; a 
method of fastening the latter which effectually prevents 
them from working loose, and improved balance pistons. 
Other details of special interest will be mentioned briefly 
under the subjects to which they belong. 

The turbines operate at 1,800 revolutions per minute, with 
a steam pressure of 140 lbs. at the throttle, dry saturated, 
and a vacuum of 28" of mercury referred to 30" barometer 
at the exhaust nozzle. Large temporary overload capacity 
has been provided for in the design of these machines; high 
efficiency is maintained, and close regulation secured, even 
under the most unfavorable operating conditions, as a result 
both of good design and efficient station management. They 
are frequently run six weeks at a time without taking the 
load off and then only to make inspection. 

BEDPLATE 

The bedplate is divided into two parts, one carrying the 
low-pressure end of the turbines and the bearings of the 
generator, and the other the high-pressure end of the tur- 
bine. The turbine is secured to the former, while the latter 
is provided with guides which permit the turbine to slide 
back and forth with differences of expansion caused by vary- 
ing temperature, at the same time maintaining the alignment. 
This arrangement permits of the utilization of the entire 
space between the foundation piers and below the turbine, 
for the condensing appartus. A grating is provided in the 
engine room floor directly over the condenser pumps and 
engines, so that operators above and below can watch each 
other's movements and signals, and the auxiliary engines 
can be watched from above. 

CONDENSERS 

The condensers for the steam turbines are of the jet type 
built by Allis-Chalmers Company, each capable of giving 
the best possible service when its unit is operating at full 
rated load. Cyclodial air pumps, direct-connected to enclosed, 
self-oiling, high-speed engines, and duplex, double-acting 
circulating pumps are installed with this apparatus, as is 
also a third condenser to take the exhaust from the re 
mainder of the plant. 

GOVERNING MECHANISM 

The speed of each turbine is regulated within close limits 
"by a governor driven from the shaft through cut gears work- 
ing in oil bath. This governor, by means of a relay, operates 
a balanced throttle valve. The entire mechanism is so pro- 
portioned as to respond at once to variation of load, but its 
sensitiveness is kept within such bounds as to secure the 
best results in the parallel operation of the two turbo-gener- 
ators in this station. The governors can be adjusted for 
speed while the turbines are running, thereby facilitating the 
synchronizing of the alternators and dividing the load as 
may be desired. In order to provide for any possible acci- 
dental derangement of the main governing mechanism, there 
is an entirely separate safety or over-speed governor. This 
governor is driven directly by the turbine shaft without the 
intervention of gearing, and is so arranged and adjusted that 
if the turbine should reach a predetermined speed above that 
for which the main governor is set, the safety governor will 
come into action and trip a valve, shutting off the steam and 
stopping the turbine. 

BEARINGS 

The bearings are of the self-adjusting, ball and socket pat- 
tern, especially designed for high speed. Shims are provided 
for proper alignment. The lubrication of the four bearings, 
two for the turbine and two for the generator, is effected 
by supplying an abundance of oil to the muddle of each bear- 
ing by means of a small cycloidal pump driven from the 
turbine shaft, and allowing it to flow out at the ends. The 
oil is passed through a tubular cooler with water circulation, 
and pumped back to the bearings. 



It is not necessary to supply the bearings with oil under 
pressure, but only at a head sufficient to enable it to run 
to and through the bearings, this head never exceeding a 

few feet. The oil cooling system is taken care of by two 
induction motor driven centrifugal pumps, supplied by 
Thomas & Smith, of Chicago, and the American Well Works, 
and the gland water for the turbines is also supplied by 
two centrifugal pumps purchased frotn tin: former com- 
pany, propelled by direct current motors faking their power 
from the exciter circuits. No oil of any kind is used in the 
interior of the Allis-Chalmers steam turbines, nor in the 
glands through which their shafls pas-. Low oil alarms have 
been provided for the turbines. 

The hot parts of each turbine, up to the exhaust chamber, 
are covered with an ample thickness of non-conducting ma- 
terial and lagged with planished steel, so applied that it may 
be easily removed. The nonconducting covering is also 
removable at the cylinder joint to facilitate the opening of 
the turbine for examination. 

Between the turbine and its generator a special type of 
flexible coupling is used to provide for any slight inequality 
in the wear of the bearings, to permit axial adjustment of 
the turbine spindle, and to allow for differences in expan- 
sion. This coupling is so made that it can be readily dis- 
connected for the removal of the turbine spindle or of the 
revolving field of, the generator. Provision is. made for am- 
ple lubrication of the adjoining faces of the coupling. 

TURBO-GENERATORS 

The revolving field alternators driven by these turbines 
are of Allis-Chalmers Company's standard type, designed for 
high efficiency and safe operation at high peripheral speeds. 
Some of the principal advantages embodied in their con- 
struction are summarized as follows: 

The field core is built up of steel discs, each in one piece, 
giving high magnetic permeability and great strength. Coils 
are placed in radial slots, thereby avoiding side pressure on 
slot insulation and the complex stresses resulting from cent- 
rifugal force, which, in these rotors, acts normal to the flat 
surface of the strip windings. Bronze wedges hold the coils 
firmly in the slots, making the surface of the rotor a smooth 
cylinder, reducing windage losses and insuring quiet opera- 
tion; and the end connections are securely held by chrome- 
nickel steel rings. 

The stator is completely inclosed, eliminating noise of 
operation. Coils were completely wound and insulated be- 
fore being placed on the core, thus obviating the coils readily 
removable. End conections are firmly braced, preventing 
deformation of coils in case of short-circuit. 

For the purpose of obtaining adequate ventilation and for 
muffling the noise produced by the circulation of the air, 
the turbo-generators are enclosed in such a manner that the 
air is taken in at the sides through fans mounted on the 
rotor shaft which discharge it over the end connections of 
the armature coils into the bottom of the machine, whence 
it passes through the ventilating ducts of the core to an 
opening at the top. This system of ventilation is most effi- 
cient. 

EXCITERS 

Excitation of the two turbo-generators is accomplished by 
means of exciters of 35 kw. and 30 kw., the former being 
driven by an Allis-Chalmers induction motor and the latter 
by an Erie Ball engine. The engine-driven unit has a 5 kw. 
belted exciter, turbo-generator excitation at full load is at 
120 volts, 160 amperes. The exciters do not take care of the 
station lighting. Current for this is derived directly from 
the main bus-bars, or from a storage battery. 

STATION LOAD 

As above intimated, the character of the load put upon 
this station is railway, lighting and power combined. At 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



February, 190£ 



present there is a normal consumption of current somewhat 
under the rated capacity of the turbines, so that one can 
be held constantly in reserve, and this drops to a minimum, 
during tlie early morning hours, of about 300 kw. 

A feature to be particularly commended is the thorough 
keeping of station records and the frequent checking of 
efficiencies of different parts of the plant. On the company's 
log sheet the daily load curve is plotted, thereby enabling it 
to be easily comprehended, for the 24 hours, at a glance. 
All costs and station performances are also recorded on the 
daily log. In addition to this records are kept in the office 
of the outside distributing circuits, and two Wright demand 
meters are constantly used to check the loads on lighting 
and power transformers over the town. 

Alternating current is generated at two-phase, 2,300 volts, 
and transformed to three-phase, 11,000 volts for transmis- 
sion over the line of the interurban railway. In the main 
station there are used for this purpose three 150 kw. oil-filled, 
self-cooled transformers, Scott connected, and in the sub- 
station (17 miles distant) there are three 150 kw. step-down 
transformers delta connected. These transformers have V/ 2 - 
in. outlet pipes run directly through the floor, so that in case 
of fire oil can be emptied into barrels in the basement where 
the oil supplied is Stored 

Direct-current for the city railway system and ten miles 
of the interurban line, is supplied through motor generator 
sets in the main station, delivering power at an operating 
pressure of 600 volts; and the sub station at Swayzee, 18 
miles cast of Kokomo, contains three rotary converters for 
the purpose of transforming the alternating to direct current. 
One of these, having a capacity of 200 kw., is equipped with 
an induction starting motor, and two of 75 kw., each are 
started through a storage battery from the 1). C. end. 

lUSTRIBUTION OK CURRENT 

Current from the main generator bus-bars passes to the 
out-going lines through double-throw switches, ammeters, 
wattmeters and fuses, all such circuits being also put through 
integrating wattmeters. 300,000 circular mil cable is used, 
with high-voltage rubber insulation. The wiring from the 
generators to the switchboard is open work, fastened to the 
under side of the engine-room floor. The bus-bar system is 
in duplicate. Any machine or any feeder can be operated 
off of any set of busses. The switchboard rests on insulated 
stringers. 

SWITCHBOARD 

Each of the panels for the turbo-generators has instru- 
ments mounted upon it as follows: 

Two Westinghouse ammeters, 

One Westinghouse power factor indicator, 

One Westinghouse volt-meter, 

One Westinghouse indicating wattmeter. 

One Westinghouse polyphase integrating wattmeter, 

Two 4-polc single throw oil switches for main generator 
current, 

One Cutler-Hammer rheostat located beneath the floor and 
driven by chain and sprocket, 

One field knife switch with discharge rheostat synchroniz- 
ing plug and receptacle and volt-meter plug and receptacle. 

There is also a Westinghouse synchroncope on a swinging 
bracket at the end of the switchboard. 

The exciter switch panel for the turbines has 

Two direct-current Weston ammeters, 

One direct-current Weston voltmeter, 

Two Cutler-Hammer rheostats, 

Two single-pole knife switches, 

Four 4-pole double-throw Westinghouse oil switches. 

The exciter panel for engine-driven unit consists of the 
following apparatus: 

Two Stanley ammeters,' 
One Stanley voltmeter so arranged as to switch it on to 



pressure tap showing voltage at center of distribution up- 
town, 

Two double-pole knife switches, 

Wirt rheostat. 

One panel for the engine-driven unit is equipped with Stan- 
ley instruments and double-throw switches. 

One panel with Stanley instruments and switches controls 
four feeder circuits. 

One panel controls one feeder circuit with room for an 
additional circuit. This has Westinghouse four-pole double- 
throw oil switches and G. E. wattmeters. 

One panel controls four street arc light circuits on the 
Western Electric system. 

The railway hoard consists of two panels, each controlling 
a 216 hp motor, and two panels each controlling the rail- 
way generators driven by these motors in the power plant 
sub station. One panel contains the starting devices and a 
rheostat for these machines. There are also two feeder 
panels, one feeding the interurban line and the other on the 
city line. This railway board is equipped with Westing- 
house apparatus except for a few General Electric watt- 
meters and two Stanley phase indicators. 

Two panels control a storage battery and differential boos- 
ter. 

In the sub station, at Swayzee there is a switchboard con- 
sisting of nine panels, viz.. three alternating current and 
three direct-current for controlling the rotaries, one feeder 
panel and two storage battery panels. . 
STORAGE BATTERIES 

In a separate building, located about 60 ft. from the main 
generating station, is a battery installation supplied by the 
Electric Storage Battery Company, which has a capacity of 
180 ampere-hours and consists of 288 chloride accumulator 
cells \ smaller storage battery, consisting of the same 
number of cells, but having a capacity of 320 ampere hours, 
i- installed In the sub-station at Swayzee. The latter has 
- cells and the former an •<{ wood with lead lining. The 
function of these batterie- i- to eliminate load fluctuations 
on the rotaries so that their output will be constant. Regu- 
lating boosters are installed in conjunction with each bat- 
tery, of such design as to automatically regulate the charge 
and discharge of the battery, causing it to discharge when 
the load is in excess of the average and charge at times when 
the load is less than the average. 

LINES 

Alternating current passes from the switchboard bus-bars 
through the transformers, as above mentioned, the Stick 
breakers are provided between tthe high tension sides of the 
transformer- and the outgoing lines, which arc led through 
high-voltage bushings protected by round glass plates set 
in tile. 

The lines are equipped with Westinghouse low equivalent 
arresters and Westinghouse choke coils, to which ready 
access is had from the gallery. The lighting feeders have 
G E. lightning arresters and choke coils manufactured at 
the station. On the direct-current railway system Garton 
lightning arresters are used, there being four of these to 
every mile. Wirt lightning arresters are provided at each 
transformer on the lighting circuit. 

EQUIPMENT OF RAILWAY SYSTEM 

The line of. the interurban road is built with easy curves 
and a maximum grade of no more than two degrees, most 
of the track being laid on the level. The right-of-way is 
40 ft. wide and owned entirely by the company. Seventy- 
lb. A. S. C. E. rail is used, joined by a six-bolt standard splice 
bars. 

The bonds are of the Ohio Brass Company's manufacture 
and consist of 0000 compressed bonds and soldered bonds on 
the interurban line and 00 compressed bonds on the city 
tracks. Rails are cross-bonded every half mile with 0000 
copper wire. 



February. 1909 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



59 



The road is ballasted with crushed stone and gravel six 
inches deep, underneath the ties, 1,000 cubic yards of stone 
and 300 cubic yards of gravel being used to the mile. The 
ties are of white oak. Side arm construction has been used 
for the. entire course of the line, cedar poles being placed 
along ten miles of the interurban system, chestnut poles on 
the remaining eighteen eighteen miles and cedar and iron 
poles in the city. The brackets are 9 ft. with 1^2-in. tubing 
by the Ohio Brass Company. The lightning' arresters, four to 
a mile, are grounded by means of No. 4 copper wire and 24-in. 
iron rods driven into the ground by the side of the pole and 
also connected to the rail. The wires consist of two 000 trol- 
leys suspended by the Ohio Brass Company's type "D" hang- 
ers. The feeder wires are 300,000 and 500,000 circular mil 
copper line feeding on to the interurban wires ten miles from 
the power station. The feeder from the sub-station is strand- 
ed aluminum equivalent to 300,000 C. M. copper. Spans are 
100 feet in length. 

One bridge crosses the Wildcat Creek near Greentown and 
there are two overhead railway crossings and several small 
steel culverts. The high tension wires cross the bridges on 
timber projections at the sides of the bridge, the trolley wires 
being supported from stands fastened to the overhead steel 
work. ' At Marion the crossings which span the Pennsylvania 
and C. C. & L. Railways, are of the girder type. 

The interurban cars operated on the road, at an average 
speed of 25 miles per hour, are of the Jewett Car Company's 
build, equipped with four 50 h.p. 93A motors, K-28 controller 
and straight air-brake apparatus. There are six passenger 
cars of this type, with one freight car and one work car. Cars 
are run on one-hour headway, only three being ordinarily in 
.service at the same time. Inside they are fitted with every 
modern convenience including overhead bundle racks, Peter 
Smith hot water heaters, toilet rooms and lights of high can- 
dle-power. About two-fifths of the interurban car is devoted 
to a smoking compartment, having comfortable arm-chairs 
-arranged along the sides, and the remainder has aisle seats 
nicely upholstered. Direct telephone connection can be 
opened at anytime between the cars and the train dispatcher's 
office by a pole and hook connection operated in accordance 
with a Stromberg-Carlson system. The city cars, built by 
the Cincinnati Car Company, are twenty-two in number, each 
having two 40 h.p., 92A motors and K-10 controller. Some 
■of them are equipped with air-brakes. 

CAR BARN AND REPAIR SHOPS 

In the city of Kokomo there is a car barn 150 ft. x 50 ft., 
with four tracks, and a pit underneath the entire length of 
one. The repair shop adjacent to this is 45x70 ft. and con- 
tains two tracks, one having a pit 60 ft. long beneath it and 
the other having a pit of sufficient size to be used in taking 
out a truck. This shop is equipped with a full line of ma- 
chine tools and other apparatus used in repair work. 

POWER STATION BUILDING 

Everything connected with the physical equipment of the 
-system has been very carefully looked after and one of the 
best evidences of this is the power house itself, which is a 
well-planned, well-built, fire-proof structure. The exterior 
walls are faced with standard pressed brick laid in £4 English 
bond with headers in each fourth course, affording a thorough 
bond into the wall. All of the interior surfaces in the engine 
room which have not been enameled are faced with Kokomo 
pressed sand brick of buff color and the remaining brick work 
is of the ordinary kiln-run quality. Tile roofing covers the 
building. 

The foundations above grade, are of the best Indiana cut 
building limestone and below grade of concrete resting on 
bedrock. 

The floors are of concrete with smooth surface, the engine 
room floor being supported on steel beams and under each of 
the turbine units there is an independent concrete foundation 



to a depth of 13 ft. 6 ins., foundations for the exciter-,, con- 
densers and other auxiliaries being correspondingly strong. 
All machinery foundations rest on bed ro< K. 

The steel trestle from which the coal cars are unloaded is 
280 ft. long, 140 ft. of which is on the company's property. 
The steel work is built upon a concrete foundation and the 
frame is most substantially constructed 

High Duty Drill 

TIM', high duty drill of 24-in. swing, shown herewith, has 
a capacity for high speed drills from l / 2 to \yi ins. in 
solid steel to their full cutting edge capacity. This 
machine is built by the Foote-Burt Company, Cleveland, 
Ohio. The machine is single belt driven with no shifting 
of belts required. All speed and feed changes arc through 
quick change gear device. Levers for stopping and starting 
machine, and for changing feeds and speeds are all conven- 
iently located, and within easy reach of the operator at all 
times. Spur gears are used throughout, except one pair of 
slow running two to one bevel gears at the driving end and 
one worm and worm gear for the feed. 

The spindle is of forged high carbon steel, fitted with ball 
bearing thrust which is guaranteed not to crush under the 
most severe duty. Three changes of geared feed are pro- 
vided; any one of which is instantly available by simply 
shifting a lever, conveniently located at front of machine. 
All feed changes can be made without the necessity of stop- 
ping the machine. Power feed is provided with adjustable 
automatic stop and hand stop. Hand feed is through worm 
and worm gearing, and quick traverse of spindle in either di- 
rection is accomplished through the spider hand wheel, lo- 
cated at front of machine, which, with either the in or out 
movement of any or all the handles, engages or disengages 
the same. 

The table is of the bracket knee type, having a large square 




high Duty Drill. 



60 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



February, 1909 



lock bearing surface on the upright, to which it is securely 
gibbed. It is further supported and elevated by a square 
thread jack screw, located underneath, slightly back of the 
center of spindle, to permit boring bars or other tools pass- 
ing through the table. It is also provided with liberal oil 
groove and two T-slots. 

The drive is a self-contained unit, neatly located in base 
of machine. The nine spindle speeds are through a double 
train of gearing, which is always in mesh and runs in a 
bath of oil. This device consists of a lock bolt engaging any 
one of three gears in each of the two trains, giving the nine 
speeds, any one of which is instantly available by shifting the 
levers, located at side of machine, to the different locations 
for different speeds as indicated by index furnished. One 
pair of two to one bevel gears are securely housed at the end 
of speed box, inside of column, which make the connection 
to the vertical driving shaft, and the distance between the 
vertical driving shaft gear and the spindle gear, being spanned 
by an idler spur gear, overcoming the necessity of but one 
pair of bevels in the construction of the entire machine. 

A tapping attachment can be furnished when so desired, 
which consists of a positive steel clutch located on the idler 
gear at top of machine, obviating the necessity of driving 
and leading the spindle through the keyed member of the 
clutch. This attachment reverses at a ratio of two to one. 
The compound table is an extra attachment, consisting of an 
entirely new knee for this purpose. It has a longitudinal 
adjustment of 14 ins. and a cross adjustment of 8 ins. Top 
platten is fitted with two T-slots, running lengthwise; also 
witli liberal oil groove, and has a working surface of 16'/2x30 
ins. When compound table is furnished, the maximum dis- 
tance from nose of spindle to top of table is decreased b% 
ins. 



New Air Compressors 

ALINE of air compressors, built by the Thos. H. Dallett 
Co., of Philadelphia, Pa., brings out new features in 
compressor design. These compressors are claimed to 
incorporate the essential features of having all parts requiring 
adjustment or renewals readily accessible, employing the best 
material and workmanship throughout, and using a liberal 
amount of metal, scientifically placed, to insure rigidity in oper- 
ation. 

The frame is of the open fork center crank type and is of an 
especially massive and rigid design to obtain on each size com- 
pressor a greater range of capacity by substituting, when de- 
sired, a cylinder of the next larger size than the standard to 
operate at 100 lbs. pressure. By way of example : on an 8-in. 
stroke compressor the regular cylinder for 100 lbs. pressure is 
8 ins. in diameter, but a 10-in. diameter cylinder can be sub- 
stituted and still operate at the above pressure, whereby a 
greater volume of air is obtained with but a slight increase in 
cost of machine. 

The cross head guides are cylindrical and are bored at the 
same setting as the boring and facing of the end which re- 
ceives the cylinder, insuring absolute alignment, this being 
flanged for bolting the cylinder to the frame, and the con- 
venience in tightening the cylinder stud nuts, which are on the 
outside, will be appreciated by the users. 

The main bearings are lined with a high grade babbitt metal, 
which is poured into dovetailed recesses and is piened in to 
obviate shrinkage, and then bored and scraped to fit the crank 
shaft. Lubrication is effected by means of sight feed devices, 
or by gravity or force feed system, as desired, and drains are 
provided for draining off all drippings from guides, stuffing 
boxes and crank pit. 

The duplex belt, duplex steam and single steam machines are 
supported on a rigid and deep sub-base, thus making the entire 
machine self-contained, obviating any possibility of getting out 
of line, and insuring satisfactory operation on either a rough 




Single Belt-Driven Compressor. 

temporary foundation of timbers, or a permanent one of con- 
crete or brick. An oil gutter is provided entirely around the 
lower base flange on all sub-bases. This is an excellent fea- 
ture, as it insures a clean foundation and floor free from un- 
sightly oil puddles and stains. 

The steam cylinder and valve gear of the steam driven ma- 
chines are examples of up-to-date steam engine practice, and 
are suited to the operation of compressors, giving high efficiency 
with slight attention. All steam ports are short and direct and 
of the proper area. The clearance has been reduced to a mini- 
mum, giving an appreciable saving in steam consumption. A 
plain D balanced slide valve is used on the small and medium 
sized machines, the Meyer balanced adjustable cut-off valve 
being employed on the larger machines. To provide efficient 
heat insulation, all steam cylinders are lagged with mineral 
wool and neatly jacketed with planished sheet steel. 

The rocker arms on all valve gears are provided with means 
lor adjustment, doing away with all wobbly movement and 
unnecessary lost motion. 

On every steam driven machine the governor is equipped 
with a safety stop device, which immediately stops the machine 
in case the governor belt should break. 

The governor pulley is situated on the end of the shaft out- 
side of the fly wheel on the single machine, thus bringing the 
fly wheel as close to the bearing as possible and also eliminating 
all possibility of oil or grease from the eccentric getting on the 
governor belt. 

In the case of duplex compressors with compound steam cyl- 
inders, if the machine stops with the high pressure side on the 
dead center, which occurs frequently, it will not start automat- 
ically, this being due to the fact that but one side (the high 
pressure) takes steam from the line. This trouble has been 
overcome by using a reducing valve of standard make, which 
reduces the live steam pressure for use in the low pressure 
cylinder; thus if the high pressure side stops on the dead center,, 
live steam is fed to the low pressure cylinder through the re- 
ducing valve, starting the compressor. It is obvious that steam 
from the boiler is taken into the low pressure side only when 
starting, otherwise the operation is identical with any com- 
pound machine. 

The air and steam cylinders are tied together and held in 
position by means of an internally flanged tie or distance piece. 
On the smaller sizes this piece supports the air cylinder, but on 
the larger sizes the air cylinder is supported on a pedestal, 
while the tie piece is of circular design without the foot piece. 
Ample openings are provided on each side of the tie piece to- 
allow adjustment of the stuffing boxes and tghtening the cyl- 
inder stud bolts. 

The air cylinders are of a special hard close grained iron, 
and allowance is made for reboring if necessary. Suitable and 
efficient means are provided to obviate any chance of the air 
valves being drawn into the cylinder in case of breakage. Each 
cylinder is thoroughly tested before assembling under hydraulic- 
pressure of 9.0Q lbs., and all defective castings are eliminated. 



.February. 1900 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



61 





Air Discharge Valve. 



Parts of Air Discharge Valve. 



The clearance space is reduced to a minimum, and all. heads 
and cylinder walls are thoroughly water jacketed, thus obtain- 
ing the highest efficiency possible. Means are provided for 
draining the cylinder and cylinder head jackets of water, this 
being essential in cold weather. The lubricant is fed directly 
into the intake passage, allowing the suction to carry the oil 
into the cylinder in the form of a fine spray. This mode of 
lubrication has been thoroughly tried out and found to give 
efficient and equal lubrication of all working parts. 

Mechanically operated inlet valves are supplied on any size 
compressor if desired. These valves are of high grade of work 
manship, ground no gauge and the valve holes lapped to size. 
Any of the "Dallett" standard low pressure compressors are 
suitable for vacuum service, and are furnished with mechanically 
operated inlet valves for a high vacuum. 

The piston rod on both belt and steam machines is designed 
to allow for re-turning in case of wear. In re-turning a rod, 
allowance has been made in size to leave the threads untouched, 
only necessitating the turning of the straight diameter of the 
rod. 

The cross head is a new type box pattern, made of semi- 
steel. Its shoes are adjustable and of large bearing surface. 



The upper shoe is lubricated by means of a sight feed lubri- 
cator, and the lower shoe runs continually in a bath of oil. 
One of the features of this design is the side openings, which 
allow easy access to the cross head shoe binder bolts. The 
cross head pin is tool steel, hardened and ground. It is fitted 
to tapered seats in the cross head, drawn tight on the tapers by 
means of a nut held in position by a pin. Means are provided 
for turning one-quarter revolution in case it wears flat on the 
two bearing sides, thus doubling the wearing capacity. 

The air intake and discharge valves are special features of 
these compressors. The intake valve is of the automatic poppet 
type, contained in a malleable iron cage. The cage is one piece 
and combines both seat for the valve and guide for the valve 
stem. The cage is threaded and screws into the wall of the 
air intake chamber only, and is simply seated in a recess on 
the main bearing wall, using thin corrugated copper gaskets to 
secure a tight joint. A hexagonal recess has been cast in all 
cages to accommodate a special cast steel wrench for use in 
removing and replacing valve cages. 

The valve cage cap acts as a lock nut for holding the cage 
in place after it has been screwed down on its seat in the cyl- 
inder. It is provided with a hexagonal projection and the same 




Sectional Elevation of Single Steam Machine. 



€2 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



Febi mi \ . L909 



■ 



Air Inlet Valve, 
wrench can be used here as on the valve cages. In the case of 
a compound machine, corrugated copper gaskets are placed under 
the valve caps on the high pressure cylinder to insure against 
any leakage, as the discharge pressure from the low pressure 
cylinder is constantly at these joints. 

The valve proper is a special alloy hardened steel, with 
and stem ground to gauge. The valve spring is of phosphor- 
bronze and of the right proportion to give the valve an easy 
opening and a quick closure. 

Much annoyance and trouble lias been caused on certain 
makes of intake valves due to the spring holders shearing off 
or working loose. The cause of this trouble is due to the 
sudden stopping of the valve on it -> seat, which tends to drive 
the spring holder off the valve stem. This effect may be likened 
to driving a hammer on its handle by means of hitting the 
handle on its opposite end. The principle involved i- identical. 

To eliminate this defect and the trouble caused by threading 
and pinning the spring holder to the valve stem, solid ends have 
been employed by some builders, which necessitates a split guide 
and complicates the valve parts. On the "Dallett" valve, the 
spring holder comprises a split taper ring set into a recess on 
the valve stem, and held together and tight to the stem by 
means of a solid taper ring slipping down over it. The ham- 
mering of the valve on its seat tends to tighten the spring holder 
on the stem instead of driving it off, due to the action of tin 
taper. 

The discharge valve is of the automatic poppet type con- 
tained in a valve cage of malleable iron. The method of seat- 
ing in the cylinder and locking to its seat is identical with 
that of the intake valve. A projection or boss has been provided 
on the valve cap which acts as a positive stop for the valve 
when it has reached a lift giving a full opening area, and does 
away with fluttering. This same projection on the cap also 
acts as a spring guide for the valve spring. 

The discharge valve, light and of ample area, is of the same 
material as the intake, having all wearing surfaces ground to 
gauge. 

Both inlet and discharge valves are simple and compact, and 
each valve requires not over a minute's time for removal com 







Cross Head. 



6 a* 

Parts of Air Inlet Valve. 

plete. This feature will he appreciated in case of repairs or 
overhauling. 

The connecting rod is of the marine type and is to be de- 
pended upon for the most severe duty. It is made of crucible 
steel, and both crank pin and cross head boxes are made of 
phosphor bronze bearing metal. Adjustment is obtained at the 
cross head end by means of a wedge and split box. The crank 
pin end is adjusted by removable tin liners, and both bearing 
surfaces are of extremely liberal proportion, lubricated by wick 
wipers. 

The crank shaft on both single and duplex machines is ex- 
ceptionally massive, forged out of a solid billet of mild open 
hearth steel, carefully turned and polished. In the case of a 
duplex shaft, the portion in the center is enlarged to accommo- 
date the heavy fly wheel. 

The wheels on all machines are heavy and of large diameter, 
insuring smooth operation, and in the case of belt machines, the 
face is very wide The fly wheels on the larger machines have 
square cored holes in tin rim to facilitate turning over by 
hand. 

The inter-cooler play- a very important part in economical 
operation of a two stage machine. The "Dallett" inter-cooler 
is of large cooling area, employing the return flow type of water 
circulation, using baffle plates to deflect the flow of air and aid 
in its effectual contact with the cooling tubes. This method is 
very efficient in reducing the temperature of air between stages 
to approximately the original temperature, thus tending to re- 
duce the final or discharge temperature and also the horse power 
required for a given capacity. The nest of cooling tubes may 
be removed intact from the inter-cooler box without disturbing 
any of the piping, as unions are supplied to obviate this feature. 
The inter-cooler is supplied with pop safety valve, pressure 
and drain valve. 

In a compressed air plant the demand for air is often of such 
an intermittent character that automatic regulation of the sup- 
ply of air in accordance with the demand becomes a necessity. 

The belt driven machines are provided with an unloading de- 
vice which automatically unloads the air cylinder. When a cer- 
tain determined pressure i-> reached in the air receiver, one or 
more inlet valves at both ends of the air cylinder are held open, 
aid the load is taken off the compressor, allowing it to run light 
until the pressure drops in the receiver, upon which the valves 
are released and air compression is resumed. 

On the steam machines, a combined speed and pressure gov- 
ernor is used. This governor unloads the air cylinder exactly 
the same as on a belt driven machine, and at the same time it 
controls the speed, allowing a single steam machine to just 
turn over when unloaded, and bringing a duplex or compound 
machine to a dead stop. By this means a great saving in steam 
is effected and the wear and tear on the working parts, as in 
the case of continuous running machines is reduced. 

A complete unloading equipment is furnished with all ma- 
chines. The cemipressors described are built in sizes from 8-in. 
stroke up to and including 16-in. stroke, and give a range of 
capacity from 79 cu. ft. of free air per minute to 1,200 cu. ft. 
Special machines for any capacity, pressure or service, or any 
standard machine direct connected to motor, water wheel or 
gas engine, are built in addition to the standard line. 



February. 1909 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



63 



Armbrust Brake Shoe 

The Love Brake Shoe Company, Fisher building, Chicago, 
manufactures the Armbrust brake shoe for locomotives, ten- 
ders, passenger and freight cars. These brake shoes involve 
certain principles, among which should be noted the follow- 
ing: First, scoring at the shoe's center causes any accidental 
breakage to occur at that immaterial point; second, spacing 
lugs cast on the back of the shoe to space the shoebody away 
from the brake head, enabling it to wear entirely out without 
danger of it wearing into the head, even should the shoe wear 
unevenly: third, a steel connector cast in the spacing lugs 
on the back of the shoe (not in the body of the shoe, which 
would weaken it). The latter feature is for the purpose of 
holding broken parts, should accidental breakage occur at 
any points other than at the center, firmly in place until 
worn out. The scoring of the shoe at the center, causing any 
breakage to occur at that immaterial point, permits the shoe 
to adjust itself to the tread of the wheel thereby giving bet- 
ter service on the tires and adding to the life of the shoe. 
This also enables the shoe to fit the brake head at the four 
points of contact, taking the strain off the shoe and throwing 
it onto the brake head where it properly belongs. 

The body of the Armburst shoe, either car or driver, can be 
worn down to the steel connector. The scrap that remains 
amounts to about 3 lbs. in the car shoe and about 10 lbs. 
in the driver shoe. Aside from the above features in the 
driver shoe, it is pinned to the brake head the same as the 
car shoe, although where roads desire it can be constructed 
so as to bolt and hook on the brake head. On account of the 
former construction it is not necessary to have rights and 
lefts and, therefore, the road does not need to carry so much 
stock; also, as there are no rights and lefts to the shoe; 
when worn more on one end than on the other it can be 
turned as is the practice in car shoes. 



Lang Tool Holder 



THE tool holder, shown herewith, is a 2-in. by 3-in. by 
16-in. inserted toolholder designed especially to turn 
locomotive tires. It is constructed to obtain the 
rigidity, backing and radiating surface of a solid tool. It is 
not a competitor of other holders on "all-around" work, but 
is in a class by itself for removing metal on plain work in 
the lathe, vertical mill or planer. It will take a cut on a 
pair of 72-in. worn locomotive drivers of J4-in. feed by JHs-in. 
depth cut at a speed of from 10 to 15 ft. per minute. This 
is the cut that snaps 1^4-in. by 3-in. solid tools off like pipe 
stems. 

The method of holding these cutters is well adapted for 
forming-tools and these are furnished machined to any shape. 
The regular cutters furnished are drop-forged, of high speed 
steel; the points are air-hardened and ground ready for use. 
The cutters are 7 ins. long and 2 ins. across flat and are set 
in the holder at 10 degrees front and side clearance. This 
allows grinding on face as well as top, as 7 degrees is the 
proper clearance. The face of cutter need only be ground 
a short distance down from top. If the cutter were set in at 
the proper angle it would necessitate grinding entirely off 
the top, which would use up the cutter about twice as fast. 
Cutters can be used up to less than 3 inches in length. There 
is no loss through repeated forging. Two cutters will do as 




much actual turning before being used up as a solid tool VA 
ins. by 3 ins. by 24 ins., weighing 30 lbs. In addition to the 
saving in steel and forging, they save time in grinding. 'I o 
remove cutter for grinding or to adjust it up another notch, 
it is not necessary to remove the bolt from the holder. Sim- 
ply loosen the nut and turn the boh head one-fourth revolu- 
tion and cutter can be slipped up or out or put back with the 
same operations. 

The holder is made of steel of over 100,000 pounds tensile 
strength and oil hardened and is made right and left hand 
(right hand feeds towards head-stock of lathe). This holder 
is made by the G. R. Lang Company, Meadville, Pa. 

The points can be made in the shops, if desired, and it is 
therefore possible to use tip old short pieces of high speed 
steel. These points are very easily forged under the steam 
hammer, using a form which is easily made or secured from 
the company. 

The forming cutters mentioned above are especially useful 
in forming both sides to the flange. Annealed cutter point-, 
which can be planed up to the standard gauge, are obtainable. 
By grinding them entirely on the top, the true radius can be 
maintained until the point is entirely worn away. In rough- 
ing the tread the turning point can be fed right up into the 
flange as the point projects far enough out from the holder 
to allow the latter to clear flange on the deepest cuts. 



The Safety-Appliance Law 

This law is directed, as its name implies, to the equip- 
ment with and maintenance of certain mechanical appur 
tenances to rolling stock employed in the transportation 
of interstate commerce. These appliances are coupler? 
coupling automatically by impact and capable of being un- 
coupled without the necessity of men going between the 
ends of the cars; secure grab-irons or hand-holds; and power 
air-brake systems by which the speed of trains can be regu- 
lated from the cab of the locomotive. The object of the act, 
primarily, is the protection of life and limb of railroad em- 
ployes, but their safety is so intimately associated with the 
welfare of the traveling public that Congress indirectly had 
in mind the safeguarding of passengers no less than that of 
railroad operatives. The duties of such employes necessarily 
involve them in constant peril. The personnel of the Amer- 
ican railroad employes, both numerically and from the view- 
point of individual character, constitutes a magnificent por- 
tion of American citizenship. It would seem, therefore, that 
their well-being is a subject no less worthy of judicial con- 
sideration and conservation than the property rights of their 
employers. 

The railroads, however, are inclined to lay much stress 
upon the sanctity of property interests. They contend that 
the safety-appliance act is penal in its nature and that it 
should,- for that reason, be strictly construed. They seek- 
to justify their violations of the law by pleading ignorance as 
to the condition of their equipment or want of intention o i 
their part to disobey the statute. It is, on the other hand, 
the understanding of the Commission that the law should 
be so liberally, or at any rate so reasonably, construed as to 
carry out the objects for which it was enacted. And it is 
their belief that these objects can be effected only by hold- 




Lang Tool Holders. 



64 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 




Metallic Sheathing. 

ing the carriers subject to the act to a strict accountability 
for their violations of its provisions. Such a requirement is 
entirely in keeping with the dictates of justice. It is far 
better that a penalty, even though it may seem harsh, should 
be assessed against a carrier than that countenance should 
be given to a construction of the act in accordance with 
which the railroads may become careless in respeel to the 
safety of their employes and of the traveling public. 

As stated in previous reports of the Commission, consider 
able difficulty was encountered in executing the safety-appli 
ance law as originally enacted. This was due in part to the 
fact that the law was applicable, apparently, only to ears or 
equipment loaded with or hauling interstate commerce. In 
order to prove that a car in a particular instance was loaded 
with or engaged in interstate commerce, it was necessary to 
produce the railroad waybills and memoranda covering the 
shipment in question. Without these documents it was fre- 
quently impossible to determine whether or not there had 
been a violation of the law. This situation was materially 
improved by the amendment to the original act. by which 
it is made applicable to every railroad failing to equip and 
maintain in accordance with and carrying interstate com 
merce, but also such of its equipment as may be engaged in 
the movement of intrastate traffic, provided such equipment 
is being used in connection with cars engaged in interstate 
commerce. In other words, the law as amended compre- 
hends: (1) All cars and equipment actually used in the trans- 
portation of interstate commerce. (2) All cars and equip- 
ment used in connection with cars or equipment engaged in 
the transportation of interstate commerce. (3) All cars and 
equipment hauled by a carrier engaged in interstate com- 
merce. — From annual report of the Interstate Commerce 
Commission. 



February, L909 

The formation of metallic sheathing pro- 
duces air chambers between the inner and outer 
walls, and provides an insulation against heat 
and cold, keeping a car cool in summer and 
warm in winter. The expansion and contrac- 
tion of the metal is also taken care of in a 
manner to prevent spreading of the seams. 

The sheathing is made up in panels which are 
fastened in place with screws, and the inter- 
mediate or alternate slats are then dipped in a 
mixture of oil and color and driven into po- 
sition, completely hiding the screw heads, so 
that the method of fastening the sheathing is 
in no way discernible on the exposed surface. 
Tests to determine strength have proven 
that the formation of steel used in this sheath- 
ing is stronger, by far, considering its weight, 
than any solid metal; consequently rigidity is 
added to the framing without materially in- 
creasing the weight. That metallic sheathing 
has many advantages over wood is undisputed, 
chiefly on account of its being absolutely fire- 
proof and the large saving effected in the cost 
of maintenance, which, within one year, is 
claimed to offset the small difference in the 
original cost of application. 
The sheathing is also furnished, if desired, with two prim- 
ing coats of paint, baked on. which increases the life of the 
paint, makes it vastly more durable, and requires burning 
off less frequently than if applied by brush in the ordinary 
manner. This treatment is equivalent to enameling, and the 
sheathing is immediately ready when applied to a car, to re- 
ceive the body color and varnish, which is a saving of time 
heretofore consumed in priming and surfacing and increases 
the shop output from 20 t" •.'•*> per cent. 



I 



Some Tool Room Specialties 

N the accompanying illustrations are shown a tooi room 
si i tor engine lathes, combination hollow bars, for en- 
gine lathes, and a cold air tempering fixture. 

The tool room m t comprises six boring bars, three holder 
brackets, three bushings and one cast iron rack. The hollow 
boring bar is designed to hold different kinds of tools in 
. arious positions and is made so that there are no set screws 
to upset or break and no wedges to lose. The holder brack- 
ets are adjustable and made in two parts, the knee base and 
the sleeve. The bushings arc made of cast iron to fit into 
the sleeve of the adjustable brackets. 

The facilities for using thread chasers in the combination 



Metallic Sheathing 

THE accompanying illustration shows metallic sheathing 
on a Santa Fe observation car. This sheathing, which 
is a specialty of the General Railway Supply Company, 
can be used advantageously with either an all-steel or wood 
framing. It is possible to secure a construction embodying 
the good features and eliminating those which may be con- 
sidered objectionable and expensive in the building of an 
all-steel car. 




Tool Room Set for Engine Lathes. 



February. 1909 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



65 




Cold Air Tempering Fixture. 

hollow bars for engine lathes, shown herewith, for inside and 
outside threading and especially for all kinds of heavy flange 
work, will be noted. The use of self-centering double end 
cutters for duplicate work makes for economy in the shop. 
The Krieger cold blast high speed hardening stand for 
tool and machine shop work is also shown. In hardening 
high speed steel in cold air blast, it is necessary that the air 
circulate freely upon all sides of the tools treated and form 
no eddies. This new cold air tempering fixture has these 
important points combined. The two air outlets are directly 
over each other with a horizontal wire screen in center of 
same, for placing heated tools or cutters on it to cool evenly 




Combination Hollow Bars. 

and quickly: The operator can direct all his attention to heat 
properly the next tool or cutter. This is an essential point 
in cold air blast hardening, this way being cheaper and safer 
than oil bath process, as it requires no stirring and will waste 
no oil. It will temper up to % in. square lathe tools and 
cutters up to ^ x 3-in. diameter with a common air blast and 
larger with a pressure blast. It can be attached to a black- 
smith forge or gas furnace blast with a rubber hose. By 
placing it to the right side of fire will make it very conven- 
ient for -operating. These devices are manufactured by the 
Krieger Tool & Manufacturing Company, 83 Randolph street, 
Chicago. 



Car Window Fixtures 

AN interesting combination of inventions in side weather 
stripping, dust deflectors, sash balance and sash lock- 
ing means for car windows is manufactured by the 
Grip Nut Company, Old Colony building, Chicago. From 
the illustrations and description it will be seen that one of 
the essential features is the ingenious arrangement of flexible 
weather strips applied at the two sides of the window on the 
sash. In this construction the inside window stops and finish 
is placed away from the sash, and the sash is fitted loosely, 
allowing clearance edgewise to prevent binding. 

The necessary opening around the loosely fitted sash is 
positively sealed, air tight and dust proof by the weather 
strip forming a flexible joint, also cushioning the sash broad 
side against the outside stops and at the same time central- 
izing the sash between the two window jambs, which not 
only reduces the friction to a minimum, providing easy op- 
erating sash, but eliminates all rattle. This is a novel de- 
parture from all previous practice and is claimed to eliminate 




Gravity Wedging Sash Lock, Flush Stamped Wedge Rack, Con- 
tinuous Cast Wedge Rack and Individual Bottom 
and Upper Wedge Racks. 

the defects which have heretofore been accepted as necessary 
defects, impossible to correct. 

A clever device to prevent rattle and the sash from falling 
is the gravity wedging lock. The lock bolt is beveled 45 
degrees and settles into a corresponding downward and out- 
ward beveled rack. A gradual wedging of the sash against 
the stops in its downward movement effects a gradual stop, 
preventing the usual sudden jar, which loosens the screws 
and fixtures, breaking glass, etc. The sash is securely locked 
against the outside stop in a peculiar manner, preventing all 
rattle and accidents by falling. 

Various designs of these racks are made, some of which 
are shown in these cuts. The pressed rack appears espe- 
cially neat, as it sets flush with the stop. The designs cost 
no more than the ordinary continuous rack. The individual 
stops also show the anti-rattle wedging feature and are re- 




Side Compression Weather Strip and 3-inch Bearing at Top Cor- 
ners of Sash in Operative Position, with Parts Cut 
Away to Admit of Unobstructed View. 



<;r> 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



February, L909 




Car Window Fixture. 

in forced by extra thickness at the bottom, doubling the 
usual support in the wood to prevent splitting and pulling 
out screws. These improved individual stops used on win- 
dows with balanced sash are equally as effective as continu 
ous stops and cost less. 

Other improved methods may be used, such as channel 
holding top and bottom weather strips, but the side air tight 
weather strips and gravity wedging sash lock are the principal 
features of this device. The line is exceptionally complete, con 
sisting of over forty combination designs suitable for any desired 
construction of window in either wood or steel car- Full- 
size working models are used for inspection and demonstra 
tion to prove that they are mechanically correct. The d< 
vices have been in service more than a year and arc said to 
be entirely satisfactory. 



Personal Mention 

Mr. Frank Rusch has been appointed master mechanic of t lie 
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul lines west of Butte at Seattle, 
Wash. 

Mr. E. F. Jones, acting master mechanic of the Chicago & 
Western Indiana, lias been appointed master mechanic, with 
office at Chicago. 

Mr. J. H. Milton, general car foreman of t he Chicago & Alton 
at Bloomington, 111., has resigned to become general car fore- 
man of the Chicago, Rock Island eK; Pacific at Shawnee, Okla. 

Mr. T. L. Burton has been appointed general inspector in 
charge of airbrake, steam heating and car lighting equipment of 
the Philadelphia & Reading. 

Mr. J. A. Mellon, mechanical engineer of the Delaware, Lack 
awanna & Western at Scranton, Pa., has resigned. 

Mr. F. F. Small, mechanical engineer of the Pacific Electric 
Ry Co., has been appointed superintendent of the mechanical de- 
partment, and Mr. J. Strang, general foreman of shops of the 
same company has been appointed master mechanic 

Mr. O. D. Greenwalt has been appointed master mechanic of 
the Williamsville, Greenville & St. Louis. 

Mr. James McBrian has been appointed district car inspector. 
Choctaw district, of the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, with 
office at Argenta, Ark. 

Mr. W. A. Bennett is now road foreman of engines of the 
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy at Edgemont, S. Dak., with juris- 
diction over the line from Alliance, S. Dak., to Deadwood, and 
over all branches in the Black Hills. 

Mr. J. F. Bowden, master mechanic of the Baltimore & Ohio. 
at Parkersburg, W. Va., has been appointed master mechanic of 
the Chicago division, with office at Garrett, Ind., succeeding Mr. 
D. Gallaudet, resigned to take service with another road. 

Mr. H. P. Flory, mechanical engineer of the Central of New 
Jersey, has been appointed superintendent of motive power of the 
New York, Ontario & Western, succeeding Mr. G. W. West, 
deceased. Mr. G. W. Rink, chief draftsman of the Central of 
New Jersey, succeeds Mr. Flory. 



Mr. Edward Williams Pratt, whose appointment as assistant 
superintendent of motive power and machinery of the Chi- 
cago & Northwestern Railway was recently announced, was 
born at Fort Atkinson, Wis., June ~', 1869. His father, Gc 
A. Pratt, was at the time of his death the oldest in point of 
service of any agent on the Chicago & North-Western, and 
it was for his uncle, the- late Dr. Edward II. William- of the 
Baldwin Locomotive Works, that he was named. 

At the age of thirteen he learned telegraphy in his father's 
office; graduated from high school at his home town, and 
completed the course in Mechanical Engineering at Lehigh 
University, where he was prominent in field and track ath- 
letic-. During his several vacations he took up field work in 
Civil Engineering on the Chicago & North-Western, and 
Elgin, Joliet & Eastern Railways, the latter during construc- 
tion. After graduating from Lehigh, and feeling that with 
Civil and .Mechanical Engineering lie still lacked knowledge 
in Electrical Engineering, he entered the employ of the 
Western Electric Co., a short time later resigning to accept 
the superintendence of the Chicago Hardware Mfg. Co. 

In IS'.)'.' Mr. Pratt again entered the employ of the Chic 
& North-Western Railway. At first he was j n the air brake 
repair room, and later in the same year he was appointed 
general air brake inspector. During the seven or more year- 
in thi- position he was a very active- member of the Air 
Brake and the Traveling Engineers' Associations and was 

recognized by the technical journals as one of the' best an 

■thorities in the country on the air brake: he was one of the 

first to instruct on the double brake applications for pa6sen 

ger train-, and was also instrumental in developing the sys 

tern of progressive examinations for firemen and engineers 

On Jan. 1. 1900, he gave up the air brake- work and became 
roundhouse foreman. Chicago, in order to place himself in 
line for promotion in the mechanical department, and was 
rewarded by rapid promotions as follows: General foreman, 
Ashland Division, Ashland, Wis. June i. [900, to November, 
1901; master mechanic of Iowa eV" Minnesota division. Mason 
City, Iowa. November, 1901, to Dec. 31, 1902. On Jan. i, 
1903, he accepted the position as master mechanic of the 
Fremont, Elkhorn e^ Missouri Valley Railroad, which a short 
time later was taken over by the parent company, and has 
since been known a- the Chicago & North- Western "Lines 
West of Missouri River." As master mechanic of the "Lines 
West." Mr. Pratt has also had charge of the locomotive and 
car departments of the Wyoming & North-Western Railway. 
a subsidiary line in Wyoming. 




Edward W. Pratt 



February. 1909 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



67 




George P. Jones 

Mr. George P. Jones, president of the Jones Car Door 
Company up to the time of his retirement from business two 
years ago, died at his home in Chicago on February 10. Mr. 
Jones had been a resident of Chicago since 1877 and for 
many years had been the head of the Jones Car Door Com- 
pany, but he had been extensively engaged in other lines 
previously to his embarking in the railway supply field. He 
was a gentleman of the old school, a good friend and an 
honorable man. He will be missed by a wide circle of friends 
and acquaintances. His birthplace was in London, Ohio. 



Trade Notes 

"'Bettendorf Bears" is the title of a clever booklet being 
sent out by the Bettendorf Axle Co., presenting a new idea 
in advertising railway supplies in that it appeals to the chil- 
dren. The subject matter in rhyme is composed of thirteen 
stanzas, four lines each, illustrated with photographs and 
three color drawings, depicting lucidly the troubles of the 
S. M. P., who didn't use Bettendorf Trucks and his conversion 
to and belief in their superiority after a visit to the shops of 
the ''Animal Line." The booklet is a splendid example of the 
fine art of printing, the three color work by which the draw- 
ings are reproduced being especially attractive. As an ex- 
ample of the subject matter the last stanza of the Bear Book 
is as follows: 

But the one black bear that bossed the rest, 
Told him the truth — he might have guessed, 
The animal line makes no repairs: 
Its trucks are built by the Bettendorf Bears. 
The author of this work is Bruce V. Crandall, for many 
years publisher of the Railway Master Mechanic, now en- 
gaged in special advertising work of which this booklet is 
an example. 



Mr. Fred Matthews, well known in the railway supply busi- 
ness, is the head of the recently organized railway supply com- 
pany, Mathews and Company, 1502 Fisher building, Chicago. 
Mr. Mathews was formerly with the Schoen Steel Wheel Com- 
pany and several years ago Chicago representative for the 
Standard Railway Equipment Company of St. Louis. His com- 
pany now has the western agency for Mulconroy's flexible 
metallic hose and also the Northwestern Locomotive Sander. 



Mr. R. A. Van Sickler has been appointed Chicago represent- 
ative of the Regal. Paint and Oil Company of Detroit. Mr. 
R< nson Brown, formerly of the Acme Paint Company of De- 
troit, and also with James J. Sipe & Co., of Pittsburg, is 
president of the Regal Paint & Oil Company, and is one of the 



best known paint men in the railway world. Mr. Van Sickler 
is also well known in this field, having been with James J. Sipe 
for a number of years. 



The McConway and Torley Company, Pittsburg, Pa., is- 
sued a supplement to Car Interchange Mannual, showing 
the latest decisions of the Arbitration Committee of the M. 
C. B. Association. This, together with the Car Interchange 
Manual, contains a complete epitome of all the arbitration 
cases to date. They should like to place a copy of the Man- 
ual and the supplement in the hands of every person who 
would find them useful. 



At the annual meeting of the stockholders of [ndependent 
Pneumatic Tool Company, held at Jersey City, X. J„ the 
following directors were elected: Messrs. James B. Brady, 
New York City; W. O. Pacquette, New York City; John P. 
Hopkins, Chicago; M. S. Rosenwald, Chicago; James J. 
McCarthy, Chicago; S. Florsheim, Chicago; John M. Glenn, 
Chicago; John D. Hurley, Chicago; John R. Turner, Jersey 
City, N. J. At the annual meeting of the directors just held 
in Chicago, the following officers were elected: James B. 
Brady, president, New York City; W. O. Jacquette, 1st vice- 
president, New York City; John D. Hurley, 2nd vice-presi- 
dent, Chicago; A. B. Holmes, secretary and treasurer, Chi- 
cago. The annual report shows that the company is in ex- 
cellent financial condition, and that during the quarter end- 
ing December 31st, 1908, 40 per cent more business was trans- 
acted than during the corresponding period of 1907. 



Little short of consternation has reigned amongst the man- 
ufacturers of fans and blowers and much interest evidenced 
by the leading architect-engineers, consulting engineers, heat- 
ing, ventilating and power plant engineers and contractors 
since the introduction and sale in the country of the famous 
"Sirocco" blowers. The fact that the American Blower Com- 
pany, the leading interest in that line of manufacture in this 
country, has now consolidated with the Sirocco Engineering 
Company of New York, constitutes an announcement in en- 
gineering and commercial circles of exceptional note. 



The Chicago Car Heating Company, Railway Exchange 
building, Chicago, announces that Mr. W. H. Hooper, for- 
merly general agent for the Safety Car Heating and Lighting 
Company, has been appointed assistant to the president of 
this company, with headquarters in Chicago. 



A treatise, on shop heating has been prepared by the vice- 
president and chief engineer of the American Blower Com- 
pany, Mr. F. R. Still, whose experience makes him an au- 
thority on this now too little understood but important sub- 
ject of factory heating and ventilation. 



The interference, relating to electric heaters having junc- 
tion boxes, between an application of James F. McElroy and 
the patent to Edward E. Gold, No. 850,924, and dated April 
23, 1907, has been decided by the patent office in favor of 
Edward E. Gold, by reason of an abandonment by McElroy 
of his claim of priority. 



Schuchardt & Schutte, New York, have moved their of- 
fices and warerooms from 136 Liberty street to the West 
Street building. 



Mr. William C. E'nnis, formerly superintendent of motive 
power and master mechanic of various railways, of late con- 
nected with the American Locomotive Co., and now located 
at 543 Broadway, Paterson, N. J., has been appointed by the 
Falls Hollow Staybolt Company as eastern traveling repre- 
sentative. 



68 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



February, L909 



Mr. Edward C. Brown, manager of the Hawaiian office of 
the Dearborn Drug & Chemical Works, at 42 Queen street, 
Honolulu, is making an extensive oriental trip of three or 
four months during which he will visit Japan, the important 
sea coast cities of China, Australia, the Philippines, Java, 
and other important islands in the Pacific Ocean. Mr. Brown 
has most successfully handled the Dearborn company's busi- 
ness in the Hawaiian Islands since that department was 
opened, some ten years ago. 

Mr. Charles R. Herron, of Chattanooga, Tenn., late southern 
sales manager of the American Brake Shoe & Foundry Com- 
pany, died at his home in Chattanooga December 6, 1908. 
Mr. Herron was a highly respected citizen and a noted busi- 
ness man of Chattanooga, with a wide acquaintance through- 
out the South; his friends were legion in all walks of life. 
Born in Ireland in 1844, he came to America with his par- 
ents in 1848 and located in St. Louis. At the age of fifteen 
he became a foundry apprentice, and after serving hi- appren- 
ticeship, became a journeyman moulder, traveling through 
the United States and Canada. In 1873 he started a stove 
factory in Indianapolis. He then became connected with 
the Eureka Foundry Company of Cincinnati, and served a 
term as a member of the Board of Public Works of Cincin- 
nati. His connection with the brake shoe business began in 
1889, when he took char-' of the Ross Meelian foundry at 
Chattanooga in the manufacture of brake -hoe-, and malle- 
able iron castings, lie became connected with the American 
Brake Shoe Company, and in L902 with the American Brake 
Shoe & Foundry Company, win re he continued as Southern 
sales manager to the time of hi- death. He was also largely 
interested in the Herron Pump & Foundry Company of 
Chattanooga. "Charley" Herron was a good man. honest, 
Straightforward and energetic, yet modest and kind-hearted. 
a friend of everybody, and his death i- a loss to all hi- friend- 
North and South. 



The Gold Car Heating & Lighting Company, i? Battery 
place, New York, recently issued a supplement to catalog 
1905, which deals with Gold's combination pressure and vapor 

car heating system. The operation of the system is explained 
diagrammatically. including also the operation of parts. 



The Falls Hollow Staybolt Company. Cuyahoga Falls, 
Ohio, has recently sent out some handsome celluloid blotters, 
which they will furnish to any railroad official upon request. 



The Rockwell Furnace Company has been awarded the 
contract covering the complete furnace equipment for the 
new locomotive shops of the D. L. & W. R. R. at Scranton. 
Pa. The furnace equipment consists of thirty-five of the 
latest type furnaces operated with 300 B. T. U. water gas, 
which is made in Loomis Pettibone producer- 



The Youngstown Car Manufacturing Company, Youngs- 
town, Ohio, has opened a Chicago office at 1508 Fisher build- 
ing, in charge of Charles B. Owens. 



The Kankakee Car Company, Kankakee, 111., has been in- 
corporated in Illinois, with $130,000 capital stock, for build- 
ing and repairing cars and rolling stock of all kinds. The 
incorporators are: Messrs. Leroy J. Vierson, W. J. Wesloh 
and Adolph Stankowitz. The Kankakee Car Company will 
be the new name for the Kellogg Car & Equipment Com- 
pany, the president of which is Mr. Leroy J. Vierson. 



The National Machinery Company, Tiffin. Ohio, published 
a new catalog on their extensive line of bolt, nut and rivet 
machinery, upsetting and forging machines and wire nail 
machinery. The various designs are illustrated and thor- 
oughly de cribed in this catalog of 197 pages. 



The Gisholt Machine Company, Madison, Wis., are build- 
ing a new 88-in. vertical boring mill, described in circular 
recently sent out. 



At a meeting of the board of directors of the Galena-Signal 
Oil Company, held in New York, on Wednesday, January 27, 
.Mr. S. A. Megeath was elected first vice-president and gen- 
eral manager of the Galena-Signal Oil Company, effective as 
of date of election, with headquarters at Franklin, Pa. 



The Dearborn Drug & Chemical Works report that the 
general business of the company for the last six months of 
1908 was larger than for any other six months in their hi- 
tory, indicating the quick returns of prosperous business con- 
ditions. The percentage of increase the past few months, 
and especially for January, in the eastern department of the 
company is particularly gratifying .Mr. Grant W. Spear, vice 
president and eastern manager, at the general offices, 299 
Broadway, New York, who has been for years vice-president 
of the Dearborn company at Chicago, ably assisted by Mr 
HerbeH E. Stone, as general sales manager; Mr. P. H. Hogan, 
manager of the Boston office, and Mr. Paul T. Payne, mana- 
ger of the Philadelphia office, with Mr. P. G. Jones as special 
representative in the Philadelphia district, together with such 
popular and able representatives out of the New York office 
as Messrs. McConnaughy, Mitchell, etc., constitute a most 
tive organization which is an assurance of the high grade 
manner in which the affairs of the Dearborn company will 
be handled in the Atlantic Coast si 



Extensive orders for "Allen" portable pneumatic riveting 
machines have been reported recently by tin- manufacturer of 
these too]-. John F. Allen. 370 372 llerard avenue. New York- 
city Two riveters each have been sold to the Kelly Manu- 
facturing Company, Waterloo, la.; Memphis Steel Construc- 
tion Company, Memphis, Tenn., and Harlan & Hollingsworth 
Company, Wilmington. Del. The order from the Harlan & 
Hollingsworth Company is the second "Allen" riveter sold 

them within a period of three weeks. 



A very h md-ome booklet, about 5x8 ins., ha- recently been 
gotten out by the Joseph Dixon Crucible Company, Jersey 
City, N. J. It is entitled "Lubricating the Motor," and as its 
name indicate-, deal- with the subject of lubrication of auto- 
mobile-, motor boats and motor cycles. The booklet is 
divided into chapters which deal with the individual part of 
motor mechanism: cylinders, transmissions, bearings, etc. 
There is a chapter on tires which includes some valuable 
hint- on this rather sensitive part of the vehicle. There are 
also special chapters entitled, "Overhauling the Car" and 
"Motor Boat and Cycle," which are self-descriptive. The 
booklet opens with a brief treatment of flake graphite lubri- 
cation. A good point is developed concerning the peculiar 
advantage of flake graphite when combined with oil or grease, 
due to the lack of sensitiveness of flake graphite as compared 
with oil or grease. 



The D - OHcr Engineering Company, Philadelphia, Pa., is- 
sued circulars, descriptive of there steam turbines for direct- 
connected and belted service and of their horizontal centri- 
fugal pumps. 



A pamphlet on Manganese Steel Castings has been issued 
by the American Brake Shoe & Foundry Company, Western 
Union building, Chicago. 



The National Tube Company, Pittsburg, Pa., has recently 
issued an instructive booklet on Shelby steel tubes and their 
making. 



.March. 1909. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



69 



gfcm$ fegwtKj 

ESTABLISHED 1878. 

Entered as Second-Class Matter June 18, 1895, at the Post Office 
at Chicago, Illinois, Under Act of March 3, 1879. 



Vol. XXXIII 



Chicago, March, 1909 



No. 3 



CONTENTS. 

General Foremen's Convention at Chicago 69 

Oil Burning Locomotives 69 

Railroad Activity 69 

Scheduled Time 69 

Cleveland Industrial Exposition 70 

New Passenger Coaches 70 

New Birmingham Southern Car 70 

Cinder Pits (Communications) 71 

Locomotive Cranes 71 

New Locomotive and Car Shops at Spirit Lake, Idaho & 

Washington Northern Railroad 72 

Six- Wheel Switcher, C, H. & D. Railway 75 

The Use of Steel in Passenger Car Construction 76 

Locomotive Repair Shops at Battle Creek, Grand Trunk 

Railway 79 

Telephone for Train Dispatching 86 

Cutting Steel 88 

Railroad Purchases 88 

Single-Phase Railways 88 

Responsibility for Railroad Accidents 89 

Concerning M. C. B. Rules 89 

New Locomotive Shops at Stratford, Grand Trunk 

Railway 90 

Piston and Slide Valves 98 

Forged Steel Hydraulic Jacks 100 

Special Meeting of the C. J. C. E. & C. F. Association.. ..101 

Automatic Cut-off Saw 104 

High Power Milling Machines 105 

Plate Straightening Rolls 106 

Double Trolley Crane 106 

Cleveland Shear 107 

Personals 107 

Trade Notes 107 

General Foremen's Convention 

The executive committee of the International Railway General 
Foremen's Association has selected Chicago as the place of hold- 
ing the convention in 1909, June 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. The Lexington 
Hotel has been chosen as the official headquarters, at which the 
following rates have been granted, European plan : $1 to $2 per 
day, single, without bath ; $2 to $3 per day, double, without bath ; 
pleasant outside rooms with bath, $2 to $3 per day single ; $3 to 
$4 per day double. A club breakfast can be secured from twenty 
cents up, and a table d'hote luncheon at 50 cents. 

Arrangements have been made for exhibits by the supply firms, 
particulars of which can be secured from the secretary of Supply 
Men's Association, Mr. J. Will Johnson, 1427 Monadnock build- 
ing, Chicago. Applications for membership can be secured from 
any of the officers of the organization, or from the secretary- 
treasurer, Mr. E. C. Cook, Royal Insurance building, Chicago. 



Oil Burning Locomotives 

Six of the twelve new locomotives recently purchased by The 
Panama Railroad Company have arrived on the Isthmus, and the 
other six will come in two consignments, on ships due to arrive 
this month. These are the locomotives that are to use oil as 
fuel, and to this end they have been equipped with combination 
oil and water tanks, the oil capacity being 2,300 gallons and the 
water 5.000 gallons. The oil tanks can be taken from the tenders 
and the space they occupy can be used as coal bins in case it is 
•ever desirable or necessary to use the locomotives as coal burners. 



The coal capacity is ten tons. The oil burners arc of the Booth 
pattern, and they can be removed readily and replaced by grates 
at any time it becomes necessary to use coal. The locomotives 
are of the simple Mogul type, cylinders 20 by 26 inches, tra< 
power, 26,000 pounds; steam pressure in boilers, 200 pounds to 
the square inch; drivers, 63 inches in diameter. They hav< 
latest Westinghouse air brake equipment automatic couplers, and 
Cardwell draft gear. The first of them will leave the Cristobal 
shops this week, and all six of those now, under erection will be 
in service within a month. When the twelve are put in service 
the twelve LOO-class engines now in use will be retired to yard 
use, or will be equipped as oil burners. A 50,000-gallon tank will 
be erected at Cristobal to supply oil to the locomotives. — The 
Canal Record. 

Railroad Activity 

A statement by Mr. B. F. Yoakum, chairman of the executive 
committee of the Rock Island-Frisco System, is given in Ameri- 
can Industries, as follows : 

I am proceeding with a feeling of confidence in the future that 
Judge Taft will prevent uncertainties in the business of the 
country. 

We need a period of agricultural, commercial, and manufactur- 
ing activity, free from disturbance. If a petition asking for this 
simple remedy for the good of all classes were circulated among 
the people, it would receive more signers than the combined vote 
of both Mr. Taft and Mr. Bryan. The million and a half railroad 
employes would sign it. The million farm owners of this country 
would sign it ; it would give them a broader and steadier market 
for their farm products, their cattle, and their hogs. The mer- 
chants, the manufacturers and their employes would sign it. They 
all want stability of government to enable them to plan their 
work ahead, assuring permanent and lucrative employment. 



Mine Explosion and Rescue Station 

The United States Geological Survey, acting in co-operation 
with the Illinois State Geological Survey and the University of 
Illinois, has established a Mine Explosion and Mine Rescue Sta- 
tion at Urbana, 111. The purpose of the Station is to interest 
mine operators and inspectors in the economic value of such mod- 
ern appliances as the oxygen helmets and resuscitation apparatus 
as adjuncts to the normal equipment of mines The Station also 
will concern itself with the training of mine bosses and others in 
the use of such apparatus. Its service is to be rendered gratui- 
tously, and so far as possible to all in Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, 
West Kentucky, Iowa and Missouri, who may desire the benefits 
thereof. 



Wood Preservatives 

An increase from three and one-half million gallons of the oil 
of coal tar or creosote, as it is popularly known, imported into 
the city of New York in 1904, to an amount estimated to be al- 
most twenty-five million gallons last year, is one of the indica- 
tions pointing to the progress of the wide national movement for 
the conservation of forest resources. 

It is creosote which the government and scores of corporations 
and private wood users have found to be one of the most satis- 
factory preservatives of railroad ties, mine props, telephone and 
telegraph poles, fence posts, and for timbers used for other com- 
mercial purposes. Lengthening the life of timber in use means 
the lessening of the drain nn the country's forests, and what is 
more important to the average business man. it means the saving 
of thousands of dollars annually spent for the labor of the fre- 
quent renewals made necessary when untreated timber is used. 



Scheduled Time 

Figures that have been compiled by the Pennsylvania Railroad 
show that out of a total of 369.315 trains o r which a special rec- 



70 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



March, L909 



Train No. :i I'i:«»mi.im. Bficul.— AurviNO »T Jikbct Citt JaN Ibt to Dec 31«t, IU08. Inclusive. 


Dnw 


<:■• Not 

M... . III..! 

oMIo Uu 


Day* Not 

10 Mm Uu 


Daya Not 

M.,,r tl,... 

20 Mm Lata 


Daya Not 
M,-<p lli>f> 

Willi Lsls 


DayaOvar 
30 Mm Lata 


Total Day* 


Total Miss 
Lata 


Psrcaoiacs 
On Tims Lata 


—1908 
—1907 


3M 
278 


3 
10 


8 
12 


M 
16 


8 
12 


19 
38 


366 

385 


1838 
4046 


85 78 
75 96 


14.22 
24.06 


Tbain No. 29— Pennsylvania 8pecial— Arriving at Chicaoo Jan. 1st to Dec 31«t, 1908, Inclusive. 


Dsys 


Daya Not 

Hor» IhAO 
9 Mm Late 


Daya Not 
lOllTll Lsls 


Daya Not 

«..,- rl,.„ 
'.'UMin Lais. 


30 Mm LAIS 


30sfm ll'w 


Total Dsya 


Total Urn. 


Parraotacs 
Od Tinas Lsts 


— 1908 

— 1907 


315 
280 


3 

4 


7 

s 


8 
19 


8 
16 


42 


366 
365 


2423 
4131 


86 06 
76 60 


13 94 
23 60 



Note.— Figures for 1907 ore from June, 1907, to June, 1908. 

ord was kept during the year L908, 324,739 trains, or s s per cent. 
of the total, made scheduled time or better. 

Of through trains records kept of 81,369 trains on the five 
principal divisions, show thai an average of 87 per cent, of the 
trains made scheduled time, while 23 per cent, of this average 
number made better than scheduled time. The latter trains "made 
up" time on the road. 

During the year 1908, the Pennsylvania Special, the 18-hour 
train running: between New York and Chicago, a distance of 912 
miles, arrived at Chicago on time 315 out of 366 days, and at 
New York on time 33 l days in the year. Of the M days on which 
the train was late at New York, upon only 19 was the delay 
greater than thirty minutes. 



Recent Lectures 

Dr. Frederick W, Taylor, past -president of the American So- 
ciety of Mechanical Engineers, gave an address before the Col 
lege of Engineering of the University of Illinois on Thursday, 
February 18. His talk was along general engineering lines, sup- 
plemented by anecdotes from the early part of the careers of SUC 
cessful engineers. 

Mr. W. Ff. Finley, assistant chief engineer of the Chicago & 
North-Western Railway Company, gave a lecture before the Col- 
lege of Engineering of the University of Illinois on Friday, Feb 
ruary 19, on "The Quebec Bridge Failure." 



Cleveland Industrial Exposition 

Cleveland's Industrial Exposition, which will be held June T to 
19, promises to be unique in the history of home-product exposi- 
tions in the diversity of manufactures shown. It is estimated 
that 125,000 different articles come out of the city's 3,500 shops, 
The percentage of these displayed will give unusual variety and 
range to the exhibits and will add greatly to the spectacular as 
well as to the educational value of the exposition. Cleveland 
leads all other American cities in the production of steel ships, 
heavy machinery, hardware, twist drills and small tools, wire 
and wire nails, bolts and nuts, vapor stoves, electric carbons, mal- 
leable castings, telescopes, gasoline, steam and electric automobiles, 
and takes high rank in the manufacture of paints and oils, 
women's clothing, chewing gum and various other products. 



New Passenger Coaches 

The following item concerning the new passenger coaches en 
the railways of British India is taken from a rej onsul- 

General William H. Michael, of Calcutta: 

The new car is built on the corridor plan, and will be substi- 
tuted as fast as possible on the broad gauge road running from 
Bombay northward. It is Mated that this coach has the ap- 
proval of the railway board, and is intended to be the standard 
type for new rolling stock in India. The coach is of the ordi- 
nary bogie type, but is mounted on six-wheeled bogies, which 

give extraordinary smoothness in running. It is built with a 
corridor running from end to end of the coach, and from this 
corridor opens oul a series of two-berth compartments, the up- 
per berth being of a mosl ingenious design, so compactly con- 
structed that at first sight it is difficult to sec how it is low 
In this compartment there is abundant spac< for two, with all 
tin- luggage any two reas, ,nabl< persons need take in!,, (he car- 
riage with them. There is a neat ledge running along IC tide 
>>i the compartment for small articles, and a capacious hatrack. 
Every compartment has a powerful electric fan, entirely under 
the control of the passenger, and three electric lamps, n e small 
light being separate!) switched, s,, that it may be kept burning 
all night, i:' desired, without inconvenience. If the passi 
so wills, he can fasten his door, bi>lt all the Venetians or windows, 
and be absolutely secure against intrusion. If the party extend 
beyond the accommodation of a single compartment the sliding 
dour connecting it with the adjoining compartment Can be left 
open and the two compartments thrown into one. There is an 
electric bell, enabling tin- attendant to be summoned at any hour 
of the da) or night. At either end of the coach there is a 
commodious bathroom. This is a roomy cabin, with a good 
bath half sunk in the floor, an abundant equipment of mirror-, 
and all toilet and sanitary conveniences. One bathroom is re- 
served tor women and the other for men. There is a compart- 
ment for servants, so that they are within call at all hours. In 
time it is the purpose to add a room where the heavier luggage 
may be stored and opened when occasion demands. American 
tourists who hape used these new cars speak in the highest pi 
of them. 



New Birmingham Southern Car 

The new Birmingham Southern car. which is shown in the 
accompanying illustrations, is 35 ft. 1 in. over striking plate. 32 
ft. 7 ins. in length inside and 25 ft. 1 in. from enter to center 
of trucks. The height of car from rail is 10 ft. 3 ins. 

The specialties of the car an as follows: Arch bar trucks; 5J^ 
xlO-in. journals; Schoen steel wheels. :s:; ins. diameter; pressed 
Steel truck bolsters; Westinghouse draft gear; climax draw head; 
capacity. 1905 cu. ft.; end floor arrangement, 450, and 10-in. 1 
with K-i triple. 




New Birmingham Southern Car. 



March. 1909. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



71 




Elevation of Birmingham Southern Car. 



The purpose in making the end floor arrangement 4.30 is, of 
course, to provide for a long-time want of self -clearing car. It 
is found that plants using cars of this description generally un- 
load about twice the amount of coal in a given time than with 
the old style equipment, and therefore the railroad has the 
cars in their possession that much longer; thus it requires a re- 
duced number of cars to properly handle the traffic. 

Cars of this type to the number of 160 are now being built 
by the Pressed Steel Car Company for the Birmingham Southern 
Railroad. 



Cinder Pits 

Editor, Railway Master Mechanic: 

Handling ashes at the round house — the plan we follow here 
is to shovel the ashes from the pit to the car. The pit -is open 
on one side and the top of the car is about two feet higher than 
the bottom of the clinker pit. Our men are allowed so much 
per engine for handling these ashes and we find it amounts to 
about 6 cents per cubic yard. The force doing this work con- 
sists of 5 men days and 5 men nights. Their earnings will run 
from l~y 2 to 18^2 cents per hour. 

Yours truly, 

Illinois. M. M. 



Editor, Railway Master Mechanic : 

Cinders on this division are handled with a plain depressed 
track cinder pit. We just use the ordinary depressed track pit, 
raking the ashes from the ash-pans into the cinder pit, cooling 
them off, then shoveling them from the pit to the cinder cars 
on the track which is depressed below the floor of the cinder 
pit so that the cinder pit men will not have to lift the cinders 
too high. 

The pit is just a common depressed cinder pit. I have never 
had any experience with cinders handled with a locomotive crane 
or any other kind of hoist. 

The cost is a variable quantity with us, not depending on the 
number of engines handled in the 24 hours. We use Lwo men 
in the cinder pit to rake the ashes from the ash-pans. This is 
necessary because most of the engines have the divided tans. It 
would not work well to try to clean an ash-pan with one man, 
as it would make it necessary for him to go from one end of 
the engine to the other, as the cinders were dumped; therefore 
the labor remains the same whether we hape a few or many 
engines. 

Yours truly, 

Michigan. M. M. 



Editor, Railway Master Mechanic: 

The accompanying sketch shows the general plan of cinder pit 
used at this point. We handle approximately 500 engines over 
this pit each month and use two men, one working days find 



one working nights, to clean the ash-pans and shovel the cinders 
over into the open part of the pit where the locomotive crane 
can get them when loading. The salaries of these two men are, 
oi course, the bulk of the expense of handling the cinders, and 
most of their time is employed in cleaning ash-pans, which will 
be eliminated when all locomotives are equipped with sell-dump- 
ing ash-pans. These two men arc each paid at the ra;c of $50 
per month, making a total of $100 per month for labor. The 
cost of loading one month's accumulation of cinders by locomo- 
tive crane will not exceed $4.50, being made up as follows : 

Salary of crane engineer $2.00 

Cost of fuel . 1.00 

Cost of lubrication 50 

Cost of maintenance of crane 1.00 

$4 50 
In regard to the locomotive crane I wish to advise that this 
is used almost exclusively in handling fuel for locomotives, only 
a small part of its time being taken up by the loading of cinders. 
The crane we have is a No. 1 crane with V/ 2 -y&. bucket and 
built by the Browning Engineering Company. 




In connection with this crane we use one engineer and a help- 
er who attends to the placing of the bucket when coaling en- 
gines out of cars. No coal whatever is handled by hand and 
the average cost of coal handled for the year 1908 was 7 cents 
per ton, while if it were handled by hand it would have cost 
on an average of between 20 and 22 cents per ton. 

Yours truly, 

Indiana M. M. 



Locomotive Cranes 

There are economical and expensive ways in doing yard work. 
To eliminate this expense there has been developed in this and 
foreign countries a machine that is a wonderful economizer, the 
locomotive crane. The rapidity with which it does its work and 
the vast amount of various kinds it is capable of doing makes 
it a necessity. 



72 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



March, L909, 




Fig. 1 — Locomotive Crane, Car Repair Work. 

["hese machines hav< become exceeding!) popular, especially 
among the various railroad- of the United States, Canada and 
Mexico. They are used for doing siicfa work as coaling en 
gines, handling cinder-, sand, gravel, scrap, lumber, ties, wheels, 
rails, trucks, do light wrecking and arc of greal value on the 
rip track, besides numerous other places in the yards, ["hey arc 
of inestimable value on construction work, for the building of 
temporary as well as permanenl pier-, and the) arc iwd to 
handle bridge members. This kind of a machine is by far the 
most modern appliance for hoisting and conveying all kinds of 
yard material. It is propelled by either steam or electricity. 
When electricity is used as power a trolley, third rail or cable 
is needed, but in most cases steam is used, and it is generated 
upon the crane. 

Fig. 1 shows a view of a Browning locomotive crane used in 
the card of the Street's Western Stable Car Line to help in the 
repair of cars. It is also used for loading and unloading various 
kinds of material. 

Fig :.' shows the Browning locomotive crane used b) the Nickel 
Plate Railroad at Conneaut, Ohio. At that point a crane is 
used to coal the engines while they are being cleaned over the 
cinder pit, and then is used to transfer the ashes from the pit 
to the car. This system is used in numerous places throughout 
the country and is found to be a most saving device 

The following figures taken from the cost of operating a 
chute during one month of 1907 and also the cost of operating a 



Browning locomotive crane for the same work besides handling 

the ashes in one month of 1908 

No. of ion- handled, chute, 84*2; cram B322 Gi 
handling coal : chute. $802.05; crane. $467.91 I handling 

cinders; without cram, $620.55; with crane, $428.05. 

I he above shows a saving of almost m per cent. This ma- 
chine more than paid for itself in one year's time. Somi pi 
where all conditions arc favorable the saving has surpassed this 
and has gone over 50 per cent. This is only on,- of the numerous 
instances where saving has been accomplished by using a loco 
motive crane. 

I here are various accessories to the locomotive crane. Tin- 
last crane mentioned above use- a Browning clam shell auto 
matic grab bucket. For handling iron and steel in any form. 




Fig. 2 — Locomotive Crane. Nickel Plate Railroad. 

castings, pigs, -beet or -crap iron, a Browning electro lift magnet 
i- often used, which i- a most valuable labor saving device. The 
crane ma) also be equipped with a scraper bucket or a steam 
shovel attachment, thus enabling the locomotive crane to be used 
as an excavator or railroad ditcher of no mean ability. Each 
da) the operator- anil owners of these machines find something- 
new for them to do and they always do their part. The linn 
will soon be here when a great demand will be made for loco- 
motive cranes, as their ability is an unknown quantity. 



Locomotive and Car Shops at Spirit Lake, Idaho 

Idaho & Washington Northern Railroad 



So much consideration has been devoted in the past to the 
very large locomotive shops, that the subject of arrangement and 
equipment of terminal facilities in smaller units has been rather 
neglected. A good example of the latter type of shop is found 
at Spirit Lake, Idaho, on the Idaho & Washington R. R. Hi re. 
the modern practice of compact arrangement, with room for ex- 
tension, crane serpice for erecting and machine shops, facilities 
for stripping and erecting the heaviest locomotives and conven- 
ience in handling material have been carried out with such modi- 
fications as are demanded by the reduced size of the plant. 

These shops are planned to handle all repairs to the equip- 
ment of the railroad not only as at present constructed hut also 
for the extensions now being made. 

Tn the general arrangement of buildings the round house and 
the facilities for turning engine's ' naturally took precedence: and, 
as the shops ^re placed between the main line of the railroad 



and a hillside, the location of the mam buildings on one side 
of a straight lead to the round bouse was decided to be the most 
advantageous. 

The round house has a clear depth of 90 ft. inside of the 
walls. It has, at present, '■> stalls, and is located >o as to allow 
extension to the full circle of 44. The outer wall is of brick 
resting on a concrete foundation, and the root is of wooden 
con miction resting on posts. The windows are set at the 
rati er unusual height of 5ft. above the floor and arc carried up 
to the roof, making the outer wall in effect, a series of brick 
pilasters with a glass filling. By the installation of an additional 
100 sq. ft. of glass per stall, over the doors along the inner wall 
of the round house, the natural lighting over the whole house 
is made exceptionally uniform: and affords a pleasing contrast 
to the condition, so often occurring in round houses, where 
torch light at midday is a necessity for any work back of the 
cylinders of the locomotives. 



March. 1909. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



73 



A concrete floor, slightly sloped to drain into concrete engine 
pits, permits the house to be kept clean with a minimum of ex- 
pense, and obviates the enormous amount of labor often expended 
in trucking heavy pieces to and from engines over a cinder or 
dirt floor. Work benches containing lockers are provided be- 
tween the stalls at the outer row of posts, giving a clear passage 
way around the house along the outer wall. The usual drop 
pits for drivers and truck wheels are provided, and are fitted 
respectively with hy,draulic and pneumatic drop pit jacks. 

The round house is equippe'd with a most complete system of 
protection against the consequences of runaway or carelessly 
handled engines. At the end of each round house track, near 
the outer roundhouse wall, is a depressed stop to prevent en- 
gines from over-running the track and knocking out part of the 
house. By keeping the stop at rail level, injury to the pilot is 
avoided when a locomotive over-runs the rail. At a distance of 
20 ft. from the turn table end of each round house track is a 
derail, automatically operated by the turn table lock. Unless the 
lock, which is thrown by a lever at the side of the turn table, 
is in place, and the turn table is in line with the track, the 
derail prevents a locomotive from coming within 20 ft. of the 
turn table pit. On the lead tracks from the main line to the 
turn table this distance is increased to 50 ft. Any one who has 
had the experience of getting a large engine out of a turn table 
pit can appreciate the value of this device. 

Provision for handling heavy pieces and driving wheels direct 
from the round house to the machine shop is made by extending 
one of the round house tracks through the outer wall and con- 
necting it to the track which runs through the machine shop. 
This is, unfortunately, a feature which is often omitted in shop 
arrangements. The fan and radiators for the indirect heating 
system are located in a small building adjoining the outer walls 
of the round house, and the hot air is delivered through under- 
ground ducts into the engine pits. 

On the approach tracks to the round house is a coal trestle 
with 10 5-ton pockets, filled, by gravity, from a storage space 
above them. It is equipped with a motor driven hoist for pulling 
loaded cars up the 19 per cent, incline and has a total capacity 
of about 175 tons of coal. At one end of the coal trestle is 
the sand-house and green sand bin. The sand is dried in a sand 
stove and then raised by compressed air into an elevated dry- 
sand bin having a capacity for 10 cu. yds. of dry sand. The dry 
sand is delivered to the locomotives by gravity. 

Between the coal trestle and the round house are located the 
10-in. water crane, the cinder pit and the depressed track for 
loading cinders. The depressed track is constructed with con- 
crete retaining walls, of which one is widened out into a shelf 
between the cinder pit and the depressed track, at the level of 
the cinder pit bottom. This furnishes a walk 4 ft. 3 ins. wide, 
for the men engaged in loading cinders or cleaning' ash-pans, 




Interior View of Machine and Electing Shop, I. & W. N. R. R. 

and obviates the necessity for a deep cinder pit or for men going 
underneath the engines. For a cinder pit where the loading i- 
done by hand, this materially facilitates loading. The rail be- 
tween the walk and the cinder pit is carried on [-beams, sup- 
ported at intervals of 7 ft. 5 ins. by concrete piers. 

MACHINE AND ERECTING SHOP. 

West of the round house approach tracks is the erecting and 
machine shop. This is a brick building 210x70 ft. with con- 
crete foundations, wooden roof trusses, and concrete floor. The 
entire area of the building is served by a 10-ton, 3 -motor, i ravel- 
ing electric crane, arranged so that it can be operated chher 
from the cage, or by pendant cords extending to the floor. 

The erecting shop, in the south end of the building, has three 
longitudinal erecting pits, all served by one transverse drcp pit 
with a 30-ton hydro-pneumatic transfer jack. When a locomo- 
tive enters the shop for overhauling, the engine truck springs are 
blocked and the front pair of drivers are dropped, moved out 
between the pits, and taken away by the traveling crane. The 
engine is then moved forward so that each pair of drivers may 
be removed in succession, the last pair being removed after the 
rear end of the engine has been securely blocked. The engine 
truck may be removed by jacking up and blocking the front end: 
or, dropping it as it passes over the drop pit. and supporting 
the front end of the engine on a special truck under the cylinders. 
This nlethod of de-wheeling an engine takes little time and labor, 
and does away with the dangerous and laborious jacking neces- 
sitated in wheeling and de-wheeling heavy modern locomotives 
where drop pits or tables are not used. It also does away with 
the necessity for the moving about of partially stripped engine- 
incident to the use of a gallows frame or drop table in com- 
bination with a transfer table, and permits all the stripping to be 




Birdseye View, Idaho & Washington Northern Railroad Shops. 

I 



74 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



March, 1909. 




Interior of Roundhouse, I. & W. N. R. R. 
done over the same pit on which the engine is erected. A the 
shop was designed to serve an equipmenl of appr ixinaately 50 
engines, the first cost of traveling electric cranes with capacity 
for the heaviest modern locomotives, or the combination of a 
drop table and transfer table, would have been prohibitive. 

The machine tools are located in the north end of this build- 
ing and are arranged so that the small tools, driven by counter 
shafts, are grouped along the east wall The motor driven tools 
are a 48-in. planer, 36-in. engine lathe, 5] -in. boring mill, 60 in. 
half universal radial drill press, 79-in. driving wheel lathe with 
double wheel quartering attachments, and 100 ton hydraulic driv 
ing wheel press. The latter is set in a covered pit of such a 
depth that the ram stands above the floor at a heighl suitable 
for pressing on and off of car and truck wheels. By removing 
the pit cover, driving wheels may be handled in the press. The 
boring mill, which has a chuck on the table and is used for bor 
ing car wheels as well as for general work, is equipped with 
a jib crane and air hoist for handling work from the floor I 
tsblc. 

The small tools, which are driven from a line shafl hung f 
the cast wall of the building, consist of an 18-in. lathe, 24-ln. 
shaper with concave attachment for slotting driving boxes and 
with index centers, 2-in. bolt cutter with lead screw for cutting 
sta\ bolts, water tool grinder, double dry grinder, twist drill grind 
er, power hack saw, 34-in. high speed drill press and 4-in. pipe 
machine. The countershafts for these machine- are supported 
by timbers carried on brackets on the east wall and art' located 
so as to minimize the obstruction of light from the windows. \ 
band saw and a single spindle wood borer have also been in- 
stalled and are both driven by a single motor set on the Poor. 

In the north-east corner of the machine shop is located the 
tool room enclosure. In part of this space, separated from the 
tool room proper by a railing, is installed a motor-driven, two- 
stage air conpressors, of 500 cu. ft. capacity : and also the switch- 
board and a motor-generator set which supplies direct current 
for the variable speed motors driving machine tools and for the 
crane motors. The power for the shops is supplied by 3 phase, 
440-volt, electric current, from an outside source ; and to this 
fact is due the rather unusual location of the machinery. Since 
the operation of the air compressor is made automatic by means 
of an unloading device, and the motor generator set requires 
practically no attention, the services of an engineer are dispensed 
with, and the machinery is watched and cared for from the tool 
room. 

In the opposite corner of the north end of the building are 

located the radiators and the fan for the indirect heating system ; 

and over these, on an enclosed platform 10 ft. above the floor, 

are the toilets and lavatories, and the metal lockers for the shop 

employes. 



BLAI KSMI1 II SHOP. 

The blacksmith shop occupies 60 ft. of the south end of a 
brick building parallel to and 38 ft. west of the machine shop. 
The building is 97 ft. long by 40 ft. wide and has brick walls on 
concrtle footings and a trussed wooden roof. The blacksmith 
shop equipment consists of one 1100-lb. steam hammer, a single- 
1 motor-driven punch or shear, and three forges, one of 
them extra large. Space for additional forges and anvils is pro- ' 
vided, A three-ton jib crane serves the hammer, the punch, and 
the large forge. Blast is furnished by a motor-driven pressure 
blower set in a covered pit and discharging into underground tile 
ducts. One corner of the building i- used a- a Hue shop. It is 
equipped with a motor-driven tine cutter, an nil tine welding fur- 
and a penumatic flue welder. Space outside of tin- building 
has been provided for a flue rattler. 
BOILER PLANT. 
Since electric power for the shops is furnished from an out- 
ride source, and electric drives are installed throughout, there 
is no necessity for a power house. However, a steam boiler 
plant is installed for supplying steam for heating the various 
buildings and the coaches in the coach yard, for operating the 
■ii hammer, and for blowing fires in the round house. The 
boiler room occupies 32 ft. of the north end of the same build- 
ing as the blacksmith shop and is separated from the latter by 
a brick wall. This location places the boilers approximately in 
the center of the group of shop buildings. The boiler plant con- 
of two L25-h.p. horizontal return tubular boilers which 
burn either coal or refuse slab wood. The firing floor is COV- 
( red with brick ; and a coal bin with a capacity for one carload 
of coal is placed inside of the west wall of the roon opposite 
the boiler-, and is filled direct from cars standing on a track 
alongside of the building. All condensation from the heating 
system-, and the cooling water from the air compressor jacket, 
is drained into a concrete pump pit in the boiler room and re- 
turned to the boilers by an automatic feed pump and receiver 
which mav also be supplied with city water. An injector has 
been in-tailed for feeding the boilers in case of an emergency. 
STOREHOUSE AND OFFICE BUILDING. 
I he storehouse is a brick building 124x30 ft. with a wooden 
floor resting on concrete foundations, and a wooden roof. In 
tb- south end of the building arc the offices of the mechanical 
department, and. at the north end, is a fire-proof oil cellar. The 
metal oil tank- in this cellar are filled from the level of the 
storeroom floor, and the oil is distributed from a delivery counter, 
to tin- level of which the various kinds of oil are lifted by self- 
measuring pumps. 

The Storehouse platform extends all around the building at 
the same level a- the storehouse floor: or at the height of the 
average car door. At the north end of the building the platforn 
is extended oul 100 ft. from the building wall with the full width 
of 42 ft. 




Interior of Paint Shop, I. & W. N. R. R. 



March, 1909. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



75 




Cinder Pit, I. & W. N. R. R. 
PAINT AND COACH SHOP. 

This building is intended for general use in repairing, clean- 
ing and painting passenger cars. It is 108 ft. long and 45 ft. 
wide with two longitudinal tracks extending nearly the whole 
length of the building. The walls are of brick, resting on con- 
crete foundations, and the roof is of wood and has longitudinal 
skylights extending along the center line to give ample light be- 
tween the tracks. The floor is of concrete and is sloped in ac- 
cordance with an underground system of drains in order to per- 
mit washing of coach bodies and trucks. Along the walls at 
the north end are sinks for washing the removable parts and 
the drying racks for sashes, doors, ventilators and seat arms. 
Trussed planks resting on ladder horses are provided for paint- 
ing or repairing coach sides. 

COACH AND FREIGHT CAR YARD. 

Owing to the ordinarily mild climate at Spirit Lake, the freight 
car repairs are made outside on tracks west of the blacksmith 
shop. A car repairman's house, 40 ft. by 12 ft., is located along- 
side of the repair tracks, for housing tools and clothes. A line 
of piping for compressed air is run along the tracks with hose 
connections for compressed air drills and hammers. The coach 
yard has two tracks between which are service boxes at intervals 
of 50 ft., containing steam, water and air connections. Standard 
gauge industrial tracks are provided, for handling mounted 
wheels and transporting heavy material between the machine 
shop and repair tracks and the blacksmith shop. 

HEATING AND LIGHTING. 

The machine shop and round house are heated by indirect 
beating systems. One 120-in. fan in the machine shop and one 
130-in. fan in the round house, deliver hot air through under- 



ground concrete and tile pipe ducts. The fans are motor driven. 
The storehouse and office building, the car repairman's house, 
and the coach and paint shop, arc heated by direct radiation from 
steam coils. As the amount of exhaust steam from the shops 
is negligible, live steam is taken from the high pressure steam 
mains, through reducing valves, for use in the heating coils. 

The shop yards are lighted by a number of arc lamps, sup- 
ported either on the buildings or on lighting poles distributed 
about the yard. The machine shop and the blacksmith shop are 
lighted by arc lights. The natural lighting of the former shop 
was made a matter of special attention and the result due to the 
arrangement of windows and the absence of overhead obstruc- 
tions is an endorsement of the design. The other buildings, in- 
cluding the round house, are lighted by incandescent lights; and, 
in all buildings, a number of outlet boxes for extension lamp 
cords are provided in addition to the stationary lights. 

WATER SERVICE AND SEWERS. 

The high cost of cast iron p'pe in this locality made the use 
of iron water mains undesirable; and, as the soil at the shops 
is a dry gravel, wooden water pipe was installed throughout the 
shop yards. Fire hydrants are arranged about the yard ; and, in 
addition, two hose houses, each containing a hose reel on a truck 
and a supply of fire hose have been provided. In the interior 
of each building hose valves and reels of fire hose have been 
provided so that fires originating inside of the buildings may be 
properly attacked. 

Owing to the fact that seepage through the soil is very rapid, 
the round house, turn table and cinder pit drain into a dump 
pit. The sanitary sewers from the machine shop and storehouse 
are connected through a manhole to a city sewer running near 
the shops. 

CONSTRUCTION. 

The preliminary work for the plans of the shops was taken 
up in May, 1908, and construction was begun the latter part of 
June. All buildings and equipment were turned over to the 
Railroad Company, ready for operation, early in November 1908. 

The shops were designed and built, and all the equipment was 
furnished and installed, including even all hand tools necessary 
to make the shops complete and ready for operation by West- 
inghouse, Church, Kerr & Co., engineers under the supervision 
of Mr. R. F. Blackwell, vice-president and general manager, and 
Mr. W. C. Smith chief engineer of the Idaho & Washington 
Northern Railroad. 



Six- Wheel Switcher 
c, H. & D.GRy. 

The six-wheel switcher, shown herewith, was built by the 
American Locomotive Company for the Cincinnati, Hamil- 
ton & Dayton Railway. It has a tractive power of 28,160 lbs. 
and a total weight as well as weight on drivers of 135,500 




Six-Wheel Switcher, Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton Railway. 



76 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



March, 1909 




Elevation of Boiler,- Six- Wheel Switcher. C., H. & D. Ry. 



lbs. The weighl ol engine and tender in working order is 
236,000 lbs. 

The engine is built for standard i ft V/2 in. guage, and has 
a wheel base of 11 ft. ins., the total wheel base of engine 
and tender being 12 ft. 11 ; i ins. The diameter of driving 
wheels outside tire is 51 ins. and on wlu-el centers is tl ins. 
The cylinders are 19x26 ins. and spaced 88 ins. between cen- 
ters. Tile type of valve is tin Richardson, balanced with 
5Vl-in. travel and J^-in. steam lap. The setting is l/16-in, 
lead in full gear F. & I!. The piston rod diameter is :; ' , in-, 
and piston packing is Jerome metallic. 

The axles of driving journals are 0x10 ins., and of tender 
are 5x9 ins. Journal boxes are of cast steel. The brake, 
driver, is Comb. West. Am.; tender. Westinghouse ; pump, 
9K> ins. i.. II., one reservoir, 26J^x72 ins. 

The boiler is of the straight top type with outside diam- 
eter, first ring, of 66J^ ins. Bituminous coal is used, and the 
working pressure is ISO lbs. The distance' from center of 
dome to center of cylinder is 126 ins. 

The fire-box is of the narrow type, the width being -11 ~x 
ins., and the length 108 J^ ins. The water space is t ins. 
front, .'! ins. sides, and :> ins. back. The thickness of sheets 
is ■>£ in. crown. ' .. in. tube. ; s in. sides and \s in. back. The 
crown staying is radial. The staybolt marked with broken 
circle are 1 -in. Tate flexible. All short staybolts are of ~A-\n. 
diameter, except outside vertical row front and back, which 
are of 1 -in. diameter. All short staybolts have :: 16-in. holes 
drilled 1 % in. deep in outside ends. 

The tubes are made of charcoal iron, the length being 11 
ft., and diameter :.' ins. Guage is No. 11 B. W. G. There are 
280 tubes. 

The heating surface of tubes is 1000.5 sq. ft. and of fire- 
box is 100.5 sq. ft., giving a total heating surface of 1 . 7 « '. 1 




sq, ft. The grate area is 31.5 sq, ft., and style of grate is the 
rocking. 

The lender frame is the American Locomotive Company 
standard. The style of tank is the U-shape slipping back. 
Capacity of tank is 5,ooo gallons, and fuel capacity i~ s tons. 



Steel in Passenger Car Construction' 

Bv John McE. Ames 

The primary cause of tin introduction of steel in passenger 
construction, 1 take to he the idea of safeguarding the passenger 
against fire and accidental injury from telescoping and other 
causes. Nearly every wreck of wooden coaches carries with it 
a harrow iny tale of suffering from fire, and many legislators have 
agitated the question of compelling the railroads by law to pro- 
side the traveler with non-combustible conveyances. Tin advent 
of electricit) as motive power increased materially the danger 
from tir>- and in order to avoid conditions such as existed in the 
Paris underground accident, the question of non-combustible 
coaches was brought forcibly before those railroads intending to 
enter New York b\ sub-river tunnels. Here the danger from 
smoke would be nearly as greal as from fire itself. 

Before the death of that far-sighted executive of the Pennsyl- 
vania system, the late Mr. Cassatt, he decided that with the com- 
pletion of the tunnel system into Xew York, none but steel 
coaches should In used in tunnel service and preparation accord- 
ing to his policy is being rapidly brought to completion. These 
sub-river tunnels have, therefore, been factors in the introduc- 
tion of steel in coach construction, but the primary idea is nev- 
ertheless the safeguarding of the passenger. The growing scarcity 
of long timber for sills and the reduction in cost of mainten- 
ance of steel over wooden cars may both be considered as minor 
causes in tin introduction of steel. 

We know then why steel should be used but the question 
occurs to many as to where steel should be employed and where 
it is unnecessary. Opinions differ regarding interior finish, roof, 
doors, headlining, floors windows etc. To attain the safeguard- 
ing of passengers there is no question but that steel should be 
used for underframe posts, carlines, etc., or that steel or metal 
exterior should be used in order to avoid fire from outside 
causes. But is it necessary to make the interior of similar ma- 
terial even if it can be and is being done? The statement is often 
heard among railroad men, "If we are going to build of steel, 
let us build a coach entirely of steel without even a splinter of 
wood." This expresses the sentiment prevalent today, but I do 



End Elevations and Sections, Six-Wheel Switcher. 



*From paper presented before the Central Railway Club. 



March, 1909. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



77 




Elevation of Six-Wheel Switcher, C, H. & D. Ry. 



not believe the result obtained by the elimination of all wood, 
compensates for the increased cost and loss of insulating quali- 
ties, nor is it necessary for the safeguarding of the passenger. 
In order to apply steel both inside the coach and out, every piece 
of metal must be either bolted or riveted in place, requiring much 
ingenuity to so design that rivets may be driven. The alterna- 
tive is to rivet the outside plates to the frame and then attach 
the interior plates by means of machine screws tapped into posts 
and carlines. This generally proves an easy but sad solution, 
for vibration and unequal expansion soon loosen the tap screws 
and out they come like tacks driven into plaster. A few wooden 
furrings bolted to posts, belt rails or carlines, entirely covered 
on the outside by the steel construction, on the inside by the 
finish and head lining, which may be well fastened thereto by 
wood screws, offers a much cheaper, -neater and unobjectionable 
method of construction except for the sentimentalist who wishes 
to eliminate the last splinter of wood. Aluminum or a slow 
burning artificial board certainly should be permitted to replace 
steel for headlining, partitions and interior pier covers. I would 
not advocate the use of steel for window sills or arm rests on 




seat ends. These parts soon loose their paint due to constant 
elbowing, thus presenting an untidy appearance and should be 
made of wood. The use of steel for roofs adds to the weight 
of the coach as at least l /%-'m. material is required when roofs 
are to be walked on while icing and filling tanks. The greatest 
care must be taken with joints of the roof sheets to avoid leak- 
age. Good results are obtained by lap joints, both edges of 
which are welded to the adjacent plate by oxy-hydrogen or other 
process. This is all expensive work and there is doubt whether 
the result is enough better than canvas covered artificial board 
to warrant the additional expense. If, however, we are to safe- 
guard the passenger, steel must be used for roofing in order to 
protect him from external fire in cases where a coach is over- 
turned. Steel should not be used for roofs where power is taken 
from overhead, wires, as it would prove too dangerous to em- 
ployes. If steel is used in a case of this kind, it should be pro- 
vided with a substantial insulating covering which will, of course, 
again add weight to the car. Floors are another difficult propo- 
sition in a steel coach. Passengers should not be asked to walk- 
on a slippery steel plate, even if carpet covered and, therefore, 
some other surface must be provided. Magnesium cement has 
been largely used but could be substituted by interlocking rubber 
or cork tiles, both of which are insulating and slow burning. 
Steel alone should not be used for floors, but should be used 
on the lower surface especially with electrically driven trucks. 
The use of steel or brass for window frames seems like a waste 
of metal in view of the fact that heat from without, if severe 
enough, may break the glass and even though the wood should 
ignite, there is not enough of this material in the frame to pro- 




Elevation and Section of Boiler, Six-Wheel Switcher. 



Elevation and Section Through Boiler, Six-Wheel Switcher. 



:78 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



March, 1909. 



duce any serious result. The same may be said of doors if 

fitted with glass, otherwise steel should be used for d 

protection againsl fire in adjoii ing coaches. From the builders' 
standpoint, the chief reason why wooden window frames should 
be used is thai each farme may be fitted to place and a tighl 
joint obtained in spite of unequal window openings due to cam- 
ber, uneven metal wi rk, etc. Steel for mouldings is today the 

accepted practice and a good product is obtainable in cold drawn 
metal, but here again must be provided wood furrings to which 
the mouldings may be attached by wood screws or else the un- 
desirable tap -rrw, or similar device is required. Steel is good 
but not essential for partitions and seal frames. I believe the 
evolution oi the steel coach will produce a more composite in 
terior than required b) presenl demands. 

Mu subnet of paint on steel naturally comes to mind. After 
building a coach entirely of steel at great expense so a 
guard the passenger against tire, the builder is often required I i 
paint and varnish the exterior and grain the interior to resemble 
wood, using highlj inflammable material. This is, of course, an 
inheritance from the wooden coach, a habit which is hard to 
change. Steel can be given an excellent dull paint finish which 
could be easily kept clean and we await some l.ochinvar to lead 

us away from the highly polished and inflammable finish now 

in VOgue. Incidental^ the subject of noise due to the use of 

steel was a mooted question before any coaches were built but 
anyone who has ridden in a steel coach will concede that, except 
for a slight drumming sound over the trucks, there is, if anj 
thing, less noise in a steel than in a w leu coach. 

Having discussed why steel should be used in passenger car 
construction and where it should be or need not be used for safe 
guarding the passenger we come to a collateral subject which 
must be considered along with the use of steel, namely: its in 
sulation against beat and cold. What have we gained if, while 
endeavoring to safeguard our passenger from fire and wreck, we 
freeze him in winter and roast him in summer? 1 am free to 
confess that there is very little data obtainable on this subject 
of insulation. We know that steel absorbs a large amount of 
heat from the sun's rays, but believe thai with open windows and 
electric fans, steel coaches will be as agreeable as the present 
wooden coach in summer. Winter, however, presents a differenl 
problem. A steel coach in our Northern countries could be sub 
ject to an exterior temperature of 10 deg. t" 50 deg. below zero 
and an interior temperature of 90 deg. (providing someone does 
not interfere with the porter) or in all a difference of 140 deg. 
The outside steel is tending to contract, the inside steel to ex- 
pand, and both to equalize the temperature without and within 
the coach. This is the condition which ruins tap screw fasten 
ings, tends to loosen rivets and destroy connections, thus war- 
ranting the use of wooden furrings. artificial board or other 
lining material not subject to expansion and contraction. In 
winter steel feels colder and in summer hotter than wood, ami 
this is another reason why window sills and arm rests should 
not be made of steel. Air-tight joints are difficult to make with 
steel against steel and although an air space may be provided be- 
tween the sheathing and lining, it is in no sense a dead air 
space such as is required for good insulation. Double floors 
should keep out the cold from below and there is little trouble 
with roof insulation, but the side and end framing, cut up by 
window and door openings, is a problem still somewhat unsolved. 
An attempt at insulation has been made by backing the steel 
lining with asbestos cloth, but joints cannot be covered as in a 
wooden coach and air gets through the smallest opening, thus 
reducing the efficiency of the asbestos packing. I do not wish 
to convey the idea that steel coaches cannot be heated satisfac- 
torily, for slightly increased radiating surface over that required 
in wooden coaches produces the desired result, but still it is evi- 
dent that the better the insulation, the less the required amount 
of heat, and it is along these lines that the problem should be 
taken up. 



In guarding against leakage from rain or snow, joints must 

necessarily be made as tight as possible. This is done in the roof 
by welding or soldering the overlapping joints and in the outside 
of the frame bv so constructing that plates and pier covers over- 
lap so as to provide against leakage. The least opening which 
permits water to run down back of a plate produces a -treak of 
rusl and ruins the painters' best efforts. Ibis can be and is 
overcome bv proper design and workmanship and is not to be 
compared to the difficulty of insulating against cold. 

When a railroad official makes up his mind that the safety of 
bis passengers warrants the use of steel in bis coaches, he usually 
asks the ear building company, these two leading questions: 

"How much more will a steel coach cost than my standard 
wooden coach ?" 

"Now much more will it weigh?" 

The answers to these questions depend upon many conditions 
and to some extent the price i- governed by the weight. The 
only fair vvav to approach these questions is to compare the 
in and cost per passenger according to seating capacity. All 
available information in regard to steel coach weights is tabu- 
lated on page 322 of M. ( ". B. Proceedings, Vol. 12, and to this 
the official is respectfullj referred. It happens that the length 
of many standard wooden coaches is 60 ft. or under, the exact 
length having been largel.v governed bv the longest stick available 
in one piece for sills. Now to substitute steel for wood in a 
50 or 60 ft, coach, whose weight has been minimized by years of 
development, does not produce the result desired. To illustrate, 
reference to the table mentioned gives the weight of a 53 ft. 5)4 

in. Penna. steel coach., seating 64 passengers, as 95,400 lbs. or 
1,490 lbs. per passenger. Table No. 2 on page :;i'.i of the same 
volumn gipes weight of Penna. wooden 53 ft- 9 i"- coacn, seating 
62 passengers, i- 85,000 lbs., or t,375 lbs. each a difference of 117 
lbs. per passenger in favor of the wooden coach. On the other 
hand the same table gives tbe weight of the Pennsylvania 70-ft. 
steel coach, seating B8 passengers as L16.1O0 or 1,319 lbs. 
each and the weight of Penna. 70-ft. wooden coach, seat- 
-'i passengers, as 106,000 lbs. or 1,325 lbs. each. Both 
the steel weights given include storage batteries not in- 
cluded in the wooden car weights. These figures illustrate the 
fact that when changing from wood to steel, in order to obtain 
true economy, the length best adapted to steel construction should 
be considered and a comparison then made on a basis of weight 
per seating capacity. An important factor which governs the 
cost, is the number of coaches in a given order. Designs, die 
work, formers, patterns. ji gs , templates — all absolutely essential 
for steel work where wood could be cut and tried — cost as much 
for one coach as for ."»<>. and unless duplicates of some standard 
coach already built, an order for a few steel coaches is neces- 
sarilj a costly proposition. As the number in a given order in- 
creases, to some extent, the price per coach decreases, since over- 
head charge- may then be distributed proportionately, but at 
best, the cost of steel is greater than wood in coaches unless a 
comparison is made per passenger carried. However, the steel 
coach should last longer and cost of maintenance should be 
largely reduced. 

Having determined that the use of steel will safeguard the 
passenger and that the price of steel compares favorably with 
wood, if considered on a basis of cost per passenger carried, let 
us not forget that the stockholder is also interested in new roll- 
ing-stock. What effect has the use of steel in passenger con- 
struction upon the railroad stock-holder and his dividends? We 
can safely say that he benefits by the use of steel, due to decrease 
in cost of maintenance, and longer life of coach at small in- 
creased initial expense. But how about cost of repairs in case 
of wreck ? A wrecked steel coach presents a bad condition and 
repairs of this kind are much more costly than for wooden coach- 
es. If badly wrecked, the wood coach may also burn and leave 
no salvage other than the metal parts. If, on the other hand, a 
steel coach, by not burning or telescoping, has saved the life of 



March, 1909. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



79 



one or more passengers, it has served the purpose for which 
it was constructed and the stockholder benefits by fewer damage 
judgments. The railroad company may well afford to scrap 
such a coach, obtain the salvage and purchase a new one with 
money saved from litigation. 

To conclude, the use of steel in passenger construction is not 
an experiment but a matter of daily use. It lends itself readily 
to the skill of the artisan and reduces risk of serious accident 



to the passengers. If is more available than wood, product 
plainer effect, is easy to clean and weighs no more than a wooden 
coach if economically designed. The initial cosf per passenger 
carried is about the same as for wooden coaches, i: -. maintenance 
considerably less. The life of a coach is greatly increased by 
the use of steel, and damage suits as well as suffering in 
of accident greatly reduced. The use of steel in coach con- 
struction is increasing daily and is here to -i 



Locomotive Repair Shops at Battle Creek, Mich. 

Grand Trunk Railway 



These shops were occupied October 1, 1908, and are cen- 
trally located on the Western Division, and take care of the 
repair work for 259 locomotives, covering over 1,000 miles 
of track. The general layout provides for a future extension 
of 100 per cent, to each building in such a manner that the 
area for extension is not between the structures, in which 
case it would be necessary to carry material from different 
departments over this additional area. Provision has also 
been made on the top site of the car department, which is 
to be located east of the present buildings. 

The power house is located at the east side of the shops 
so as to be central when the car shops are erected. The 
75-ft. 10-ton yard crane serves all shops and storehouse, cov- 
ering an area of 100,000 sq. ft., which is used for the storage 
of heavy material, castings, etc. A foundry, and carpenter 
and pattern shops, are to be located on the north side of the 
yard crane run-way opposite the locomotive shops, and the 
frog shop just east of the present forge shop, on the south 
side of the yard crane run-way. 

All buildings are parallel to the main line, and all yard 
tracks to buildings connect with the main line to give free 
movements of material to and from the shops. 



POWER HOUSE. 

The power house is a handsome substantial building, the 
concrete foundation of which rises to a height of 5 ft. above 
the ground, and supports the steel structure with its colonial 
shale brick walls and flat composite roof of aa-qmaltum. 
The floors throughout the building are of concrete, thus 
minimizing the danger of fire. The two parts into which 
the building is divided forms suitable boiler and engine 
rooms. 

The boiler equipment consists of four vertical Wickes 
boilers, each of 340-hp., a water heater 54 ins. in diameter 
and 23 ft. high, and an outside packed union boiler feed 
•pump. The boilers, which are arranged in batteries of two, 
each battery occupying 596 sq. ft., are hand fired, with a 
heating surface of 3,402 sq. ft., and are supplied with rocking 
grates 52 sq. ft. in area. Coal is dumped into the bunker 
directly from the cars and fed into the coal chutes, which 
are conveniently arranged before each firebox, the labor of 
stoking being thus reduced to a minimum. More than suf- 
ficient draft is obtained from a circular concrete chimney 
which rises to a height of 175 ft., and is so constructed as to 
permit the extension of the boiler plant if an increase of 




Interior V ! ew of Erecting Shop, Battle Creek, Mich. 



80 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



March, 1909. 



power is desired. High pressure steam is supplied to the 
engine room for power; to the forgi shop to operate the 
steam hammers; to the locomotive shops to drive the heat-; 
ing fans and for boiler testing purposes; and to the office 
and storehouse where it is reduced in pressure and used for 
heating purposes. Low pressure exhausl steam and, when 
this is insufficient, steam reduced from high pressure is used 
to heat the locomotive and forgs shops. The steam piping 
ieading to the different buildings i- suspended in an under 
ground concrete tunnel, covered with movable concrete slabs 
which, being slightly above the level of the surface- of the 
yard, form a convenient walk down the midway. 

In connection with the water ystem there is a water stor 
age lank of 1011,000 gallons capacity, supported on a steel 
structure L20 ft. high. This tank i- supplied from the shop 
mains. The water pipes pass through the power house and 
the piping and valves are so arranged that the shops can be 
supplied either from thi- tank, or from the city mains, and 
that water can be pumped by a lire pump into the tank, or 
from cither tank or city mains into the shop water system. 
'Ibis pump is a Worthington tire pump with a capacity of 
i.ooo gallons a minute and capable of maintaining a pressure 
ol" ;;, lbs There is also a vacuum pump connected in tin- 
return from the heating system which reduces the pressure 
in the return pipes to the equivalent of 10 ins. of vacuum. 
These two pumps and an od filter are- placed in the- engine 

room on the- floor below the- level of the main room, which 

is 5 ft. above the ground. 

Tn regard to electric power, after careful consideration, it 
was decided that it :ould be purchased more- economically 
than generated. Power is therefore obtained from a hydro 
electric plant which delivers it over a 3-phase, 60 cycle, 5,000 
volt alternating current transmission line- provided on enter- 
ing the power-house, with the necessary protection against 
lightening. In the shops direct current of '.".'o volts, and al 
ternating current at NO vedts are called for. To meet the 



requirements there are tWO banks of transformer- in the 

power house-, one composed of three- single-phase, 250-k.w. 
transformers by means of which the voltage is stepped down 
from 5,000 to the 440 volts necessary; the other consist 
three single-phase 75-k.w. transformers, the secondary voll 

it 152, the- necessary voltage- a 250-k.w. rotary - 
ve-rter providing the desired 220-volt direct current. A small 
induction motor is used to bring this converter up to synch- 
ronous speed. In addition a 200-k.W., 140-volt, 60-cycIi 
phase generati r, driven by a 300-h.p. simple noncondensing 
< orliss engine, running 150 revolutions per minute, installed, 
as well a> a generator exciter driven by. a small vertical 
-team engine. This generator can be- us t -<l to avoid 
shut-down in case of trouble with the transmission line or 
rating plant Also, as more exhaust steam than can be 
obtained from the fan engines and -team hammers is re- 
quired for heating purposes in cold weather, it is clear profit 
to first utilize the live- steam in driving the generator and ex- 
haust from the engines for he-atitiK. The electrical ap 
paratUS in the powerhouse was manufactured by the \\ 
inghouse Electrical .Manufacturing Company. 

The high tension apparatus, which can be operated from 
the switchboard by means . i remote central switches, is 
located em two balconies, one above the- other, beneath which 
the transformers are situated In front of these-, and facing. 
the balconies is the- switchboard, before which are located 
the generator, exciter and converter Connected with the 

switch-board are two sets «.,' alternating current, bus car- 
carrying 110 volts, one- for the generator, the other for the. 
purchased power, and also the buses for the 250-volt direct 
current circuit The- switch board comprises the necessarj 
panels for the e-ontro] of the- convenor, ami of the direct 
current, alternating current, generator, and purchased powei 
lines, as well as six alternating current and two direct cur- 
re tit feeders, the- alternating current feeders onnected 




Tank Shop, Battle Creek. Mich. 



March. 1909. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



81 




Air Brake Department, 
that they can be thrown on either the generator or the pur- 
chased power buses. 

A tunnel, built of concrete, lies beneath the floor behind 
the switch-board and passing through this the feeders are 
carried in lead covered cables through clay conduits from the 
power house to the fuse panels in the shops. Branches to 
motors and lighting circuits are connected to the feeders in 
service boxes. 

ERECTING AND MACHINE SHOP. 

The erecting and machine shop is a spacious building, un- 
der one roof, and constructed of steel, concrete and brick, 
being of self-supporting type, having floor dimensions of 170 
x612 ft. 

The concrete portion of the walls rises to the level of the 
window sills, for which point to the roof, brick is employed. 
colonial shale being used on the outside face. The roof cov- 
ering the composition of felt and tar spread over with gravel, 
light being obtained through skylights and surrounding win- 
dows of the clere story of the erecting shop, while the roof 
lighting of the machine shop is furnished through windows 
of saw-tooth type. 

By the medium of four pipes, placed at 24 ft. intervals 
connected to drain pipes inside the building, water from roof 
i- conducted to the sewer. 

Particular attention has been devoted to obtain full benefit 
of natural light. Instead of the ordinary window glass, the 
corrugated style was adopted, which latter though not clear 
enough to distinguish objects through, nevertheless the pro- 
duced effect, giving a better diffusion of light and almost en- 
tirely eliminating shadows. Besides this the interior of the 
building, being painted white, produces an excellent reflecting 
surface. 

Due consideration regarding the comfort of the employees 
is quite apparent in these shops. Situated on the balcony 
which extends along the machine shop side of the wall, a 
length of 588 ft. x 40 ft. in width, are to be found three heat- 
ing fans by means of which air is drawn over an aggregate 



Battle Creek, Mich, 
of 43,500 lineal feet of 1-in. steam pipe coils. The heated air 
passing through down ducts, enters concrete tunnels, lead- 
ing to the diffusers along the walls, slightly above floor level. 
from whence it enters the shop. It can be readily imagined 
that by this .method, besides imparting warmth, a perfect 
circulation of air is steadily maintained. 

A 60 h. p. engine drives each of these fans, the exhaust 
steam passing through the coils, which steam, along with 
that from the steam hammers, pumps and main engine, is 
ample to cope with an outside temperature considerably be- 
low zero point. 

There are also located on the balcony, toilet rooms, and 
lavatories of approved sanitary design, a copious supply of 
hot and cold water being on hand at all times. Individual 
lockers of the hospital type are placed along the walls of 
the lavatories and "in one of these each employee hangs his 
hat and coat during working hours. 

Five feet metal urinals, which are also sanitary in design, 
are located on the ground floor at the column, on the divid- 
ing line between erecting and machine bays. 

Hemlock sleepers placed four feet apart in well tamped 
sand constitute the foundation for the ground floor which 
is of 3x6 in. yellow pine. 

In the erecting bay which is 70 ft. wide by 612 ft. long are 
twenty-five engine pits, each 43 ft. in length, having a space 
allowance of 24 ft. between their respective centers. 

Extending along the sides of each pit are recesses, in which 
are hung air piping and wiring conduits. The former have 
connections to admit of the use of extension incandescent 
lamps. Water and steam pipe valves are placed at the back 
end of each pit to be used in connection with the customary 
boiler test. Between each two pits is located work bench 
attached to which are two extension lamps similar to those 
in pits. Each of the benches is also equipped with two 
heavy vises. To all the supporting columns adjacent to the 
back end of the pit, there arc also attached air pipe connec- 
tions, and plug receptacles. 



82 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



March, 1909. 




Norton Draw Cut Planer, Battle Creek. 

The erecting bay possesses the advantage of two electric 
cranes, one of L20-ton and the other of LO-ton capacity. I 
are supported by separate runways, which are attached to 
the steel frames of the building. The larger crane being 
above the smaller one has ample head-room to carry a loco- 
motive the entire length of the shops over the Others, while 
the smaller crane expedites the work of stripping and ei 
ing various parts of the engines. 

Motor driven double emery wheels are placed along tin 
walls immediately in front of the locomotives to save time 
on various portions of the work. 

There are two tracks which enter the machine shop oppo 
site the sixth pit from each of the erecting shops to facili- 
tate the transporting of engines to and from that shop. 

At one end of the erecting bay five pits are temporarily 
covered over, that portion being allotted to the pipe depart- 
ment and also to the welding and cutting of flues. It might 
be stated that due to the fact of an approved method of re- 
pairing flues and also the relative location of each machine 
and furnace, the process of accomplishing the work is of an 
expeditious character. A motor driven pressure blower de- 
livers a 14 oz. blast to both of these last named departments. 

Running parallel with the erecting bay is located the heavy 
machine tool section of the machine shop. This section is 
60 ft. in width and 612 ft. long. It is not at present used 
entirely in the interest of the machine shop, about 12<) ft, 
being used as carpenter shop. The entire length, howev- 
served with a 10-ton crane. The machines in this section 
are driven by an individual motor. With the exception of a 
portion of the wheel and truck department and the major 
portion of the general machine department, all the other 
departments embraced within the machine shop on the 
ground floor are arranged under the balcony in the follow- 
ing order, commencing 24 ft. from the west end: Wheel 
and truck, piston and crosshead, motion, tool, bolt and rod. 
The tin, paint, air brake, brass finishing, machine repair, belt, 
and electrical departments are located on the balcony floor 
which is of re-inforced concrete. 

In order that each one of the above named departments 
might be self-sustained a sufficient number of machines of 
varied types have been allotted it, thus obviating the fre- 
quent handling of the work. 

A concrete caustic soda vat having inside dimensions of 
10x10x10 ft. deep is located in the main bay of the machine 
shop. By means of this the work of cleaning wheels, engine 
trucks, etc., is quickly accomplished. Through the medium 
of a small motor driven exhaust fan the fumes from this vat 
are conducted outside the building. 



BOILER AND TANK SHOP. 

These shops are located at one end of the machine and 
erecfing shops at right angle thereto, b< ing constructed on 
similar lines to that of the erecting shop, having floor dimen- 
sions of 180x205 ft. A brick curtain separate- this shop from 
the erecting and machine shops. An opening, however, ad- 
mits of the conveying of boilers to and from the erecting 
shoj), the boilers being passed through by means of a truck 
with a revolving top. 

The main boiler hay is 60x180 ft. and Ills ample capacity 
to accomodate nine boilers at one time and is covered by a 
in double trolley crane. In the machinery bay which has 
dimensions of 50x180 ft., an accumulator capable of exerting 
water pressure of 1500 lbs| per sq. inch ha- been installed, 
is is supplied by two motor driven pumps adjacent to it. 
I he hydraulic tools consist of a large four-post Hanger and 
a horizontal punch having a 60-in. throat. In addition to 
these there is in the forge shop two heavy shears, a large 
puncb and a bulldozer, which receive power from this plant. 
The riveting tower has not yet been equipped with its re- 
lative machinery. 

A large annealing furnace form- a pari of the equipment 
in this department, also a motor driven splitting shears and 
punch besides other miscellaneous tool-. The bra-- foundry 
is also temporarily located in this bay. A 10-ton overhead 
travelling crane and several jib cranes facilitate the handling 
of the W( nk in this bay. 

The tank shop is divided into two bays running parallel 
with each other; one on which truck wheel- and axles are 
dealt with and the other dealing with repairs to frames and 
tanks, the tank bay having a floor -pace of 65x205 ft., which 
gives ample room to place a lank and a frame on a single 
Stall. A :.'(i ton double trolley crane i- employed in this bay. 
• Alluding again to the machine bay which has a floor space 
0x205 ft., half of this baj i- traversed by a five-tone sin- 
gle trolley crane, the remaining portion having been pro- 
vided with a balcony on which are located toilet rooms and 
lavatories, containing individual lockers, in addition to this 
there i- a blower of which the heating coil- contain 15.50> 
lineal feet of | in. pipe. Thus the building i- kept at a com- 
fortable temperature even in the coldesl weather. 

On each column in this building there are air drops and 
lighting receptacles similar to those described in the machine 
and erecting shops. In the locomotive", boiler, and tank 
shops, offices for the foreman have been provided. These 
are equipped with telephones and are elevated above the 
ground floor, thus commanding an unobstructed view of the 
entire shop. 




Boiler Shop, Battle Creek. 



March, 1909. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 




Light Machine Bay, 

Throughout each building and attached to their support- 
ing columns are to be found fire hose supports, on which 
are hung the necessary fire hose, which are also connected to 
their respective water valves. By means of this arrangement 
there exists excellent fire protection. 

FORGE SHOP. 

The forge shop is 66 ft. east of machine and erecting shop 
with the north end on yard crane runway. The building is 
a self supported steel frame with brick curtain walls, com- 
position roofs and cinder floor. The inside dimensions are 
100x200 ft. and 24 ft. 8 ins. from floor line to bottom of roof 
trusses. 

The building is divided into ten 20-ft. bays. The windows 
are 15 ft. 8 ins. wide, and extend from concrete water table 
to bottom of roof trusses. The center of roof has a moni- 
tor 10 ft. high by 20 ft. wide with a pivoted sash, mechani- 
cally operated for ventilation and light, and this with wall 
windows give excellent lighting. 

Ribbed glass is used, which diffuses the direct rays of the 
sun, so that men working close to the windows are not in- 
convenienced when the sun shines directly on sides of build- 
ing. The toilet and locker rooms are located on the out- 
side on the west, a side of building. 

All steam piping is. carried in an underground tunnel in 
centre of building to and from steam hammers. The oil and 
water piping is carried underground in pipes laid in con- 
crete and high pressure air in roof trusses with outlets on 
columns. The wiring is brought in at north end of building 
and carried overhead for lights and motors. 

All material in this shop is handled fcy jib cranes and cars 
on a 24-in industrial track and serves all parts of the build- 
ing. The coal and coke sheds are located just south of 
shops, and industrial track runs into it, so that coal can be 
taken to all forges on a small coal car. 

The draft for all furnaces and forges is furnished by the 
American Blower Co.'s blower, directly connected to a 100- 



Battle Creek, Mich. 

h.p. induction motor. The air piping is galvanized and is 
carried overhead for forges and furnaces, except where the 
down spout would interfere with jib cranes, in which case it 
brought down the wall, and underground to furnace or forge. 

There are 10 McGaslin double forges on the west side of 
building. All light work is done on side next wall, while on 
the side next the steam hammers, which range from 350 lbs. 
to 3,300 lbs., the heavy work is taken care of. Near the north 
end of the forges in the centre of the building is placed a 
special fire, which is raised and lowered by air. This is used 
for welding frames and is close to the 3300-lb. single frame 
hammer, both of which are covered by a jib crane and are 
close to yard crane for handling engine frames. 

The hydraulic bulldozer, the hydraulic bar sheer, 3 T / 2 in. 
forging machine, iy 2 in. bolt forging machine, with their oil 
furnaces, are located in northeast corner of shop, and take 
care of all machine forging for the plant. 

Just south of this on east side of building is the axle de- 
partment, with axle furnace, 5,000-lb. hammer and double 
cut-off and centering machine. This machine and the two 
forging machines are run by a 30 h. p. motor group drive. 
The 3,500-lb. hammer and furnace are located just south of 
this, and take care of the heavy forge work. 

The spring department is located in the south end of the 
shop, and contains the nibber and trimmer, and tapering 
rolls, with individual motors, also a hydraulic punch and 
hydraulic spring bender, with suitable furnaces conveniently 
located. There is a vertical hydraulic shear near the center 
of the shop for general purposes. 

All furnaces are of oil burning type, supplied from tanks 
located in a concrete oil house about 300 ft. south of forge 
shop under a pressure of 20 lbs. All forges are fitted with 
22-ft. stacks extending through the roof, thus removing the 
smoke and gasses by means of natural draft. 

STORE, OFFICE BUILDING AND OIL HOUSE. 

The store and office building is a two story structure, built 



84 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



March. 1909. 



1 
1 


X 
1 

2 




III' ".,,4 hi 


1 


j l90RKBfifl 

4 p^csSsiHS 




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»• J 









Store House, Battle Creek. 

of re-inforced concrete and brick. It is 60 ft. wide by 200 
ft. On the east and west sides there i- a concrete platform 
L2 ft. wide. This platform is on a level with the firsl floor 
which is occupied by the store department and the unloading 
tracks which run on either side of tin building are located 
at a level convenient for unloading freighl from the cars to 
the platform. These platforms extend to the centre of the 

midway where heavy material may be easily handled with 
the yard crane. The platform along the east side extends 
to and around the oil house, which is located about L50 
ft. from the store and office building. 

The main entrance to the building is located in the south 
end. At this point there is a spacious hallway: to the right 
is the clerk's office of the store department to tin- left the 
storekeepers private office, while directly in front is a stair 
way leading to the motive power department offices which 
occupy the second floor. Back of the stairway on the iir~t 
floor is located the vault, tiling and toilet rooms and then 
comes the general store room which is fitted up with n< 
sary shelving counters, scales, etc., and is very complete in 
detail. 

The second story is occupied by the master mechanic and 
his staff, it is divided into two sections by a hallway running 
from the top of the stairway to the assembly rooms at tin- 
north end. The master mechanic's private office which is 
located at the southwest corner in a commodious room \!<> It 
square finished in quartered oak. maple floor in a commod 
ions room :>o ft. square finished in quartered oak. maple floor 
and tinted walls. Next to this in the south end is the sten- 
ographer's office, Mx'.'O ft. and on the west side the clerks' 
room 32x50 ft., adjacent to the clerks' room is the tiling 
room and vaults. Continuing along the west side J he draw- 
ing class room is next and this room is :;:.'x40 ft. It is fitted 
with tables, drawing boards, blackboards, etc.. and across 
i ne end is a row of clothes lockers to accommodate the 
clothing of those who attend the evening classes. Two even- 
ings a week are devoted to the instructing of apprentices in 
mechanical drawing, practical mechanics and electricity. 
Across the hallway from the drawing class room is a read- 
ing room, 20x40 ft. This room is provided with the latest 
periodicals pertaining to the mechanical, scientific and liter- 
ary world. Leading from this room and also the drawing 
class room are vertical rolling doors, which may be opened 
into the assembly room, which is 60x80 ft. and will accom- 
modate about 400 persons easily, making an ideal place for 
social functions, lectures, etc. Continuing along the east 
side and opening from the reading room is the library with 
the book cases which are stocked with the latest works of 
friction. The toilet room comes next, followed by the 
draughting room in the south east corner. 



The building is lighted throughout by incandescent electric 
lamps of ii; candle power. ( lusters are artistically arranged 
on chandeliers hung from the ceiling, each lamp being in- 
closed in frosted glass globes. In the office where desk work 
i- being carried on, plug connections are arranged at con 
venient palces in the walls so that desk lamps may be used 

Steam heal is used throughout the building, tin steam b 
supplied from the power house at low pressure. 

The part of the building devoted to the office work is fin- 
ished in quartered oak. maple floor over concrete, and tinted 
walls. Class partitions are located on either side of the 
wall, on upper story. Each room is provided with necessarj 

lockers and toilet. 

The oil house is a single story building 30x40 ft. and it is 
built of re-inforced concrete and brick. The floor of the 
building is about ten feet above the ground level, which hap 
io le low at this point and makes convenient place for 
tlie air storage tanks, ten in number, with a capacity of 2,000 
gallons each. The oil house is divided into two rooms of 
equal size, one is used as a pump room for pumping the air 
from the tank below, the other for the -toring of oil in bar- 
rel- The oil pumps are six in number three of which art- 
power pumps and the others are operated by hand. There 
are of the Bowser self measuring type. The power pumps 
are operated by a two-horse Dower Western Klcctric motor 
belted to line shaft. 

si:w BRACE 

It was necessary to install two sewer systems a- it is 
against the rules of the City Board of Health to dump raw 
sanitary sewerage into the creek at this point because it 
would become a nuisanc< in the summer when water is low 
as the creek flows through the center of the city for two 

miles 

It was either a case of putting in a purification plant or 
pump l.ooo ft. against a head of :.'.'> ft. into the city sewer. 
There is such a small difference in elevation between end 
of sewer and creek which i- dose by that filtration beds 
would be overflowed several times every year by the high 
water in the creek, therefore it was decided t<> install the 
pumping plant The pump pit is house is located south of 
buildings and all sanitary sewerage is brought to this point 

]>\ gravity. 

The pumping apparatus consists ,,f two separate units si 
that one i- always ready in case anything goes wrong with 
the other Each one has centrifugal pump directly connected 
to a vertical motor which is controlled by a switch and when 
water reaches the required height in pit, one pump then start- 
up and pumps it out and i.' this pump does not work, the 




Oil House, Battle Creek. 



March, 1909. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



85 




Yard Crane Runway, Battle Creek. 

other pump will start when it gets a few inches higher, and 
pump it out. 

All rain water and water used for washing out engines, 
cooling compressors, etc, is carried by the storm sewer into 
the creek by gravity. The sewers are built of extra heavy 
double strength sewer tile with self cleaning grades outside 
of building, and inside of buildings. All sewers are of cast 
iron soil pipe to a point 4 ft. outside of building. All closets, 
lavoratories and urinals are of white heavy enameled iron 
with a hardwood finish. 

TELEPHONE SYSTEM. 

A local telephone system, connecting all foreman's offices, 
petit stores, powerhouses and other departments, has been in- 
stalled. The switchboard is located in the general office of 
the master mechanic. At present 14 telephones are used and 
provision has been made on switchboard for a total of 25 
telephones, which will be installed when foundry, frog shop, 
carpenter shop and car department are added to the present 
plant. 

watchman's system. 

A watchman is kept on duty at plant both day and night. 
There are fourteen stations located around the plant at dif- 
ferent places. Newman clock is used and the night watch- 
man having to visit each station once every hour from 6 p. m. 
to 6. a. m. and register the stations on clock which shows on 
its record sheet the exact time each station was visited during 
the night. 

the registration. 

Each workman is required to punch a time clock on enter- 
ing the shop in the morning, when leaving and returning at 
noon, and when leaving in the evening. Eight-day time regis- 
tering clocks are used for this purpose. They are distributed 
in such a manner that they are convenient for workman to 
punch without extra walking from his entrance to building. 

MOTORS. 

The alternating circuit motor is used in all cases, except 
where speed variations cannot be mechanically accomplished, 
in which case direct current motors are employed. All motors 
from 5 h. p. and over are equipped with suitable starting 
devices, fuses and circuit breakers with low voltage release. 

LIGHTING. 

The general shop lighting is obtained by Copper Hewitt 
mercury lamps, which give a very steady and efficient light. 
They use a set of balanced coils, star connected to the 440- 
volt shop feeders. This gives a voltage between the neutral 
wire and any phase of 256 volts, which operates them. They 



arc self-starting and light up as soon as switch is turned with- 
out tilting the tubes. They are connected two in multiple 
for each switch. 

The installation here is interesting because this is about the 
first large shop in the country to install the alternating cur- 
rent type of Cooper-Hewitt lamp. The incandescent lights 
for drop lights in engine pits and erecting bay, also fore- 
man's offices, are tapped directly off the 250-volt direct-cur- 
rent feeders. The lights for offices and store house arc in- 
candescent, and use transformers to step down from 440 volt 
to 110 volts. The yard lighting is done with serie-s arc lights. 
A special panel and constant current transformer is located in 
power house for these, as the switchboard attendant turns 
them off and on. 

WATER SYSTEM. 
Water is pumped from the river at Nichols roundhouse, 

and forced through a 6-in. main to the repair shop-,. There is 
also a connection on the ground to the 2-in. high pressure 
main of the city water department that can be used in case 
of emergency. The water from the power house is carried 
through a loop of 2-in. mains around the shops to fire hy- 
drants and different points along the buildings, from which 
points it is conveyed through the buildings in underground 
cast-iron pipes. 

Drinking water is supplied from a deep well at power 
house, and is pumped through galvanized pipe to the different 
drinking fountains in shop by a small pump in power house. 

COMPRESSED AIR. 

The compressed air system is rather a novel departure 
from the usual practice, as a number of units distributed over 
the shops are used instead of a centrally located one. There 
are three 100 h. p. Ingersoll Rand air compressors, directly 
connected to 106 h. p. Western Electric induction motors, 
having Cutler Hammer magnetic starters, that automatically 
maintain an air pressure of 100 lbs. One is located in the 
north end of the machine shop, one in the center and the 
other in the boiler shop, two of them can supply the maxi- 
mum demand, one being available in case of emergency. 
These receive air from the outside. 

The air piping is carried overhead on the roof trusses and 
pipes to drops are carried down the column, piping for pits 
being hung in heating tunnel, which extends along the end 
of the pits. 

SCRAP BINS. 

These are located within easy reach of each stop, being 
planned to conform with the latest classification as com- 
piled by the General Storekeepers' Association. 




Lavatories, Battle Creek. 



86 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



March, 1909. 



The Telephone for Train Dispatching 

Although the telephone has been in use for years in con- 
nection with the transaction of business between the various 
departments of railroads and has become a universal means 
of transacting commercial business, it has not, until recently, 
been considered on an extensive scale as a substitute for the 
telegraph in the dispatching of trains on steam railroads. 

During the past year, however, considerable thought has 
been devoted to the use of the telephone in place of the 
telegraph for the directing of train movements and the dis- 
patching of trains. 

There are several reasons for this. The firsl and probably 
most important one being the enactment of state and federal 
laws limiting the working day of railroad employes transmit- 
ting or receiving orders, pertaining to the movement of 
trains, to nine hours. 

Another reason, wheh was brought about by the legislation 
mentioned, was the shortage of good telegraph operators. 
It was estimated that 15,000 additional operators would be 
required if the train order telegraph offices in service in 1007 
were to be kept open after the new laws were in effect. 

The increased expense occasioned by the employment of 
the additional operators, based on the prevailing rates, was 
estimated at approximately $10,000,000 per year. 

Still another reason for the introduction of the telephone 
is the decreased efficiency of the averagi commercial and 
railway telegraph operator. 

Whether this is brought about by the attitude of the 
telegraphers toward the student operator or the fact thai 
there are so many opportunities in other branches of the 
electrical business that appeal more strongly to the young 
men interested in electrical work has not been determined. 
but no doubt both have a bearing on this point. 

Notwithstanding the fact that the telephone is being used 
daily by the public for the transaction of important business 
even between points at great distances from each other, and 
further that the railroads themselves have for years used it in 
connection with the handling of the traffic in their terminals 
and in emergency for the directing of trains on the main 
lines, many railroad employes and official- questioned the 
advisability of using it, in place of the telegraph, for the 
issuing and receiving of train orders. 

This is not surprising when it is remembered that the tele- 
graph has been almost universally used for this service since 
1850, and where properly installed, operated and maintained 
has rendered excellent service. 

Further, the employes now engaged in telegraph service 
are naturally adverse to apparatus or methods of operation 
with which they are not familiar and which they fear may 
affect their positions. Many of the officials in the operating 
department of the railroads obtained their early training in 
the telegraph department and naturally have a preference for 
this service and have hesitated to recommend the use of a 
system which to them is comparatively new and untried. 

The installation and successful operation of telephone train 
dispatching circuits by a number of prominent railroads 
throughout the country during the past year has demon- 
strated beyond a doubt that this service can be rendered by 
telephone with equal safety, reliability, and accuracy, and 
further, with greater speed, and also at a decreased expense 
than when rendered by telegraph as heretofore. 

Owing to the differences which exist in the construction 
and operation of the railroads throughout the country, the 
geographical and climatic conditions to be met and the 
volume and character of the traffic which must be handled, 
it was believed by some that, Avhile the telephone could be 
used on some roads it could not be successfully used on 
others. 



♦Paper by Mr. W. E. Harkness, "Western Electric Company, be- 
fore the St. Louis Railway Club. 



While it is true that the differences noted are important 
Factors in the problem and that that which will be satisfac- 
tory in meeting the conditions existing on one road may not 
meet those existing on another, it is equally true that with 
a knowledge of the conditions to be met and a thorough 
knowledge of the telephone art, a system can be designed to 
meet the new conditions and render equal and, in the ma- 
jority of cases, superior service to that obtained with the 
raph. 

This has been confirmed by the experience of those roads 
who have recently installed the telephone for dispatching 
service, as well as those who have for years been using the 
telephone exclusivelj for this service or as an adjunct to 
their telegraph system. 

The first questions that are asked when the use of the 
phone for train dispatching is suggested are: 

How does it differ from our present practice of dispatching 
trains by telegraph? and what advantages does it possess 
over present methods? 

In answer to the questions the following differences and 
advantages are found to exist: 

The order- are issued verbally by the dispatcher ti 
operator or operators over a metallic circuit telephone line 
in place of being sent by telegraph. The orders are issued 
word by word, in some case- name- and figures an -pelled 
letter hv letter t<> insure accuracy, and the dispatcher writes 
the order in his book as he dictate- it to the operators, thus 
regulating the -peed to such a rate as to enable it to be 
readily copied by the operat 

The ~.mie form of orders is u-cd as heretofore; no changes 
have- been made in their wording and the operators, receiving 
the orders, repeat them to the dispatcher as before, except 
that this i- done by telephone in place of by telegraph. 

The manner of calling the stations desired differs from 
that now employed, in that each station is called individually 
or any group of stations may be called without signaling the 
other station-, on the line. This is accomplished by means 
of -elective apparatus at the stations controlled by the dis- 
patcher, who, by pressing a button, corresponding to the 
station desired, can, within a few seconds, start a bell ring- 
ing at that station. 

When the operator- at the stations wish to communicate 
with the dispatcher it is not necessary for them to operate 
a key or other calling device, as the dispatcher's telephone 
is always connected to the line and all that is necessary for 
the operator to do is to place his telephone receiver to his 
ear, listen to see if the line is in use, and if not, talk into 
the transmitter. 

The operating differences can be summed up in a few 
words by saying that "the orders are transmitted by speech 
in place of by telegraph and the stations are called selectively 
and distinctly in place of by telegraph code." 

The physical differences are the use of two wires in place 
of one. the use of copper wire in place of iron and telephone 
and selective calling apparatus in place of telegraphic ap- 
paratus. 

The advantages possessed b} r the telephone over the tele- 
graph for dispatching purposes are many, as has been dem- 
onstrated by those roads who are now using it. 

At present the dispatcher handling his work by telegraph 
is under both a mental and physical strain, due to his efforts 
to keep things moving and prevent delays to traffic and the 
almost incessant operation of the telegraph key. 

The mental strain is not only occasioned by keeping track 
of the location of each train on the division and planning for 
their movements and meeting points, but also by the trans- 
lation and transmission of his orders, letter by letter and 
word by word, by means of the telegraph key operated by 



.March, 1909. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



87 



hand and checked by ear. In other words, an unnatural 
method of communication is being used to transmit his 
thoughts which requires not only manual skill, but also men- 
tal effort. 

A mental strain is also experienced when receiving by 
telegraph as the sounds received from the telegraph sounder 
must be translated mentally into letters and words before 
the meaning is clear. 

It will be contended by many that the telegraph operator 
does all of this translating unconsciously and is therefore 
not subject to a mental strain. This, however, does not 
seem to be borne out by the' experience of the dispatchers 
and operators who have been using the telephone for dis- 
patching work, for in nearly every case the reduced strain 
has been noticed and spoken of. The fact that they do the 
same amount of work by telephone in one-half of the time 
formerly required by telegraph is sufficient to indicate that 
they experience considerable relief. 

Some of this relief is necessarily physical and no doubt 
assists in reducing the mental strain. The abandonment of 
the telegraph key for calling the stations has been a great- 
physical relief to the dispatchers and in place of calling sta- 
tions continuously for minutes and not being certain of the 
operator receiving the call, they are now with a single mo- 
tion able to give a distinctive and insistent signal and are 
assured that the signal is received at the station and also a 
prompt reply from the operator. 

Several stations can now be called in much less time than 
it was usual to call one by telegraph, and the operators have 
been relieved of all calling of the dispatcher. 

It has been found that the stations answer the signal 
given by the selector bell much more promptly than they do 
the sounder. This is partially due to the volume of sound 
given by the bell and also the fact that it will ring until they 
answer the call. 

The fact that the noise of the telegraph instruments is re- 
moved will also have an effect upon the work of the dis- 
patchers and operators. 

The calling of stations by the dispatcher while conversa- 
tion is being carried on with other stations enables a saving 
in time to be effected. 

The greatest saving in time, however, is in the issuing and 
repeating of orders and the prompt replies received when 
inquiring as to conditions affecting the movement of trains. 
This is realized when it is remembered that the highest 
speed attained by an expert telegraph operator is around 
50 words per minute, while with the telephone a speed of 
100 words' a minute may be attained without the skill re- 
quired by the average telegraph operator. The average tele- 
graph operator will average considerably less than 50 words 
a minute and in many cases the quality of the sending will 
be far from good, so that in addition to the speed there will 
be a difference in quality of service to be considered. The 
advantage of the increased speed of sending orders by tele- 
phone is very apparent when the operators at a number of 
stations repeat the order issued, for the dispatcher's O. K., 
notwithstanding the fact that many of the words are spelled 
letter by letter. 

As to the accuracy of the telephone as compared with the 
telegraph it seems hardly necessary to answer the questions 
which have been raised in regard to the point when it is 
rememberer] that the dispatching and reporting of trains on 
a large number of roads has been handled for a year or 
more by telephone without mistakes having occurred, and, 
as we are all aware, the telegraph is not free from errors in 
transmitting or receiving. 

Greater accuracy in transmitting orders by telephone is 
insured by the fact that the dispatcher writes down each 
word as it is spoken instead of sending it from memory by 
telegraph as is now customary and the same check is made 



on the station copies as at present, by having each of the 
operators repeat the order word for word as written by 
them, the other operators and the dispatcher all checking 
each repeat. 

While on this subject, which is one of the first objections 
raised to the use of the telephone by those not familiar with 
its use and advantages, it may be well to state that as early 
as 1883, long before the telephone had reached its present 
high state of development, it was used for operating trains 
on the New Orleans & Northeastern Railroad. In this case 
the service was rendered over a single iron wire for a distance 
of about 100 miles and orders issued to four regular trains 
and numerous work trains. This method of operation was 
followed for over a year and during this period no accident 
occurred which could be attributed to the use of the tele- 
phone. 

The Lake Erie, Alliance & Wheeling has been operating 
a line of single track road for a distance of about 100 miles 
by telephone exclusively for a number of years with equip- 
ment not to be compared with that now available for this 
service. Thirty trains in each direction per day are handled 
on this line. 

The low grade division of the Pennsylvania Railroad be- 
tween Columbia and Parkersburg, Pa., a distance of 38 
miles, has been operated by telephone supplemented by block 
signals since August, 1906. The average number of trains 
passing over this division per day is 95 and the number of 
cars 4,800, transporting a total of 280,000 tons. 

Many of the western railroads have for years been using 
the composite telephone to assist in the movement of trains. 
These telephones are connected to existing telegraph lines 
and while the service rendered is not as good as that which 
is being rendered by a modern dispatching circuit, it has 
been of immense benefit in clearing up congestions of traffic 
or enabling the dispatcher to be notified promptly of break- 
downs or delays. 

In addition to the foregoing there are numerous cases 
where the telephone is being used and has been used for 
years to handle the traffic of large terminals, and, if I am 
not mistaken, the terminal in your own city has been handled 
in this way for twelve or more years; in fact, the telephone 
service is absolutely necessary for its successful operation. 

The improved line construction and telephone apparatus 
available today for this service is far superior to that used 
even five years ago and this, together with the safeguards 
already used in the issuing of train orders, is ample to reduce 
the chance of error to a minimum. It must be remembered, 
however, that any method of transmitting intelligence in- 
volving the co-operation of human agencies is necessarily 
subject to error and the telephone is not an exception to the 
rule. It must also be remembered that no mechanical device 
is free from troubles, but all that can be done is to make it 
as nearly free from trouble as possible, and I believe that 
the telephone apparatus of today is superior to the telegraph 
apparatus in this respect, and further possesses the advant- 
age that it can be used by any one who can talk and hear. 

In criticising the telephone for railroad service, particularly 
train dispatching, it has been stated that all voices are not 
transmitted equally well by telephone. This is true, but 
trouble from'this cause is seldom experienced and it will be 
possible to obtain employes with suitable voices easier than 
it is to get employes who can send good Morse. It is also, 
possible that a man's voice may be affected sufficiently by a 
cold to interfere with transmitting by telephone; this, how- 
ever, is usually temporary, and with the telephone some one 
else in the office can readily take his place, which is not al- 
ways true, when, on account of sickness, a telegrapher can- 
not work. 

(Continued on page 93.) 



88 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



March, 1909. 



Established 1 878 

Published by THE RAILWAY LIST COMPANY 



WILLIAM E. MACRAW, Pres. and Treas. WARREN EDWARDS, Manager 
CHARLES S. MYERS, Vice-Pres. NORMAN F. REHM, Editor 

Office of Publication: 315 Dearborn Street, Chicago 

Telephone, Harrison 4948 

Eastern Office: 50 Church Street, New York 

A Monthly Railway Journal 

Devoted to the interests of railway power, car equipment, shops, 
machinery and supplies. 

Communications on any topic suitable to our columns are solicited. 

Subscription price, $2.00 a year; to foreign countries, $2.50, free of 
postage. Single copies, 20 cents. Advertising rates given on 
application to the office, by mail or In person. 

In remitting make all checks payable to The Railwaj Lisl Company. 

Papers should reach subscribers by the first of tin- month at the 
latest. Kindly notify us at once of any delay or failure to 
receive any issue and another copy will be very gladly sent. 

Entered as Second-Class Matter June 18, 18ttr>. at Hi. I'nst < »ill< <• 
at Chicago, Illinois, Under A.c1 of March 3: 1879. 



Vol. XXXIII 



Chicago, March, 1909 



No. 3 



This same editorial mentions the fact that large appropria- 
tions are being made for railways, both in Canada and Mex- 
ico. The last sentence, which concludes this statement, is as 
follows: "The very men we denounce as malefactors are re- 
garded as benefactors north and south of us." 

In the past months since the organization of the Railway 
Business Association, we have called attention to its work 
many times. It is understood by every one that this asso- 
ciation has for its membership the manufacturers who sell 
nearly all of the engineering railroad equipment, and this fact 
is openly admitted, bul it should not in any way unfavorably 
influence the opinions of American people, inasmuch as in the 
plants of these manufacturers and in the railroad shops sev- 
eral millions of mm are employed. It is thus plainly seen 
that the attack on the transportation companies strikes di- 
rectly into our industrial enterprises. 

The Railway Business Association has compiled a list of 
resolutions that were passed by prominent bush niza- 

tions in this country since No> 24, 1908. It is surprising to 
the interest that i- taken in the work of the Railway 
Business Association and the demand for conservative legis- 
lation which all the business organizations throughout the 
country feel is necessary. 



Cutting Steel 

At a recent meeting of the Central Railroad Club a paper 
by Mr. Cecil Lightfoot '>n the subject of cutting steel was 
presented. As the writer of the paper was absent, Dr. J. B. 
Waterhouse, of the Lackawanna Steel Company, explained 
more in detail the application of oxygen to cutting steel. In 
a few words this method is explained as follow-: 

The metal, either iron or steel, is heated to a temperature 
of about 1200 deg. Cent, by employing an oxy-hydrogen, oxy- 
acetylene or other flame. Xow the form of blow-pipe pro- 
vides two concentric jets of which the pre-heating flame is the 
outside annular one, and the interior is the jet of oxygen, 

After the metal is heated to the required temperature the 
annular flame is shut off and the jet of oxygen is directed 
against the heated surface and causes rapid oxidation of the 
metal. It is possible to continue cutting across a rail, plate. 
or girder as the bright spot, where oxidation occurs, travels 
with the jet of oxygen, which should be moved very slowly 
across the metal. It might be said here that Mr. Lightfoot 
explained that it has not been possible as yet to use this 
method for cutting cast iron, due mainly to the graphitic con- 
dition of the carbon which prevents the direct union of iron 
and oxygen. 

Railroad Purchases 

A very forceful editorial appeared recently in the New \ ork 
Times, on the subject of Steelmakers and Railroads. It 
brought attention to the fact that the betterment budget has 
been cut down from $1(5.000,000 in 1907, to $1,000,000 on the 
Burlington road. This curtailment of expenses was cited as 
an example that indicates the effect of adverse railroad legis- 
lation. It is said that in eleven states through which the 
Burlington passes, there are 272 laws pending, and 800 laws 
have been passed within the last two years. The complaint 
does not seem to be against legislation, but against the illogi- 
cal rulings put into effect by men who understand railroad 
conditions superficially. 



Single Phase Railways 

The progress which has been made in electrification of 
steam roads in the past six years keeps the possible change 
in motive power constantly before the railway world. A 
paper on The Single-Phase Railwas System which was pre- 

sented before the New England Railroad Club by Mr. X. \V. 
Storer, engineer, Railway Division of the Engineering De- 
partment. The Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing ( i 
pany. brought out some very interesting points on which a 

few n marks are here made. 

The results ,,f electrification of the New York Central. New 
Haven and other important roads are being watched very 
carefully. It may be said that the decision in favor of elec- 
trifying the Chicago terminal of the Illinois Central Railroad 
was due mainly to the success which has already been noted 
on roads in New York and vicinity. 

If the change in motive power concerned only the locomo- 
tive itself, electric locomotives would undoubtedly be sub- 
stituted for steam in all kinds of service throughout the 
country, because it is found that limitations as to the weight 
Of trains rests with the draw-bars ami the speed of trains 
with the construction of the roadbed. The electric locomo- 
tive is always ready for service; there are no fire-boxes, water 
tanks or coal bunkers: power is not consumed while the loco- 
motive is idle, and finally there is no trouble from smoke 

or cinders. 

The distribution of power, however, was a serious problem 
until 1002. when the single-phase motor was developed to 
operate satisfactorily. An impression should not be obtained 
that the question of power distribution has been solved for 
all purposes, it is only that progress has been made to such an 
extent that electrification is practical and makes for efficiency 
and economy in operation. 

Before it was practical to use alternating current on the 
electric locomotives, it was necessary to provide sub-stations 
equipped with rotary converters at frequent intervals. The 
expense of such work is considerable and constant attention 
is required On the alternating current systems transmission 
lines carry very high voltages with 11,000 volts on the trolley. 
Under these conditions step-down transformers alone are re- 
quired at distances from 10 to 20 miles, and. as there are no 
moving parts, very little attention need be given to these 
transformer stations. 

Three-phase motors have been used to some extent, but do 



March, 1909. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



89 



not meet the conditions in railroad service. This is mainly 
on account of the over-head construction resulting in a com- 
plication of two over-head wires, and due to the fact that the 
three-phase motor is really a constant speed machine. On 
account of the numerous crossings it is not probable that the 
three-phase motor will be used other than in tunnels and for 
special service on continuous runs. 

The single-phase motor, which is in service, is in a way a 
special type of direct-current machine and is said to operate 
better on direct than on alternating current. The armature 
is wound similarly, but in some cases resistance leads are 
inserted between the armature windings and the commutator. 
In the pole faces of the motor, there is also a set of coils, 
termed "compensating winding," which is used to neutralize 
armature reaction and improve the power factor. The motors 
for the New York, New Haven & Hartford road are designed 
to be used on the direct-current third-rail system of the New 
York Central and on the over-head single-phase system of the 
New Haven. 

In concluding his remarks on the possibilities of the single-, 
phase system, Mr. Storer called attention to the following 
points, which he explained in the paper: 

"First, the necessity and advantage of high voltage for dis- 
tributing current for railway purposes. 

"Second, the. fact that the single-phase system possesses 
this advantage, and has demonstrated its advantages, in cars 
and locomotives operating successfully at the present time in 
all classes of service. There are all sizes of trolley cars with 
equipments of from two to 50-h. p. motors each, up to 60-ton 
interurban cars, equipped with a total of 500 h. p. per car. 
There are locomotives doing all classes of work, from hauling 
heavy freight trains through the St. Clair tunnel, and the 
freight service in the long hauls on the Spokane & Inland 
Railway, down to the magnificent machines which are oper- 
ating the trains of the New York, New Haven & Hartford 
Railroad between Stamford and New York." 

In discussing the paper Mr. M. V. Ayers said that he real- 
ized some years ago that the most important phase of the 
electrical business would be the branch connected with elec- 
tric railway work, and he looks forward to see the next step 
to be the electrification of the road between Boston and New 
York. Many other important points were brought out in the 
discussion. The above review will indicate the interest that 
there is in electrification work to-day. 



Responsibility for Railroad Accidents 

In placing responsibility for railroad accidents it must al- 
ways be remembered that both railroad men and railroad 
equipment are given the most exacting inspection, the men 
in their knowledge of the work they are to handle and the 
equipment in the operation it is to perform. 

Engineers, firemen, train-dispatchers, etc., are only pro- 
moted to the positions they hold or to higher positions, after 
they have served an apprenticeship and have given evidence 
of satisfaction both mentally and physically. Roadmasters 
and other track officials also serve a long apprenticeship, if 
service may be rightly interpreted as apprenticeship, and each 
road gives definite instructions as to the best methods of 
maintenance. The above officials were mentioned merely to 
illustrate this point, but in all branches of railroading the re- 
quisites are fully as stringent. 

Tn so far as equipment is concerned, it is a well-known fact 
that new designs are thoroughly tested out before they are 
adopted. Railroad managers are very skeptical, because they 
realize the responsibility in the way of accidents particularly, 
for which they are held accountable when a change in equip- 
ment is made. 

Mr. W. S. Park, general superintendent of the Union Pacific 
Railway, presented a paper before the Western Railway Club 



on the subject, Publicity for Railroad Accidents, in which he 
discussed the relationship between employers or officers, em- 
ployes and the public. Then, after mentioning national 1< 
lation in connection with a deluge of laws, impracticable and 
impossible of observance, he made the following statement: 

"The control of this tendency is in the conservatism of 
business, as, with the commercial classes our interests are 
mutual. Manufacturing and transportation are, perhaps, the 
two greatest human vocations, unless it may be that of 
'production.' We should take into our councils those who 
more fully appreciate that railroading, as well as merchandis- 
ing, cannot be managed or restricted by those who have little 
knowledge of its utmost requirements. If we are to be thus 
associated we must railroad on business principles. Throw 
cpen to the public that which they have a right to know. 
When they buy of us transportation for themselves or their 
loved ones, let it be with the assurance that if we are unable 
to deliver them safely, we will, as true business men, go to 
bottom of our inadequacy and disclose the reason and cor- 
rect it." 

In urging publicity for railroad acidents, he cited experi- 
ences of the Union Pacific, which indicate that open investiga- 
tion even becomes an aid to the legal department of the rail- 
road company, because it leaves no mysteries for legal "shy- 
sters" to point to insinuatingly. 



M. C. B. Rules 

The standing committee on rules of the Central Railway 
Club reported to the officers and members of the Central 
Railway Club on the revision of Master Car Builders' Rules 
of Interchange, as follows: 

Rule 3. Defect cards shall be 3^*8 ins., and of the form 
shown below. They shall be printed in red ink on both sides, 
and shall be filled in on both sides with ink or indelible pen- 
cil. The cards must plainly specify in full each item for 
which charges are authorized, indicating on which end the 
defects exist. 

The end of the car upon which the brake staff is located, 
shall be known as the "B" end, and the opposite end shall 
be known as the "A" end. The end of car towards which 
the cylinder push rod travels shall be known as the "B" end 
and the opposite end as the "A" end. 

Rule 19. Flat sliding: If the spot caused by sliding is 2 l / 2 
ins. or over in length, on cars of 60,000 capacity or under, or 
if the spot caused by sliding is 2 ins. or over in length on 
cars in excess of 60,000 capacity. 

Rule 33. This rule should be changed to conform with the 
present practice, inasmuch as all hose are M. C. B. standard 
at present, and the rule should read accordingly. 

Rule 41. This rule should be changed to conform with the 
recent decision of the American Railway Association as to 
size of advertisement matter permitted on freight equipment. 

Rule 44. Cars intended to be equipped with metal brake 
beams and so stenciled, if found with wooden brake beams, 
any metal brake beam of proper dimensions and fitting to 
the car that does not require the change of hangers or other 
parts, will be considered proper repairs. 

Rule 45. Cars equipped with M. C. B. couplers having 
pocket rear end attachments and so stenciled, if found with 
stem or spindle attachments instead of pocket, or any car 
having tandem attachments found with pocket for single 
spring. 

Rule 49 to 55 inclusive. It is recommended that the com- 
bination of damage be eliminated, and that a new rule be in- 
corporated making the combination to read one ned sill and 
three longitudinal sills on wooden underframe cars. Any- 
thing less than this combination would be considered owners' 
defects. 

Rule 56. Change this rule to eleminate the combination on 



90 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



Maivli. L909 



the end of car, and make it read: damage to end of car or 
any portion of the same broken outwardly, will be considered 
owners' defects. 

Rule 76. Change the reading of this rule to conform with 
the recommendation in Rule No. 3. 

Rule 85. Change the reading of this rule to conform with 
the recommendation in Rule No. 3. 

Rule 94. Change the price for side door for stock or box 
car, to $4.00 in place of $3.65; also change the price of half 
of end door on furniture or carriage cars, to $3.50 instead 
of $3.00. 

Rule 113. Your committee respectfully request that proper 
consideration should be given the portion of this rule r< 
ferring to the application of metal center sills, inasmuch as 
they do not consider the increase of $40.00 on the value of 
bodies sufficient, and that the same should be increased in 
value. 

Passenger Rules. 

Your commitee respectfully recommend that paragraph 
"C" of Rule .;, also Rule 4 entire, on page 90 be eliminated, 
inasmuch as this is taken care of by special agreements. 

Your commitee respectfully recommends that some definite 
action be taken to outline the wear of flange on Med and 
steel tired wheels in freight car service, with a view of con- 
demning the same. 

Your commitee respectful!} recommend that some definite 



advice be given as to the clan-e in Rule 22 Ot\ the handling 
of pitted journals, as to whether the same can be charged on 
the basis of truing up the journals or not. 

It is the opinion of your committee that some consideration 
should be given the subject to include in the rules a price for 
adjusting brakes. 

Your committee would respectfully call attention to the 
fact that a large number of cases are coming up from time to 
time of metal parts of cars supplemented with wooden part-. 
and it is recommended that some rule should be framed to 
protect the owners on these parts. 

Your committee would most urgently recommend that the 
name be stamped on each knuckle, the same as is now being 
done with the coupler, as we believe this would greatly bene- 
fit the interchange all around. 

Your committee have carefully considered the question of 
M. C. B. Association repair cards, and it is felt that it would 
improve the service greatly, if the following recommendations 
was incorporated in the Rule covering the use of repair cards: 
M. C. P.. Association repair cards shall not be required for 
ordinary running repairs covered in the train yards. 

The committee was composed of Messrs. T. J. O'Donnell. 
B. H. Hawkins, R. . Miller, I. S. Downing. M. Meehan, Wm. 
Shone, J. S. Lent/.. C. Montgomery, W. H. Williams, \Y. H. 
Sitterly, and <' I <!'<ior. 



Locomotive Repair Shops at Stratford, Ont. 

Grand Trunk Railway 



The new locomotive shops of the Grand Trunk Railway Sys- 
tem in Stratford, which include part of the shops built in 1888 
and also a new tender shop built in 1904, are among the largest 
on the continent. They were designed by the Arnold Company 
of Chicago. The Forest City Paving Company of London had 
the contract for the cement work, and the Canadian Bridge 
Company of Walkerville for the steel. The portion recently 
completed was commenced in August, 1907, so that the construc- 
tion has taken about a year and a half. The modern machinery 
with which the shops are equipped, was installed under the 
supervision of Mr. Robert Patterson, master mechanic. A de- 
scription of the shops, particularly the main portion and power 
house, follows : 

The shops of the Grand Trunk Railway System now completed 
in Stratford are the general locomotive shops of the middle and 
southern divisions, including lines west to St. Clair and Detroit 
rivers and extending east to Toronto, Niagara Falls. Fort Eric. 



and all branch lines in the province of Ontario. This division 
includes about 1,491 miles of road and 400 locomotives. 

The new shop plant consists of a machine and erecting shop, 
616x175 ft., a boiler shop, 135x154 ft., and a power house, 90x108 
ft. The power house and the machine and erecting shop are 
connected by a pipe tunnel made of reinforced concrete. In 
addition to these buildings there is contemplated in the future 
the erection of a foundry, 110x140 ft., and a pattern shop 50x120 
ft. It is also proposed to run a yard' crane from the foundry 
to the machine and erecting shop. All these various buildings, 
etc., are shown on the cut herewith published, which also shows 
the older buildings, consisting of the tender shop completed in 
1904, the offices, the storehouse, blacksmith shop, carpenter shop, 
brass foundry, plate shed, tube and pipe shop, etc. 

THE NEW LOCOMOTIVE SHOP. 

This building includes both the machine and erecting shop and 
the boiler -hop. The building is a self-supported, steel structure,. 




Layout of Locomotive Repair Shops, Stratford, Ont. 



March. 1909. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



91 




View of Locomotive Repair Shops, Stratford, Ont. 



with concrete walls. The total length is 770 ft. and the total 
width is 175 ft. There is no division between the machine and 
erecting shop and the boiler shop, the same runways being car- 
ried through both shops. The erecting and machine shop is 
616 ft. in length and contains 28 engine pits, 22-ft. centers. The 
locomotives enter the building on the north side from an 85-ft. 
turntable to engine pits. The engine pits are provided with air, 
water, and electrical connections for lighting and running small 
machines, such as cylinder-boring machines, etc. Jib cranes are 
mounted on south columns and occur midway between engine 
pits. These are to be used for the lighter parts of the locomo- 
tives during dismantling and erection. There are small jib cranes 
on center columns in machine shop and the columns on the north 
side of the machine bay to assist in handling material in con- 
nection with machine work independent of overhead electric 
cranes. The erecting shop is served with a 120-ton crane capable 
of lifting the heaviest locomotives to a height sufficient to clear 



the other locomotives on the floor, carrying same to any part 
of the shop desired. The interior view of the erecting shop 
illustrates the method of handling locomotives. Directly below 
the 120-ton crane is a messenger crane of 10-ton capacity for 
handling the various parts of the locomotives, such as drivers, 
trucks, engine frames, etc., which are not heavy enough to war- 
rant using the 120-ton crane. 

THE MACHINE SHOP. 

Paralleling the erecting shop is the machine shop, in two aisles, 
one with crane service for large machine and one without crane 
service, containing small belt driven tools. Above the latter is 
a gallery used for heating fans, air brake department, brass 
work, bolts work, and other light machine work. All heavy ma- 
chines in the center bay of machine shop are driven with indi- 
vidual motors, but machines under and above the balcony are 
divided into nine groups. Each one can be run separately or 
a number can be coupled up and driven together. As the work 




Perspective of Locomotive Repair Shops, Stratford, Ont. 



92 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



Mar 



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ie . '^ r •*•' WifnBp^^/x 




B|||ljj™ ^ffiflf S7I 


i 


i' i 



Erecting Shop, Stratford, Ont. 

of this shop is all specialized, each group contains its own par 
ticular machines for its special work, also the necessary fitting 
equipment. 

Alternate columns of the heavy machine hay are provided 
with compressed air and electrical connections. Air is also 
provided along north wall of building and under balcony. On 
each fourth column of the two middle rows of columns, water 
service connections are provided on the main floor and balcony. 

THE BOILER SHOP. 

The boiler shop is located on the west end of the machine 
and erecting shop, and is provided with Malls located on 22-ft. 
centers. The shop is composed of two bays, one To ft. wide and 
the other 65 ft. wide. The 70-ft. hay is served with a 30-ton 
crane, which crane runs upon a continuation of the 120-ton crane 
runway of the erecting shop. This is also served with a to ton 
messenger crane running below the 30-ton crane. The 65-ft 
bay is provided with a 10-ton crane. No riveting tower has heen 
provided in the presenl designs and i:' same is required in the 
future, an extra half hay will lie huilt on the west end of the 
hoiler shop, to the necessary height. This will he supplied with 
a 20-ton crane for lifting boilers, also with a hydraulic riveting 
stake. The hoiler shop is further provided with Range and plate 
furnaces, which furnaces connect witli thus in the west wall 
of the boiler shop. These flues are built inside pilasters of the 



building, being in cross-sectional area. 18x24 ins. wit! 
ins. thick extending a short distance above the roof line. I 
such chimneys are provided in the west end of the hoiler 
The !>oiler shop is also provided with two tesl pit-. 24 r t. long 

and 1 ft. wide, for testing boilers. These are located in tin- 
southwest corner of the building, adjacent to the flange tun 

II I .VI l\(,. 

The entire building is heated by indirect radiation, utilizing 
Mist steam from the power house in heaters. It may lie 
necessary at times to assist the supply of exhaust steam by turn- 
ing live steam to the heaters through a reducing valve. Fan 
operated by small horizontal engines, the exhaust 5t< am from 
which passes into the heating coils as an additional assi-tai 
that supplied from power house. The experience up to the pres- 
ent time is that this system will provide ample heating require- 
ments for the cold weather. The circulation of air throughout 
the shop is very good, keeping at the same temperature for the 
most part. The air is taken in from the outside by mean! 
fans, driven by small horizontal engines, exhaust steam of which 
passes into heat coils, fans, heaters and engine: are lo 
on the balcony, the hot air being distributed through a system 
of underground concrete ducts w ith openings in walls and in 
die ends of locomotive pits on the south side of building. \ 
small heating duct is also provided under the balcony and under- 
ground on the north side of the building, having vertical outlets 
through the floor. 

All wiring is concealed in ducts underneath the tloor. Par- 
ticularly good lighting is obtained by means of large windows and 
from skylights which arc placed in all three hays of the building. 

FOUNDATIONS. 

The question of foundations required some study. The presenl 

shop plant is huilt upon to till, varying in depth from 10 to 1 :> 
ft., below final floor level. After some consideration and com 
parison of various designs, it was decided to use concrete piles 
for the seven bents of the boiler shop and the west eighl I 
of the machine and erecting sin, p. These piles are driven in 
groups "i from three to six each under the building columns. 
Thej were finished off about four feel below the floor level at 
which point a reinforced concrete cap was huilt up to an eleva- 
.' ft, below floor line, which elevation was adopted for the 
base of steel columns. The wall foundations were carried 
tween these concrete pile footings and were reinforced so a 
act as concrete beams; The concrete piles ordinarily carry a 
load of from 15 to '" >li. maximum loa.d, with all cranes 




Section Through Machine and Erecting Shop, Stratford, Ont. 



March, 1909. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



93 



fully loaded and full snow load on roof, between 35 and 4!) 
tons on each pile. A test was made of one of these foundations 
and the same was found to be satisfactory under the above 
loads. The longest pile driven in was 20 fl., others varied in 
length down to 12 ft. The remainder of the foundations were 
designed with spread footings on basis of a soil pressure of 
5,000 lbs. per sq. ft. These footings are carried down to the 
natural ground level and the wall footings are carried between 
them as concrete beams as previously mentioned. In the first 
eight bents of the machine and erecting shop, the engine pits 
are also supported on concrete piles, eight concrete piles being 
driven under each engine pit, each figured to carry a maximum 
load of 35 tons. 

STRUCTURAL STEEL WORK. 

The structural steel work consists of plate, angle and channel 
columns supporting roof trusses of the Warren type and plate 
crane girders. The steel columns are designed to carry the 
maximum roof, wall and crane loads with a fibre stress of 
16,000 lbs. per sq. in. less 'the ordinary deductions for designing 
long columns. When crane thrusts and wind stresses are con- 
sidered in addition, the total stresses are allowed to run up to 
20.000 lbs. per sq. in. In designing crane runway girders, care- 
ful consideration was given to the effect of the horizontal and 
vertical shear on the top flange rivets, due to heavy wheel con- 
centration. The balcony in the light machine bay is designed 
to carry a live load of 350 lbs. per sq. ft. The building is pro- 
vided with a copper skylight supplied with J4-in. ribbed wire 
glass. A sufficient number of lockers are provided for each 
workman in the shop, designed on the basis of 18 workmen per 
engine pit. One wash basin is provided for every four men. 
These lockers and wash basins are located in lavatory rooms 
directly under the heating fans. These rooms consist of two 
floors, 10-ft. ceilings. This arrangement makes the lavatories 
and lockers easily accessible from both the main floor and the 
balcony, stairs being provided immediately adjacent to these 
rooms, extending from the main floor to the balcony. 

WATER SUPPLY. 

The water supply for this department is taken from a lake 
adjacent to the city of Stratford. In case of this supply being 
insufficient to meet requirements, provision is made for using 
the city supply., The drinking water is taken from artesian wells 
located on the shop site. The water service lines loop all build- 
ings where possible, to provide a proper circulation in all parts 
of the system. The fire hydrants are located in different parts 
of the shop. Addition fire protection is already provided by 
the city fire hydrants which are located close to the shops. 

SEWER SYSTEM. 

The shop plant is at present served by a sanitary sewer, 
which handles the drainage from water closets, wash basins, 
engine pits, etc. This system connects with the city septic tanks 
and contact beds, which are located about three miles from the 





Machine Shop, Stratford, Ont. 

shop site, near to the southwest of the city. The new shop i- 
also provided with a storm water system, which will collect the 
yard drainage and roof drainage. This outside sewer is of 
vitrified tile to a point 4 ft. outside the building line, where it 
is joined by cast iron soil pipe inside the buildings. The storm 
water system discharges into a small, creek to the west of the 
shop plant. 

POWER HOUSE. 

This building is a self-supported steel structure reinforced 
with concrete walls, 90x108 ft. All walls and foundations below 
the ground have been water-proofed. The water room is equip- 
ped with four vertical water tube boilers, traveling link grate 
stokers and coal and ash handling plant. The engine room is 
equipped with two 400 kw. generators, direct connected to a 
horizontal tandem compound and two small 35 kw. generators 
direct connected to simple engines ; the latter being for lighting 
purposes. One cross-compound horizontal Corliss air compressor 
with a capacity of 1,150 cu, ft. of free air per minute is also 
installed. In the pump room, there are two horizontal outside 
plunger feed pumps, two vacuum pumps and one fire and service 
pump and feed-water heater. 

BLACKSMITH SHOP. 

The original blacksmith shop has been retained, additions 
having been put to it in 1904, and it is an up-to-date shop. 

TENDER SHOP.. 

The tender shop was also built in 1904 and is a self-supported 
steel structure, reinforced with concrete walls and has a capacity 
for holding 18 tenders at one time for repairs. This is served 
by an electric crane of 25 tons' capacity. 

The electric power for shops is direct current, 220 volts. The 
shops throughout are lighted with Cooper Herwitt mercury vapor 
lamps. In addition to the shops, all the buildings on the com- 
pany's property are lighted from the power house, including the 
Y. M. C. A., station, freight shed and roundhouse. 



Machine and Erecting Shop, Stratford, Ont. 



The Telephone For Train Dispatching. 

(Continued from page 87.) 

It should also be rembered that the telegraph operator is 
subject to paralysis of the arm due to the continued use of 
certain muscles in the wrist when sending. There is no such 
effect or any other physical trouble caused by the continued 
use of the telephone, and further, its introduction and use 
enables many telegraph operators already affected with 
paralysis, but otherwise efficient employ r es, to continue to 
carry on their work in a satisfactory manner. This should 
also appeal to other operators now using the key. 

A very marked effect upon the relations existing between 
the dispatcher and the operators has resulted from the use 



94 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



March, 1909. 



of the telephone. It has been found that these emplo 
have become better acquainted since using the telephone and 
that this has resulted in closer co-operation in the perform- 
ance of their work. It is usual to find the men calling each 
other by their given names and the fact that they are talk- 
ing with each other seems to have liminated the caustic re- 
marks and comments so frequently sent by telegraph. The 
remark of a dispatcher after using the telephone for several 
months to the effect that he "had not been mad once since 
using the telephone" is well worth repeating as it indi< 
an improved condition. Another illustration of this is tin 
reason given by an operator when asked why he liked the 
telephone. His answer after some thought was this: "If you 
and I were working together in an office and you had some- 
thing to say to me you would not write me a message telling 
me what you wanted done and then send it to me by tele- 
graph, you would turn around and talk to me. That's why I 
like the telephone." This statement seems t<« have reached 
the root of the matter, namely, direct personal communi- 
cation. 

The fact that the telephone can be used by train crews 
enables the dispatcher to get in direct communication with 
the conductor or engineer and in case of emergency obtain 
at first hand the conditions, l'.\ equipping the trains with 
portable telephone sets the dispatcher may be reached from 
any point between stations in case of break down. 

The location of telephones located at sidings which may 
be connected to the dispatcher's Inn ami thus enable train 
crews to keep the dispatcher posted a> to their movements 
will be of considerable value. 

The Union Pacific are using siding telephones together 
with signals which are under the control of the dispatcher. 
These signals are to be used to assist in the movements of 
trains when changes in schedule can be effected to ad- 
vantage. 

The first of the present type of telephone dispatching cir- 
cuits was installed by the New York Central & Hudson 
River Railroad in October, 1907, between Albany and Fonda, 
New York, a distance of 40 miles. This section of the road 
is on the main line and has four tracks controlled by block- 
signals. 

The Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad was tin next 
road to install train dispatching circuits. In December, 1007, 
a portion of the main line from Aurora to Mendota, Illinois, 
a distance of 46 miles, with eleven office^, was equipped. 
This was' followed by a section between Aurora and Gales- 
burg, Illinois, a distance of 12") miles, with sixteen offices. A 
third section between Aurora and Clyde, the end of tin 
Chicago terminals, a distance of 28 miles, with fifteen offices, 
was equipped. All of these circuits covered a double track 
road on which reverse movements are made. 

The above installations were followed by an equipment on 
their single track line between Aurora and Savannah. Illinois, 
a distance of 106 miles, with twenty-three offices. This later 
equipment resulted in convincing many who were skeptical 
as to the use of the telephone on single track roads, as it was 
found that not only was the telephone service more satis- 
factory but safer than on double tracks when reverse move- 
ments were made. 

These installations were followed by others until at the 
present moment there are over twenty telephone dispatching 
circuits in use on the C. B. & Q. R. R., covering 125 miles of 
double track, 28 miles of multi track, and 1,381 miles of 
single track and connecting with 286 stations. 

Other railroads have equipped portions of their lines with 
telephone dispatching circuits and, except where due con- 
sideration of the various factors entering into their individual 
problems have been overlooked, have been successful in 



tonstrating the superiority of the telephone over the 
teli graph. 

Among these are the following: 

Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, Chicago & North- 
westem, Michigan Central, Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul, 
Northern Pacific, Delaware, Lackawanna & Western, Great 
Northern, Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, Union Pacific, 
Illinois Central, Canadian Pacific, Atchison, Topeka & Santa 
I'e. Erie Railroad, Virginia Railway, West Jersey & Sea- 

sh( >I'e. 

Numerous other roads have ordered equipment for this 
service or are contemplating doing so. 

When it is remembered that this development has occurred 
in a little more than a year and has been effected without the 
occurrence of a single accident which can be traced to the 
use of the telephone, it must be conceded by even the most 
skeptical that the telephone is at least equal to, if not 
superior, to tin- telegraph for this service. 

An outline of the factor- entering into the problem of 
rendering telephone service for train dispatching will, it is 
believed, enable those not conversant with the details of the 
service to realize what must be considered when preparing 
for this service and also what has been accomplished by the 
manufacturer of telephone and selective apparatus during 
the short time in which the demand for such service and 
apparatus has existed. 

The construction of the line for this service is one of the 
most important matters. In view of the fact that inter- 
ference to the service affect- the earning capacity of the 
road, great care should be taken to see that the best ma- 
terial possible be used in the construction of the line and 
that every means be taken to prevent interruptions to the 
service brought about by mechanical or electrical disturb- 
ances on the line. 

Hard drawn copper wire of sufficient size to withstand 
wind and sleet should be used and the line should be a 
metallic circuit, i. e., two wire- shuld be used. The wires 
forming the circuit should be properly transposed and so 
located in relation to other circuits as to prevent inductive 
disturbance front other wire- or mechanical injury. 

The introduction of considerable amounts of cable in the 
circuits, particularly rubber insulated telegraph cable, should 
be avoided a- it reduce- the volume and affects articulation. 
When cable must be used, bad covered paper insulated tele- 
phone cable having the wires twisted in pairs to prevent 
inductive disturbances should be used, not only on account 
•it >; affecting the transmission less than the rubber insulated 
cable but also on account of its lower first cost. Cable of 
this type can be furnished to withstand the potentials used 
on telegraph circuits and on account of its low capacity, as 
compared with rubber insulation, will improve the opera- 
tion of telegraph service as well as that of the telephone 
circuits. 

When adjacent telegraph or telephone circuits are to be 
used in cases of emergency as patch circuits for the dis- 
patching circuits, care should be taken to see that they are in 
first-class condition before being used for this service. In 
some cases it has been found that such wires, owing to tem- 
porary repairs, are of various sizes and kinds of material 
and contain poor joints which, until discovered and removed, 
have occasioned poor service and increased the maintenance 
expense. 

When constructing new lines it is well to bear in mind the 
future extension of the circuits or their use for patching 
other long circuits in cases of emergency, as considerable 
-aving can often be effected by the proper selection of the 
kind and size of wire to render the desired service. It may 
often be more economical to provide wire of a larger size 



March, 1909. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



95 



than is necessary at the start to provide for service which 
will be required in the future. 

The lines recently constructed for dispatching service have 
in general been well built, and with but few exceptions have 
been free from inductive disturbances or mechanical defects. 

Copper wire weighing 210 lbs. per mile has been used. 
This is of sufficient size to render a very high grade of tele- 
phone transmission over lines in excess of those now re- 
quired for dispatching service. With the usual pole line 
construction of from 35 to 50 poles per mile a circuit of this 
kind will, with few exceptions, withstand severe wind and 
sleet storms. 

The usual practice is to transpose these circuits every quar- 
ter or half mile, depending upon the number and kind of 
circuits on the same pole'line. This has been found sufficient 
except under abnormal conditions when special transposition 
must be provided. 

In A*iew of the fact that the present pole lines are available 
for these circuits the expense of building a telephone circuit 
is not excessive, particularly when the advantages gained by 
this service are considered. 

Such a circuit as those which are now being used will cost 
approximately $85.00 per mile or an average dispatcher's cir- 
cuit covering a division 150 miles in length would cost about 
$13,000. 

These figures do not include the telephone and selective 
apparatus, the prices of which vary according to the type 
used. 

The depreciation of a circuit of this kind is very low as 
the average life of the copper wire is considered to be fifty 
years. The average life of an iron circuit is from 6 to 20 
years. 

The patching circuit which should be provided for emer- 
gency use may consist of two adjacent telegraph or tele- 
phone wires. These two wires should be transposed to pre- 
vent inductive disturbances when they are used" in the dis- 
patching circuit. 

These wires may be used for telegraph or telephone serv- 
ice under normal conditions. 

By applying suitable apparatus to two such wires two du- 
plex telegraph circuits and one metallic telephone circuit 
may be obtained which will permit of four telegraph mes- 
sages and one telephone message beng transmitted simul- 
taneously. 

Such a circuit as this has been in use on the Union Pacific 
R. R. between Omaha, Nebraska, and Cheyenne, Wyoming, 
since last June, and has been rendering excellent service. 
When the telephone circuit is not being used for official con- 
versations between division headquarters, it is used for the 
transmission of messages which otherwise would be sent 
by telegraph. 

The following figures will give some idea of the traffic 
handled over this circuit in a month: 

Messages handled by telegraph 59,020 

Messages handled by telephone 30,703 

Conversations by telephone, 2,539; 
time consumed by conversations, 
126 hours, which is equivalent in 
messages to • 3,780 

Total 93,503 

A comparison of the telegraph and telephone traffic on 
this line is interesting, particularly when it is understood 
that the telephone messages are handled at a less expense 
than by telegraph. 

Further, the telephone operators handle as high as 450 
messages per day, and it is believed that this could be in- 
creased to a larger amount if the line were not used so much 
for conversations. 

The telephone apparatus used for train dispatching service 
should be such as to render the voices of the dispatcher and 



operators both distinctly and with 3ufficienl volume to pre- 
vent mistakes. 

To accomplish this in a satisfactory manner due considera- 
tion must be given to the conditions which must be met, 
and in this connection it should be remembered that the 
conditions on a dispatching circuit differ in many ways from 
those prevalent in either local or long distance service. 

The length of the line, the kind and size of wire, the num- 
ber of stations connected to the line, the kind of telephone, 
transmitter, receiver, induction coil and circuit, together with 
the kind and amount of current supplied, all have a bearing 
on the service and changes in any one of these factors will 
affect the service. 

With but few exceptions the lines constructed for tele- 
phone dispatching have been of such character that there 
should be no difficulty experienced due to the length of the 
line or the kind and size of the wire. 

The number of stations connected to the line vary from 
ten to forty-four, and this with the various methods of opera- 
tion has necessitated special attention being given to the 
point. 

In regular commercial telephone service there are usually 
but two people talking or listening on the line at a time, 
while in dispatching service it is customary to have from 
three to five operators in addition to the dispatcher all con- 
nected to the line at the same time and in addition an un- 
known number of other stations listening to their conversa- 
tion. The limit in numbers being fixed by the total stations 
having access to the line. These two conditions demand en- 
tirely different telephone apparatus and circuits, as in the 
first case the telephonic currents are divided between the 
receivers at the two stations, while in the second case the 
telephonic currents must be divided among the receivers of 
three, five or even twenty or more stations, depending upon 
the number of operators listening in on the circuit. 

Various methods of rendering efficient service under these 
severe conditions have been proposed and tried. Some have 
attempted to equalize the telephonic current passing through 
the receivers at the various stations, others have increased 
the volume of transmission, and still others by a combination 
of the two have attempted to secure more satisfactory re- 
sults. 

In some cases increased volume of transmission has been 
accomplished at an increase in battery consumption and a 
decrease in the clearness of articulation. 

Tn others the volume of transmission has been decreased 
to obtain clearer articulation. 

The great difficulty in settling a matter of this kind is the 
fact that there is no standard which can be readily used and 
with which the actual service rendered on a line can be 
compared. No two users of a telephone will agree as to the 
relative volume or articulation obtained on two different 
circuits as it is largely a matter of opinion. Even with skilled 
observers differences in volume of transmission are often 
taken for differences in quality or articulation and vice versa, 
or the amount of difference when judged in per cent, will 
vary within a wide range. 

With the ordinary user of the telephone these errors are 
greatly magnified and therefore anything but correct. 

A comparison of a laboratory standard and a working line 
is a physical impossibility if the tests are to be made by the 
same parties and under the same conditions. 

In comparing the relative merits of telephonic apparatus it 
should be remembered that the conditions should be the 
same throughout, and comparisons made by observing the 
service on the same or a different line cannot be considered 
as far, as it is impossible for the mind to accurately retain 
the impressions imparted by the ear for any length of time. 
Further, in making tests on actual lines it is impossible to 






RAILWAY MA HANIC 






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March, 1909. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



97 



as well as the transmitter circuit. This arrangement permits 
the dispatcher to move about and to have the use of both 
bands. 

A transmitter key is provided so that the dispatcher may 
listen in on the line without wasting the transmitter battery 
or bringing noise from the room on the line. 

This key differs from those used at the way stations in 
that it is not necessary for him to hold it down when talking, 
it being arranged to lock when operated and remain so un- 
til released. 

On account of this equipment being different from that 
with which they are familiar, the dispatchers in some cases 
bave said that they did not like it. This feeling, however, 
is not lasting and after a short time disappears. The same 
feeling existed among the telephone operators in exchanges 
when similar apparatus was first introduced, but after using 
it for a short time they preferred it to that which they had 
been using. 

It has been suggested that a loud speaking receiver be 
used b}- the dispatcher. This arrangement .while available 
and capable of giving a large volume of sound is not satis- 
factory on account of the quality of the sound rendered being 
less distinct than that obtained from a regular receiver held 
<:lose to the ear. This is largely due to the reflection of the 
sound waves in the horn which must be used to amplify the 
sound. Another objection to this device is that noise in the 
room of from outside will prevent the dispatcher hearing 
distinctly. 

A device of this kind is to be tried on one of the eastern 
roads for use in block towers in connection with the report- 
ing of trains from tower to tower. Another design is being 
prepared for one of the western roads for trial on a dispatch- 
ing circuit. 

The use of a double head telephone has been considered 
and should be of benefit where the dispatchers or operators 
are located in noisy locations. 

The use of a transmitter which could be mounted on the 
dispatcher's desk which could be spoken to in place of hav- 
ing to speak directly into the mouthpiece as at present has 
also been suggested. This arrangement, while possible, would 
be found unsatisfactory for two reasons. First: It would 
render a poor quality of transmission, and second: it would 
necessarily have to be very sensitive to transmit the voice 
from a distance and it would therefore pick up other sounds 
in the room which, when transmitted on the circuit, would 
affect the service. 

It is possible that under some conditions that such devices 
may render satisfactory service but it is believed that much 
better service can be obtained by following standard prac- 
tices which have proven satisfactory. 

The cost of the telephone apparatus depends largely upon 
the type used and will vary from $17.00 to $36.00 per sta- 
tion. An average of $25.00 per station may be used for rough 
estimates.' 

The selective apparatus in general use may be divided into 
two general classes based upon the. method of operation: 

1. Electromechanical. 

2. Mechanical. 

I shall not attempt at this time to give a technical de- 
scription of the selective apparatus but leave you to examine 
the two types on exhibiton which illustrate the latest de- 
velopment of the two types mentioned. 

The Gill selector representing the electromechanical type 
and the Wray-Cummings the mechanical type. 

In general, the apparatus consists of a selector located 
at the station, the operation of which is controlled by the 
dispatcher. The selector when operated closes a bell circuit 
and causes the bell at the station to ring until stopped by 
the operator answering the call. The operation of the selec- 



tor is effected by the dispatcher sending a combination of im- 
pulses of current out over the line. The time between the 
impulses or the combination of the impulses Operating the 
selector at the particular station desired. 

The sending of these impulses at the proper intervals or 
in the proper combinations is done automatically by the dis- 
patcher operating the station and starting keys on his call- 
ing mechanism. 

Various methods of operation have been suggested and 
tried. The first method, and one which is still used, is to 
call each station consecutively. This arrangement required 
eight seconds to call any one station or in case a number 
of" stations were called it would require eight seconds times 
the number of station, to call all stations desired. For ex- 
ample, three stations would require a total of M seconds, or 
five stations a total of 40 seconds. 

While the above time was much less than the time taken 
to call by telegraph, higher speed of calling vva sdemanded 
and arrangements were made to enable individual station- 
to be called in from two to thirty seconds, or all stations up 
to 28 could be called in .'i0 seconds. A still further improve- 
ment enables all of 50 stations to be called in a total of 50 
seconds or individual stations of the fifty in from 2 to 20 
seconds. 

Some objection has been raised to the bell at the station 
ringing continuously until the call is answered by the oper- 
ator, for in some cases a station might be called by mistake 
and the call not answered for hours owing to the absence 
of the operator. This would cause a waste of battery and 
increase the maintenance expense. 

Several schemes have been proposed to accomplish the de- 
sired results and apparatus is now available for this pur- 
pose. One arrangement permits the dispatcher to stop the 
ringing of the bell at any time after it has started. Another 
arrangement permits the bell to ring for a certain length 
of time and then automatically causes it to cease. 

It is believed that the continuous ringing bell will insure 
quicker answering of the calls than where the bell rings for 
a short interval and then ceases. This is based on the experi- 
ence with the present continuous ringing systems and also 
upon a similar arrangement in telephone exchange practice 
in connection with the ringing of subscriber bells by machine 
until the call is answered. 

One of the selective systems has one feature which is not 
supplied by any of the others, and that is what is known 
as an "Answer-back" signal. This consists of an audible 
signal received by the dispatcher when he has called a sta- 
tion and the bell has started to ring. This has several ad- 
vantages. 

First: The dispatcher is assured that he has called the 
station and the bell is actually ringing. 

Second: The fact that the dispatcher is aware of this 
causes the operators to answer the call more promptly. 

Third: It acts as a check on the operation of the station 
apparatus as the "answer-black" will always be received if 
the bell is operated. 

The selective apparatus at the station consists of the se- 
lector, two relays, resistances and a few dry cells for the 
operation of the selector and bell. 

A recent design of selector dispenses with the two relays 
as the selector itslf may be connected direct'y in the line in 
place of being operated by one of the relays. This reduces 
the amount of apparatus at the station which is desirable 
from a maintenance standpoint. 

The selective apparatus is operated by relays connected 
to the telephone circuit. 

Two methods of connecting these relays in circuit are 
employed: 

1. By bridging them across the telephone line. 



98 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



March, 1909. 




Fig. 1 — Semi-Plug Piston Valve. 
2. By connecting them in series with the telephone line. 

There are advantages and disadvantages with both ar- 
rangements. 

With bridged relays the impedance must be high enough 
to prevent excessive losses in transmission due to the large 
number of relays bridged across the line. 

The resistance in the relay bridge must vary at each sta- 
tion to furnish each relay with the proper amount of current 
to insure its satisfactory operation. 

When the relays are connected in series with the line they 
must be of low impedance to prevent excessive losses in tele- 
phonic transmission. This is usually accomplished by shunt- 
ing the relays with a non-inductive resistance. 

It is customary to connect one-half of the relays in series 
with one line wire and the other half in series with the other 
line wire, thus balancing the circuit. 

It has been found, however, that an exact balance in the 
number of relays is not necessary. 

The disadvantages experienced with the bridged circuit is 
that in case one side of the circuit opens it is impossible to 
call a staton beyond the break. 

With the series circuits is possible to call every other 
station beyond the break. 

It may be well to state that with one wire open conver- 
sation can be carried on by telephone beyond the break. 

The transmission losses are less with the bridged circuit 
but the losses due to the use of series relays are compara- 
tively slight and in no case have they affected the service to 
a noticeable extent. 

Several schemes have been used to facilitate the patching 
of the despatcher's circuits. 

On account of their cheapness small knife switches have 
been used in many cases, and special telephone test panels 
which are more expensive have also been designed. 

With either of these arrangements patches can be affected 
very quickly even by inexperienced people. 

The test panels offer more facilities for testing than the 
combination of switches and is less liable to trouble than 
the exposed switches. 

The cost of the total station equipment, including tele- 
phones, selectors, test panels and installation will vary ac- 
cording to the apparatus used from $60.00 to $96.00 per 
station. 

An average installation would approximate $80.00 per sta- 
tion. 

Combining these' figures with those covering the cost of 
the dispatcher's equipment and the line construction a dis- 
patching circuit of 150 miles to which is connected 30 sta- 
tions, will co>t approximately $15,000.00, or at the rate of 
$100.00 per mile. 

This figure is not excessive when the advantages which 
may be derived from such an equipment are considered and 
it will he found that the expense of construction and mainte- 
nance will he insignificant as compared with the amount 
saved by the prompt reporting of delays, the relieving of con- 
gestion of traffic and the reduction in the loss of time. 



Semi-Plug Piston and Slide Valves 

This valve is called semi-plug because, while it is without 
steam, it is a snap ring valve; that is, the packing rings are 
expansible and fit themselves to the valve chamber, but, when 
the throttle is opened, the steam is admitted to the chest to 
enter the space, below the rings, and the action of this pres- 
sure is to lock the snap rings in a fixed diameter, making 
practically a plug of it during the time the pressure remains 
on. This is all important in a piston valve, for, to secure 
proper service, it is necessary to maintain true cages in order 
to maintain steam tight valves. Steam tight valves cannot be 
secured without proper design and construction of rings to 
begin with and the absolute regulation of their frictional con- 
tact against the cage to prevent wear of the cages while the 
valve is working at short cut-off. In addition to this it is 
absolutely necessary to prevent latteral wear. In order to 
accomplish all of these necessary features, this semi-plug valve 
was designed on the principle of leverage by wedges, the 
pressure acting upon the wedges. In the valve the wedges 
take the form of cones, or circular wedges. 

The outside walls of the snap rings, numbered on the draw- 
ing, are straight and fit against the straight wall of the fol- 
lower and spool (See Fig. 1). The inner walls of these snap 
rings are beveled, forming a cone. Next to the snap rings 
are wall rings, 2, the sides of which are beveled to fit the 
cones of the snap rings. These are called wall rings because 
they form the inner walls for the snap rings. These wall 
rings are uncut, non-expansible steel rings. Between these 
wall rings, in the center, is placed a double-coned expansible 
ring, called a wedge ring, 4, and which, with the wide ring, 3, 
interlocked into each snap ring forms the complete packing. 
The wide ring performs two important functions; first, it car- 
ries the snap rings across ports while drifting and, second, it 
keeps the snap rings parallel with each other. 

Now, having the principle of the valve fixed clearly in mind, 
its operation will be noted. Wedge ring, 4, is put in under 
tension. Its tendency, therefore, is to crowd the two solid 
wall rings laterally against the cone sides of snap rings, 1. 
This prevents lateral wear of all rings. The degree of angle 
on the cones, it will be observed, is much greater on the 
double tapered wedge ring than on the snap rings. These 
angles are so calculated that, while the pressure is under- 
neath all the rings, the leverage of the doubled tapered wedge 
ring, crowding the solid wall rings against the cones of the 
snap rings, is just sufficient to prevent the snap rings from 
further expansion, but not sufficient to reduce the snap rings 
in diameter. By a little consideration of the effect of chang- 
ing the degrees of angles, it will be observed that the fric- 
tional contact of the snap rings against the valve chamber 
depends entirely upon these angles, and it can, therefore, be 
regulated to any desired degree. 

Following the action of this valve when steam is admitted 
to the steam chest,- it passes through the small holes around 
the spool, - and finds an outlet, first, under the first snap ring, 
and, second, under the central wedge ring. There are from 
14 to 18 holes in the end of the valve. The velocity of the 
steam from these holes against the first snap ring insures its 
fitting the valve chamber, and the action against the wedge 
ring is to place it in position of the pressure to lock up the 
rings. The packing consists of the combination of rings, 
which is free to move up and down on the spool, that the 
rings may fit the cages perfectly correct, regardless of any 
variation in that position of the spool. Because it is disas- 
trous to the valve cage to allow the spool to ride on it, as 
it wears the cage out of true, and, therefore, destroys the per- 
fection of valve service, no provisions are made for carrying 
the spool on the rings, and the spool must, therefore, be car- 
ried on the valve rod. This can be accomplished in any way- 
desired, but is the one feature essential in using this valve. 



March. 1909. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



99 



By observing the locking effect of the doubled tapered 
wedge ring, when it is expanded by pressure underneath, 
thereby crowding the two solid wall rings laterally and hold- 
ing them, as it were, with a predetermined force against the 
cone sides of the snap rings, it will be realized that, by putting 
sharper cones on the sides of the snap rings and making the 
solid wall rings to correspond, the force of the double tapered 
wedge rings, crowding the wall rings laterally on a sharper 
cone, would decrease the diameter of the snap ring, regardless 
of the pressure under it, under which conditions the leverage 
would be too great and would permit a blow over the outside 
of the snap ring. On the other hand, if the degree of angle 
on the. snap ring was lessened, and the cone made flatter, 
with wall rings to correspond, then the wedging power of the 
central wedge ring would not be sufficient to hold the snap 
rings from expanding by the pressure underneath them, and 
this would result in excess friction against the valve chamber, 
caused by insufficient leverage to lock the rings. The same 
effect can be reached in either direction by changing the de- 
gree of angle on the double tapered wedge ring. With this 
action clearly in mind, it will be seen that the snap ring will 
remain in the diameter of the cage at which it is locked up, 
unless it is locked up in a large part of a worn cage, for 
instance, and the movement of the valve forces it down into 
a smaller part of the cage, under which conditions the snap 
ring would be forced shut to the diameter of the cage at the 
smallest part. Under these conditions the snap ring would 
remain the smallest diameter of the cage while the valve 
traveled back to the position of the original locking, and, in 
that position, there would be a blow over the outside diameter 
of the snap ring. It will be seen, therefore, that this valve 
will not wear a cage out of true and it will also be observed 
that it is very important that the valve is put into a true 
cage to begin with. It will, in time, true a cage up, but this 
is expensive, and would, therefore, be a foolish application. 

The valves are made for internal or external admission and 
have been made for both; that is, reversible, in which case 
the valve is used as a reversing gear by changing the steam 
to internal admission. The rings of this valve are all ma- 
chined in their working diameters. The packing rings are 
properly lapped with a solid steel joint plate, the side of which 
is beveled, bringing it to a sharp edge at the periphery of 
the ring, thereby avoiding any notches in the steam or ex- 
haust lines of the valve. This American semi-plug piston 
valve is manufactured by the American Balance Valve 
Company. 

The piston valve, as illustrated, is already in use on about 
18 roads, and is giving remarkable service, such as two years 
and over in freight service, with the greatest wear of cages 
34/1000 in. The valve is maintained by duplication of rings 
from stock, the two snap rings and wide ring being the only 
parts of the valve that wear out, and these are renewed from 
stock without any hand-fitting or machine work on the valve 
or the rings. The valve is absolutely steam-tight during the 
life of a set of rings, which averages about 22 to 24 months in 
freight service and 12 to 15 months in passenger service. 



The road having the largest number of engines equipped at 
this time is the Pennsylvania, with over 000 locomotives 
equipped. 

THE JACK WILSON HIGH-PKESSURE SLIDE VALVE. 

The first consideration in examining info this improved 
high-pressure valve is to the balancing feature, and it is well 
to get one very important fact clear in the mind; that is, that 
the balanced area of the valve is changeable, that it has 
but one change in each stroke of the valve, and that this 
change in the area of balance corresponds with the changed 
condition of the valve on its seat at the different points of its 
travel. Therefore, in changing the balanced area to suit the 
requirements of the valve at the different positions on its 
seat, a perfectly balanced valve is secured in all positions. 
Demonstrating this we will refer to the sectional view of the 
valve in its central position on its seat, Fig. 2, this being its 
heaviest position; that is, if there were no balance on the 
valve, it would be subject to pressure on its back equal to 
the entire area of the valve face. The space, A x C, prevents 
the steam from exerting a pressure on the back of the valve 
according to the number of square inches contained in this 
space. This area is as large as it is possible to take off the 
valve, while in its central position, and not cause it to leave 
its seat. The valve is, therefore, balanced on its heaviest 
position all that it is possible to balance it and yet maintain 
the steam-tight joint at the faces of the valve. 

With the valve in the position where it is admitting steam 
to the cylinder port, or just cutting off the steam for expan- 
sion, when the cylinder is full of steam, it exerts an upward 
pressure on the face of the valve equal to the area of the 
steam port. If this upward pressure on the face of the valve 
were not counter-acted it would, of course, lift the valve off 
its seat, since the valve, being fully balanced in its central 
position would not stand this increase of balance by the 
pressure in the port pressing upward on it and it would, 
therefore, be lifted off its seat. In other valves it has been 
necessary to leave them under-balanced in their central po- 
sition to prevent their being lifted by port pressure. In this 
valve this pressure in the port is counter-acted by allowing 
the steam to get on the top of the valve through the ports 
in the valve, and the pressure is at all times equal on both 
faces of the valve. The port pressure, does not. therefore, 
affect the valve, but, since the valve plate lies loosely on the 
back of the valve, and the cylinder port pressure passes 
through the valve to the "pocket" port in the face of the valve 
plate, it would lift the valve plate from the valve unless it 
was permitted to pass to the other side of the valve plate to 
an equal area of the port pressure. Therefore, the smaller 
space, B x C, is enclosed at back of the valve plate and always 
open to port pressure. It will now be quite clear that, when 
the valve is unbalanced by pressure in the cylinder port, the 
valve plate is simultaneously unbalanced by the same pressure 
.entering the space, B x C. There is one space", B x C, over 
each port. Each acts with its own port only. 

When the valve in the extreme position of over-traveling 
the seat, with the ordinary balance valve the balance is fixed 




Figs. 2 and 3 — Jack Wilson High-Pressure Slide Valve. 



100 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



March, 1909. 



fay/it JVtfi 




e%4 

.0' 


ox*' 


03' 

tit' 

<*/ 

0*' 

SIS' 




f" .*%&' 




,6%r' 




.ox' . . 



Fig. 4 — Showing Wear of Valve Seats. 

to and moves with the valve. Therefore, when in this posi- 
tion, the valve is subjected to an upward pressure on its face 
equal to the area of the face of the valve exposed by over- 
traveling the seat, and in the common balance valve this ex- 
posed area is just as important as that area of the valve face 
exposed to the port pressure and should be taken care of as 
well as that of the port. 

In the Jack Wilson valve the over-travel is entirely neutral- 
ized by the valve traveling out from under the upper seat at 
the same time, and to the same extent, that it travels over 
the lower seat, and the over-travel, therefore, cuts no figure 
in the balancing of the valve. It should be remembered that 
the seat is so proportioned that the valve will travel to the 
edge of the seat at the lowest possible cut-off at which the 
engine can work. With this proportion of seat it is permis- 
sable to use as great a valve travel as is desirable, and at 
the same time to maintain a uniform frictional contact of the 
valve and seat, and, with the one change in the balanced area 
and the balancing of the valve at over-travel, absolutely meet 
the full requirements of valve at the different points of its 
travel. This practically explains the balancing feature of 
this valve, which consists of a large area that balances the 
valve all that is possible in its central position, and two, small 
areas in the interior of the other, and to which steam is ad- 
mitted to counteract the pressure in each port. 

In Figs. 2 and 3, parts of the valve are indicated as fol- 
lows: Alain balance (by outside strips), AxC; port balance 
(by inside strip), B x C; balance pressure plate, D; valve plate 
or second valve seat, E; main valve, both faces alike, F; 
double admission ports, G; double exhaust ports, H; pockets 
in valve plate corresponding in length and width with steam 
ports, I; pocket in valve plate to equal exhaust ports, J; relief 
holes in valve plate, K; ports to port balance area, L; steam 
ports, M; exhaust port, N; bridges in seat and valve plate, O; 
and outer edge of valve seats, P. 

The sketch, Fig. 4, shows wear in one-thousandth parts of 
an inch of the valve seats on an engine of the Central Rail- 
road of New Jersey, which made 168,324 miles with the valves. 

The slide valve, as illustrated, is developed to a high degree, 
and is the result of six years of trials and tribulations to 
secure a perfectly-balanced and fully reliable double-acting 
slide valve. This valve has now been in service under the 
highest locomotive steam pressure, that of 235 to 240 lbs., 
since May, 1906, nearly three years, without any trouble with 
seats or any other troubles with valve. The engines are on 
the Reading Railroad, and in their fastest service. Its service 
has been equally well on many other roads, including the 
mileage of 168,000 with the greatest wear of valve seats 
16 1000. 

This valve contains many valuable features for a practical 
locomotive valve, double admission, with shortest steam pas- 
sage; double exhaust, getting rid of the steam after it has 
done it- work. The valve is balanced in all positions of the 
Stroke, and travels over the seat at all cut-offs at which the 
engine can be worked. This insures with the minimum wear 
an even wear, and, therefore, a steam-tight valve during the 
longest period of service. The balancing feature is absolutely 
stationary, therefore, a permanent part of the locomotive, 



while the valve is the only moving part, and being of the 
grid-iron type, gives the lightest reciprocating weight. 

The valve is now applied to old or new power, and can be 
put on and all adjustments made in any round-house without 
the use of machines, as washers are put on the outside of 
the studs on top of the cover, being of various thicknesses, 
allowing the balance pressure plate to be adjusted for height 
at any time by changing the washers from the outside to the 
inside, and lower the balance plate to any desired amount. 



Forged Steel Hydraulic Jacks 

The Duff Manufacturing Company, of Pittsburg, Pa., ex- 
clusive manufacturers of the Barret jack and Duff ball bearing 
screw jacks, has put on the market the Duff-Bethlehem forged 
steel hydraulic jacks, completing their large line of jacks of all 
types, and offers what is claimed to be the latest and highest 
development in the hydraulic jack industry. The Duff-Bethlehem 
hydraulic jacks are forged entirely out of steel and patents cov- 
ering its special features and construction have been allowed the 
Bethlehem Steel Company, who have designed and perfectd this 
jack and who do the special forging necessary with their un- 
equalled facilities in that line. The Duff Manufacturing Com- 
pany have the entire and exclusive handling of the Duff-Bethle- 
hem jacK in conection with their large line of Barret and Duff 
jacks. 

The Duff-Bethlehen hydraulic jack, being forged entirely out 
of steel, provides a wonderful construction for that type of jack. 
These new types of jacks have special features whereby the 
imperfections and troublesome conditions in the usual hydraulic 
jack construction are entirely avoided. The Duff-Bethlehem 
jacks weigh from 30 to 60 per cent, less than ordinary hydraulic 
jacks of equal lifting capacity, and stroke — made possible by its 
forged steel construction. It further provides greater strength, 
capacity and durability. 

Both the cylinder and ram of the Duff-Bethlehem jacks have a 
solid bottom, thus requiring no packings and dispensing with 
joints at those points. The most troublesome packing in other 
designs of hydraulic jacks is at the bottom of the cylinder. As the 
cylinder of the Duff-Bethlehem jacks has its base, or bottom 
forged integrally therewith, it obviates entirely this troublesome 
feature of packing. Another packing that frequently causes trou- 
ble and expense is also entirely dispensed with, viz., insuring closure 
of the ram piston from the pump socket as the Duff-Bethlehem 
jack has a solid ram bottom forged integrally with the pump 
socket. There are practically only two small packings in the 
entire Duff-Bethlehem jack, and as joints are also eliminated 
there is no chance for leakage and no expense for renewal of 
packings, as in other designs of hydraulic jacks. 





Forged Steel Hydraulic Jacks. 



March. 1909. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



101 



By the improved construction and location of valves, the Duff- 
Bethlehem jacks are capable of extending their full length in a 
vertical, horizontal or inclined position, without any adjustment 
whatever, and all sizes will operate at any angle. In the operat- 
ing mechanism a minimum number of parts of simple and strong 
construction are employed and any parts may be easily replaced 
if necessary, without special tools. Also in this construction the 
valves may be attended to without removing the packing and the 
packing without removing the valves. 

The valves in the Duff-Bethlehem jacks are absolutely positive 
and require no special adjustments or part's to insure their operat- 
ing under all conditions. The load may be tripped or may be 
lowered as slowly as desired, or stop at any point when lower- 
ing if desired. 

The Duff-Bethlehem jacks are constructed of open hearth fluid 
compressed forged steel and bronze and their inside working 
parts are drop forgings. They are made in all types and capaci- 
ties adapted to railway and general lifting purposes. The Duff- 
Bethlehem (low) or telescope type is forged entirely out of 
steel, fitted with an improved duplex pump, automatically reg- 
ulating the change of speed proportional to the load being lifted 
and made regularly with capacities ranging from 30 tons to 
300 tons and higher capacities if required. 

This line of hydraulic jacks is complete and together with the 
Duff Manufacturing Company's large line of Barrett jacks, Duff 
ball bearing screw jacks, etc., covers practically every type or 
kind of a lifting jack for every possible condition and lifting 
purpose. 



Special Meeting of C. J. C. I. & C. F. 
Association 

A special meeting of the executive committee of the Chief 
Joint Car Inspectors' and Car Foremen's Association was 
held at Cleveland, Ohio, on January 23rd. Besides the 
executive committee there were other members of the asso- 
ciation present and among those in attendance were the fol- 
lowing: H. Boutet, A. Berg, George Lynch, T. J. O'Donnell, 
S. Skidmore, G. M. Bunting, F. M. Brown, J. V. Berg, Bruce 
Crandall, Jos. Dyer, D. J. Durrell, F. W. Dewey, J. W. 
Eager, J. F. Farran, F. H. Hansen, P. J. McGreevey, J. D. 
McAlpine, E. C. Pearse 

The secretary read the call of the meeting, which showed 
that it was called for the purpose of recommending to the 
M C. B. Association changes in the M. C. B. rules. 

President Boutet presented what in his opinion would be 
the proper changes. 

"The preface of the rules to remain as they are." 

"Next to this, the rules pertaining to defects, for which 
the delivering line is responsible, should be put together and 
same be made as few as possible." 

"It is my idea that you make the delivering line respon- 
sible for slid flat wheels, rough journals, missing brake 
material, wooden brake beams, if applied in place of metal, 
combination of defects which denote unfair usage if occur- 
ring at the same time and on the same end of car, damaged 
end sill accompanied by damage to three longitudinal sills, 
damaged longitudinal sills if necessitating replacing or splic- 
ing of more than three sills, making the other defects on 
cars defects for which the owners are responsible." 

"This, I believe, will facilitate the interchange and stop a 
great deal of argument and dissension coming up at inter- 
change points." 

"I would also change rules 125 and 126 in regard to the 
sending home of worn out and damaged cars, to provide for 
same being inspected by some disinterested person, for ex- 
ample, a joint car inspector at some point employed by four 
or more roads or some head of car department of a disin- 
terested line, to examine the car and state whether or not 
the owners are responsible or if same was in such condi- 



tion that it should be destroyed, if so, in the first place the 
road having the car in its possession to make repairs or in 
the latter case destroy the car sending the scrap material 
home." 

"I think the same should be carried out in regard to pri- 
vate line cars, which would prevent the hauling of a great 
many disabled and dilapidated cars over the line." 

After President Boutet had presented his suggestions as 
to desirable changes in rules, a general discussion of these 
questions followed. Mr. Skidmore, secretary, read the pre- 
face of the rules, and it was moved by Mr. O'Donnell and 
seconded by Mr. Berg that the preface of the rules stand as 
read. This motion was carried. 

Mr. Lynch opened the discussion by saying that he wanted 
to know if he was to understand that the delivering line de- 
fects and the owners' defects were to be put under separate 
headings in the book of rules. 

Mr. Dyer. — I think that the delivering line company's de- 
fects should be put in the front of the book of rules and the 
different headings as pieces, parts, etc., be put on additional 
pages in the book. 

Mr. O'Donnell. — I suggest that simply to put under one 
heading the delivering line responsibility. On the first pages 
of the book of rules. 

Mr. McAlpine. — I would like to ask if only the members 
of the executive committee were asked to speak at this meet- 
ing. 

Mr. Boutet. — My intention was to get as many of the mem- 
bers as possible to come here and talk these matters over 
with us. We came to get whatever information we could 
out of the meeting and want all to say something, whether 
a member of the executive committee or not. 

Mr. McAlpine. — I would put the delivering line and own- 
er's defects grouped so that the inspector could familiarize 
himself with the delivering line defects, without having to 
refer to any other part of the book of rules, or in fact look 
through the whole book. 

Mr. Crandall. — I am interested in seeing the book of rules 
so arranged that the inspector can see just what he is look- 
ing for without referring to the whole book. I think the 
rules should be grouped in such a manner that anything ex- 
ceptional or important could be immediately referred to. 
This could be done by the use of italics or capital letters to 
attract attention. In this way important rules could be more 
easily referred to. 

Mr. Durrell. — I believe the condensing of the rules would 
help greatly in determining just what rules our interchange 
inspectors and repair men are required to learn and would 
also be of assistance to us when reports come to our ear 
foremen and before we are able to pass on certain cases and 
make our report to our superintendents, as it would enable 
us to get at it more quickly. I see great advantages in it and 
think it best to move that the executive committee recom- 
mend to the M. C. B. Association the condensing of the rules 
bearing on the above subjects, and the printing of same 
under different headings, viz., owners' responsibilit}- and de- 
livering line's responsibility, and eliminate everything .else 
in the book pertaining to rules covering the subjects of re- 
sponsibility. I think this would simplify matters a great 
deal. 

Mr. McAlpine. — I think they should be separated, that they 
should be printed by themselves. 

Mr. Boutet. — In that way it would not be necessary for an 
interchange inspector to know the whole book of rules; all 
that would be asked of him is to familiarize himself with the 
delivering line defects and what was safe to run. 

Mr. Lynch. — As long as owners' defects and delivering 
line defects are under separate headings there would be no 
difficulty in knowing who was to pay for repairs, as the 
separate headings would be before them and as soon as a 



102 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



March, 1909. 



car needed repairs they would attach a card and make a 
note of it. 

Mr. Durrell. — I move that for the purpose of making the 
M. C. B. Book of Rules, pertaining to owner's and deliver- 
ing line's responsibility more readily understood and in more 
condensed form for the benefit of car inspectors and others 
having to do with the interchange of cars, that the execu- 
tive committee recommend to the M. C. B. Association the 
condensing of the rules bearing on the above subject and 
the printing of same in the book of rules under two head- 
ings, viz., delivering line's responsibility and owners' respon- 
sibility, and eliminate from the other parts of the book of 
rules anything covering the subject of responsibility. Sec- 
onded by Mr. Hansen and carried. 

Mr. Boutet. — What defects should we recommend making 
the delivering line responsible for? 

Mr. Skidmore. — A car owner should be made responsible 
for all missing material on cars, except missing material 
pertaining to brakes. The fact of making the delivering line 
responsible for missing material in interchange has been 
ignored to a certain extent all over the country, that would 
show to the framers of the M. C. B. Rules that there is 
something radically wrong with that part of the rules. 
There is no benefit to anybody to make the delivering line 
responsible for owner's defects in interchange and I believe 
it would do away with a large amount of tracing, corres- 
pondence, etc., for defects cards if such was the case. The 
bill can be rendered against car owners for defects as well 
as against the delivering line. 

Mr. Berg. — I think that missing brake material should 
also be included. 

Mr. Skidmore. — I did not intend that brakes missing should 
be an owners' defect. I wish that everyone would state 
tlteir objections as that is what we are here for. 

Mr. O'Donnell. — Referring to Rule No. 42, it is my opin- 
ion that any missing material due to ordinary servce should 
be chargeable to the car owners, whether the car is offered 
in interchange or not. In my opinion the rules should be 
framed to cover it in this manner. 

Mr. Boutet. — How about slide flat wheels? I think this is 
a defect for which the delivering line should be responsible. 

Mr. O'Donnell. — I move that slide flat wheels and cut 
journals be made delivering line defects as at present. Sec- 
onded by Mr. Berg and carried. 

Mr. Boutet. — How about missing brake material? 

Mr. Skidmore. — That is a broad proposition since about all 
cars are equipped with metal brake beams and air brakes, it 
would not be well to make owners responsible for missing 
brake material in interchange. 

Mr. Berg. — I would recommend that brake levers and con- 
nections missing be classed as owners' defects, train men re- 
move broken connections in transit and at the next inspec- 
tion point you treat it as missing material and only charge 
labor. Brake levers and connections are more frequently 
missing from being broken than from other causes, that is 
my reason for recommending making them chargeable to 
owners. 

Mr. Boutet. — How about missing brake beams? 

Mr. Berg. — I am not prepared to recommend considering 
missing brake beams as owners' defects. 

Mr. Boutet. — We could hold owners responsible for part, 
for example, the P. & L. E. deliver to the Lake Shore at 
Erie an L. & N. car with one brake beam and mottom 
brake connection and brake lever missing they would give 
you a card for the brake beam, lever and bottom connec- 
tion missing, it being understood that the beam would cover 
the head and shoe, but, if on the other hand, this same car 
only had the bottom connection and lever missing, you 



would not get anything for that, but would charge the 
owners. 

Mr. Hansen. — I move that the delivering line be made re- 
sponsible for missing brake material only when the beams 
are missing. Motion seconded by Mr. Durrell and carried. 

Mr. Lynch. — I move that the rules pertaining to air brakes 
remain as they are because all cars must be equipped with 
air and the railroad companies desire air brakes kept in 
good condition. Seconded by Mr. Farran and carried. 

Mr. Boutet. — Do you want to make the delivering line re- 
sponsible for anything else? 

Mr. Skidmore. — I move that the delivering line be made 
responsible for wooden brake beams, if applied in place of 
metal brake beams, when cars are so stenciled. Seconded 
by Mr. Bunting and carried. 

Mr. O'Donnell. — I move that the delivering line be made 
responsible for combination of defects as follows: Three 
longitudinal sills, if accompanied by damage to the end sill 
on the same end and all occurring at the same time. That 
they should also be made responsible for more than three 
longitudinal sills if broken at the same time and on the same 
end to be considered as a combination on wooden framed 
cars. Steel underframed cars the combination to be one 
longitudinal sill and one end sill broken at the same time 
and at the same end or more than two longitudinal sills 
broken at one time and at the same end. All other combi- 
nations, as they now appear in the book of rules, to be made 
owners' defects. Motion seconded by Mr. McGreevey and 
carried. 

Mr. O'Donnell. — I move that the following be added to 
Rule No. 44, beginning after the word "pocket": Any car 
having tandem attachments found with pocket for single 
spring. Seconded by Mr. Berg and carried. 

RULES PERTAINING TO HOME ROUTE CARS. 

Mr. Boutet. — I would suggest changing rules 125 and 126 ; 
regarding the sending home of worn out and damaged cars, 
provide that same be inspected by some disinterested person, 
as previously referred to by me. I believe, however, that 
the owners should decide whether the car should be de- 
stroyed or repaired. 

Mr. Hansen. — I think the matter should be taken up with 
the owners as to whether the car should be sent home or 
whether it should be repaired or dismantled. 

Mr. Skidmore. — I move that Rule 125 be changed to read 
as follows: All wooden framed cars that the person desir- 
ing redress may call in a disinterested person, such as the 
head of a car department of a disinterested line or his repre- 
sentative, or a chief joint car inspector, who is employed by 
four or more lines, who shall examine the car and, if he 
finds that the defects on the car are such that the owners are 
responsible for, he shall write to the owners of the car, 
sending a copy to the road calling him in, and the owners 
shall decide whether the car shall be repaired or dismantled. 
If the owner elects to have the car dismantled or destroyed, 
if the car is a 60,000 capacity car, the person destroying the 
car shall allow the owners second-hand price for wheels and 
axles, full price for air brakes, scrap material prices for all 
other metal. If the car is less than a 60,000 capacity car, 
the person destroying the car will allow the owner full price 
for air brakes, scrap material for all other portions of 
metal, except wheels, which will be allowed second hand 
price. Seconded by Mr. Berg and carried. 

Mr. Skidmore.— I move that Rule 126 be changed to read 
as follows: That a metal car that is safe to run, which on 
account of wreck or accident or from defects due to ordi- 
nary wear and tear, shall be reported to its owner the same 
as in Rule 125 and the owners shall designate whether or 
not the car shall bo sent home or destroyed. In case he 
elects to have the car sent home, the persons having the car 



March, 1909. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



103 



in their possession shall make same safe for trainmen, as 
provided for by Intercar for all defects which they are re- 
sponsible for. Seconded by Mr. McGreevy and carried. 

Mr. Skidmore. — I have made these motions on Rules 125 
and 126 on account of so many roads requesting home route 
cards for cars, in some cases where the repairs were not 
very extensive, on other cases where they have misrepre- 
sented the facts to the owners. I think it would be great 
deal cheaper to all railroads, especially on wooden framed 
cars, that the cars be repaired on the road on which they 
became disabled, for example, a road might get a car occa- 
sionally that they might have to rebuild, they would still 
have a great deal less work to do on their line than they 
have to do under the present rules, for it is almost impos- 
sible to get a great many of the cars that are sent home on 
route cards over a line without going in the shops two or 
three times to have repairs made to get the cars over their 
line. In a great many cases they are in such condition that 
they are extremely dangerous to haul and could not be made 
perfectly safe unless the cars were thoroughly overhauled. 

Mr. O'Donnell.— I move that this association recommend 
to the M. C. B. Association that the coupler companies be 
required to stamp the name of each knuckle on same as is 
now done on the couplers. Seconded by Mr. Lynch and 
carried. 

Mr. O'Donnell.— My idea on pitted journals is as follows: 
We find lots of journals of 60 M, 80 M and 100 M capacity 
with defects on the journals that could be termed no other 
than pitted and, while it is understood that all pitted jour- 
nals are supposed to be scrap, it was thought possible that 
the journals mentioned above could be handled as pitted 
journals and trued up and charged to the car owners, which 
would make the rule clear, as they now have to be termed 
as cut journals, however, this is left to the judgment of the 
committee in making the final report. 

In accordance with the foregoing it was decided that it 
should be recommended to the M. C. B. Association that 
the Book of Rules of Interchange be changed as follows: 

That the preface of the Rules remain as it is. 

That the delivering line is responsible" for the following 
defects: 

Wheels slid flat, if the spot caused by sliding is 2^4 inches 
in length or over. 

Cut journals, axles bent or axles rendered unsafe by un- 
fair usage by derailment or accident. 

Combination of defects as follows: 

Three longitudinal sills, if accompanied by damage to end 
sill on the same end and all occurring at the same time, of 
more than three longitudinal sills if broken at the same time 
and on the same end. 

Journal bearings and journal box bolts, which require re- 
moval by reason of a change of wheels or axles, for which 
the delivering line is responsible, regardless of the previous 
condition of the bearings or bolts. 

Cars equipped with steel or steel tired wheels and so 
stencilled if found with cast iron wheels. 

Missing air brake hose, missing air brake pipe or damaged 
fittings, angle cocks, cut-out cocks, cylinders, reservoirs, 
triple valves, pressure retaining valves, or any parts of these 
items. 

Missing brake beams. 

Cars equipped with metal brake beams and so stencilled, if 
found with wooden brake beams. 

Cars found with -one inch air hose on one and one-quarter 
inch train pipe. 

Cars equipped with air signal steam pipe, hose and coup- 
lings, and so stencilled, if missing. 

M. C. B. Couplers not equipped with steel or wrought iron 
knuckles. 



Cars equipped with M. C. B. Couplers and having pocket 
rear end attachments and so stencilled, if found with stem 
or spindle attachments in place of pocket. 

Cars equipped with tandem spring couplers, if found with 
single spring pockets. 

Damage to any part of the car caused by unfair usage, 
derailment or accident, also temporary advertisements, 
tacked, glued, pasted or varnished on cars. Any card or 
poster exceeding 5x8 inches in dimensions, bearing the name 
of a manufacturer or shipper occupying more than two- 
fifths of the card. 

Cards with letters exceeding one-half inch in dimensions 
being considered an advertisement. 

The rest of the rules in the book to read "Owners' De- 
fects," so far as covering the defects on the car and that 
the prices be eliminated from the other parts of the rules: 

Change Rule 125 as follows: 

All wooden framed cars that a road has in their posses- 
sion in an unserviceable condition and they are desirous of 
procuring redress from the owners on same may call in a 
disinterested person, such as the car department head of a 
disinterested line, or his representative, or a chief joint car 
inspector, who is employed by four or more lines, who shall 
examine the car and, if he finds that the defects on the car 
are such that the owners are responsible for, he shall write 
to the owners of the car, stating all defects that exist on 
car, sending a copy to the road calling him in, the owners 
shall decide whether or not car shall be repaired or dis- 
mantled at their expense, if the owner elects to have the 
car dismantled or destroyed, if the car is a 60,000 capacity 
car or over, the person destroying the car shall allow the 
owner second hand price for wheels or axles, full price for 
air brakes, and scrap material prices for all other metal. If 
the car is less than a 60,000 capacity the person destroying 
the car will allow the owners full price for air brakes, sec- 
ond hand price for wheels, scrap price for all other metal. 

Rule 126. — To be changed as follows: 

That a metal car that is safe to run, which on account of 
accident or serious damage by wreck or otherwise or from 
defects due from ordinary wear or tear, shall be reported to 
its owner, same as provided for by Rule 125 and the owner 
shall state whether or not the car shall be sent home or de- 
stroyed. In case he elects to have the car sent home, the 
persons having the car in their possession shall make same 
safe for trainmen as provided for in Interstate Commerce 
Rules and shall place an M. C. B. Defect Card on car for all 
defects for which the delivering line is responsible. 

S. Skidmore, Secretary. 

H. Boutet, President. 

RESOLUTION OF EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

We, Members of the Executive Committee of the C. J. C. 
I. & C. F. Association of America, believe that the forego- 
ing changes in the M. C. B. Rules would be beneficial to the 
railroads throughout the country for the following reasons: 

There is no benefit gained by making the delivering line 
responsible for defects, for which the owners are respon- 
sible, if car is in interchange. 

We believe that the previous idea to make the delivering 
line responsible was for the purpose of maintaining the 
equipment. We do not believe this is accomplished, but it 
only makes a vast amount of work in tracing and giving 
cards for defects, which are purely chargeable to the owners. 

We are firmly of the opinion that if defects are chargeable 
to owners under one condition same should be chargeable to 
them under all conditions. We are also of the opinion that 
owners' defects do not reach far enough and believe that a 
great number of cards are now issued against delivering 
lines, which should be chargeable to car -owners. As same 
are being treated in this way at nearly every large inter- 



104 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



March, 1909. 



change point in the country and if the rule is good at th'is 
point it should be good at other points throughout the 
country. 

Our object in putting delivering line defects in the front 
of the book was so that the interchange inspectors would 
not be compelled to learn the whole book of rules by heart. 
All that would be necessary for them to know was what 
was safe to go to his line, according to the instructions of his 
superiors and for what the delivering line was responsible. 
We believe that this would save a great deal of time and a 
vast amount of disputes and delays to freight. 

In regard to the combination which we saw fit to recom- 
mend, that they be reduced, it is our positive knowledge 
that the matter of combination of defects is abused in a 
great measure, for example, a car is run for one or two 
years on its own road with two broken sills and is offered 
to some connection and accepted for two broken sills as 
owners' defect. The line receiving the car will probably de- 
liver same back with an additional sill broken, then they are 
made responsible for the whole combination. This is not 
only true of railroad cars, but private line cars, which are 
not repaired when they get home with one or two sills 
broken, but allowed to run until they get a combination; 
then the railroad is compelled to pay for same and we do 
not think this is the intent of the rule made. 

In regard to the changes in Rules 125 and 126 we cannot 
but believe it would be of great saving for the railroads 
throughout the country not to send cars of this kind home. 
We do not believe it would make near as much work for 
any line to repair an occasional car at the expense of the 
owner as it is to do under the present rules and same could 
be done in one of their principal shops ,and it would not 
entail the amount of repairs that is being done at points 
where they are not prepared to do the work. 

This would also prevent the hauling of worn out cars and 
dilapidated cars over the country, which is not only ex- 
pensive but dangerous to the line hauling them. 

It is very seldom that a line is able to get one of these 
cars without having to shop it several times at its different 
repair tracks along the line, whereas if this car had been re- 
built or thoroughly repaired before it became unserviceable 
it could have been immediately put into revenue service in- 



stead of having been hauled from one to three thousand 
miles over the country empty. The following home route 
card will' show this is being done at the present time. 

Intercolonial car No. 1854, which was at Cleveland, Ohio. 
left over the C. C. C. & St. L. to the Terminal R. R., St. 
Louis, to Vandalia R. R., to Penna Co., to the P. R. R., to 
D. H. Co. R. R., to Rutland R. R., to Q. M. & S. R. R., to 
the owners. This is only one of the many cases that act- 
ually come under our notice. 
H. Boutet, President. 
A. Berg, Vice-President. 
S. Skidmore, Secretary and Treasurer. 

Executive Board: 

C. Waughop, 
F. R. Trapnell, 
Geo. Lynch, 
J. O'Donnell. 



Hamilton Automatic Cut-Off Saw 

This heavy automatic cut-off saw is constructed for me- 
dium and heavy work in car shops, ship yards, and for 
heavy building material. The frame is of heavy construc- 
tion, well braced throughout and is 8 ft. 5 ins. long over all 
from front to back. The table is 13 ft. long, from end to 
end. 

The saw is driven by an improved drive consisting of an 
endless belt which runs over the various pulleys and idlers 
in such manner as to maintain straight lines between pul- 
leys, thus maintaining equal tension on the belt at all times 
and doing away with swinging frames or idlers. 

The saw housing travels on top of the frame in heavy 
dove-tail slides and is provided with adjusting gibs for tak- 
ing up wear and for lining up the saw. The feed of this 
housing is by means of a heavy lead screw driven by right 
and left friction gearing, which is controlled by a foot treadle 
at front of machine. There are three rates of forward feed 
and one return. The housing can be started or stopped at 
any point in its travel and can be returned to its starting 
point at will of the operator. A stop rod is furnished by 
which the backward travel of the saw can be regulated, as 
it is not necessary to return the saw for the full stroke for 
every cut made. 




Hamilton Heavy Automatic Railway Cut-off Saw 



March, 1909. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



105 



The table is of extra large size, consisting of a central 
connected portion 5 ft. in length and having long wing 
roller extensions, giving a total length to the table of 13 ft. 
The roller table is 30 ins. wide and will admit material 27 
ins. wide. 

One 30-in. saw is furnished, but saws up to 36 ins. in 
diameter can be used, which latter will cut off material up 
to 27 ins. by 9 ins. or 17 ins. by 14 ins. The countershaft is 
attached to machine and has tight and loose pulleys 14 ins. 
diameter by 8^4 ins. face, which should make 250 revolu- 
tions per minute. 

The Bentel & Margedant Company, Hamilton, Ohio, 
manufacture this saw as well as the well-known Hamilton 
(Ohio) line of car shop wood-working tools. 



High Power Milling Machines 

Two views of a high power vertical milling machine, built 
by the Cincinnati Milling Machine Company, are shown 
herewith. One of these illustrations shows the machine at 
work milling forged steel bars having 55,000 lbs. tensile 
strength, 50 per cent elongation. The bars are 5 ins. wide 
and the machine takes a cut J /s in. deep, feeding 16 ins. per 
minute. This amounts to 10 cu. ins. of steel removed per 
minute, and the work is done with a 10 horsepower motor 
working slightly overload, using 12 gross horsepower. This 
differs from the cutting this machine was doing at Atlantic 
City only in that at that time it was taking a cut % in. 
deep, 8 ins. per minute in this same steel, which also 
amounted to removing 10 cu. ins. of steel per minute. 

Two views of horizontal milling machines are also shown 
and one of these shows a machine milling four drop-forged 
steel pieces at one time, taking a cut in each piece 13/16 ins. 
wide, 1% ins. deep, at a table travel of 2 ins. per minute. 
This amounts to 8% cu. ins. of steel removed per minute. 
The machine is using a 10 horsepower motor, and it must be 
conceded that this is remarkably heavy cutting when using 
cylindrical cutters on a horizontal arbor, or, in other words, 
is evidence of a machine of tremendously high efficiency. 

These milling machines are the outgrowth of a conviction 
of the Cincinnati Milling Machine Company that the time 
has come for the entire re-design of milling machines for 
high power work, and of much study and experimental work 
undertaken in order to produce machines which, beginning 
with a given cut, should be harmoniously designed from the 





Vertical Milling Machine in Operation. 

spindle back through the entire machine to the motor to pro- 
duce that cut. This standard cut, which forms the starting 
point in the design of the machines is (taking the No. 4 plain 
horizontal as an example) yk in. deep by 6 ins. wide, with such 
a rate of feed as will remove from 7 to 8 cu. ins. of metal per 
minute — this cut being taken in machinery steel of 55,000 
lbs. tensile strength, with a standard spiral milling cutter 
having nickel teeth. The machine is designed to take this 
cut for continuous service and to safely take a maximum cut 
considerably larger than the standard cut used as a basis. 

Back of these convictions is the principle, strongly advo- 
cated by this company, that modern machine tools .should 
not be. sold on the old basis of net weight and driving-pulley 
dimensions, but on the basis of the quantity and quality of 
work they can produce. While these machines are thus in 
line with the progress toward high-power milling, the com- 
pany recognizes that all milling is not of that class and they 
have no intention of discontinuing the production of the 
older type of machine. 

Next to this feature lay the determination to produce a 
line of machines to meet the possible wants of a customer 
as regards his system of driving and feeding, and capable of 
being changed by him at any time to suit any change in his 
transmission system; — and to offer these machines in the 
same variety of driving and feeding arrangements with both 
vertical and horizontal spindles. 

This latter result is nothing less than a remarkable 
achievement in machine design. It is brought about by the 




Vertical Spindle Milling Machine, Constant Speed Drive and 
Circular Milling Attachment. 



Horizontal Milling Machine in Operation. 



106 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



March, 1909. 



unit system of construction, whereby the simple selection of 
appropriate units produces the machine desired. The basis of 
the complete design is the constant speed belt-driven ma- 
chine with the driving shaft parallel with the spindle, the 
feed box being driven from the constant speed shaft, and 
fitted with an index plate giving the feed in inches per 
minute. By simply removing a bracket and supplying an- 
other, this is converted into a machine of the same style, 
but having the driving shaft at right angles with the spindle. 
Again, by removing the driving-gear box and substituting 
another simpler one, the machine becomes a cone-pulley 
machine in which the feeds are driven from the spindle, but 
with no change in the feed box itself. Substituting a dif- 
ferent feed index plate, however, gives the feeds in thous- 
andths per revolution. By the same exchange of brackets as 
before, this cone-pulley machine becomes one with the driv- 
ing shaft parallel with, or at right angles to, the spindle, as 
desired. By substituting a sprocket wheel for the driving 
pulley and adding a bracket at the base, the constant speed 
belt machine becomes a constant speed motor-driven machine 
and by a similar substitution the cone pulley machine be- 
comes a variable speed motor-driven machine, the feed be- 
ing appropriate to the drive in all cases. 

Even more noteworthy is the application of the same sys- 
tem to machines havng vertical spindles, for up to the frame 
head the horizontal and vertical spindle machines are identi- 
cal, the vertical machine involving nothing not contained in 
the horizontal machine except the frame casting, the mech- 
anism at its top, and a pair of bevel gears to change the 
motion of the horizontal shaft to the vertical shaft. In this 
way no less than 12 distinct machines are made by merely 
changing the frame and drive, the table mechanism and feed 
box being identical in all types, while there are but two speed 
boxes. 



Plate Straightening Rolls 

The accompanying illustration shows a set of ' plate 
straightening rolls, built by the Hilles & Jones Company, 
Wilmington, Del. This machine was recently installed in 
the Readville shops of the New York, New Haven & Hart- 
ford Railroad, the Reading shops of the Philadelphia & Read- 
ing Railway, the Mt. Clair shops of the Baltimore & Ohio 
Railroad; and the McKees Rocks shops of the Pittsburg & 
Lake Erie Railroad. It is made in various lengths between 
housings, the widest being 10 ft. 2 ins. 

There are six rolls of forged steel, 12 ins. in diameter, and 
two of the upper rolls are placed alternately with the lower 
rolls giving the usual corrugating action on the plate. The 
third upper roll is placed directly over the outside lower 
rolls, this third roll having independent adjustment both 
vertically and laterally allowing a plate to be pinched at 
any desired point and stretched for removing buckles. This 
is especially desirable on long, narrow plates. This type of 





Horizontal Milling Machine, Operator's Position. 

machine has become almost a necessity in the manufacture 
of tenders and the same general design of machine, in lighter 
sizes, is being used by the railroads for passenger car work 
on which the sheets have to be leveled. Driving may be 
either by duplex friction clutch pulleys, as shown, or by 
reversible motor directly connected. 



Double Trolley Crane 

The standard 120-ton Morgan cranes are built especially 
for railroad shops by the Morgan Engineering Company, 
Alliance, Ohio. The crane shown in the view was fur- 
nished to the Coke & Coal Railway Company, Elkins, W. 
Va., and is what is known as a double trolley crane, each 
trolley having a capacity of 60 tons. In addition to the 60- 
ton hoist on each trolley, there is a 5-ton auxiliary hoist for 




Double Trolley Crane. 

handling light loads at high speeds. The span of this crane 
is 65 ft. from center to center of bridge rails. A number of 
these cranes have recently been installed, several of them for 
the Grand Trunk Railway system at their Battle Creek and 
Stratford shops, described elsewhere in this issue. 



Plate Straightening Rolls 



Our Country and Our Railroads 

An address on Our Country and Our Railroads, delivered 
by B. F. Yoakum, chairman of the executive committees of 
the Rock Island-Frisco Line, before the Chicago Association 



March. 1909. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



107 



of Commerce, dealt in part with 
the control of the railroads 
through the Federal government. 
"Railroad pools should not be 
legalized; pools are secret under- 
standings between the parties to 
them, but railroads should be per- 
mitted to enter into open traffic 
alliances, subject to the approval of 
the Interstate Commerce Commis- 
sion, which would safeguard the in- 
terests of the public. The same 
Federal authority should authorize 
the issuance of railroad securities, 
thereby protecting the investor 
against over-capitalization." 



Cleveland Shear 

A flush front shear, installed in 
the West Albany shops of the New 
York Central Lines, is shown here- 
with. This machine, built by the 
Cleveland Punch & Shear Works 
Company, is used for shearing 
plate and has interchangeable at- 
tachments for punching angle, 
shearing, flue hole punching, bar 
shearing, etc. This machine is of 
solid frame type and is cast with 
only one core which is used for the 
main shaft. This machine is 
equipped with automatic stop and is especially adapted for 
railroad work. 




Personals 



Mr. B. W. Benedict has been appointed bonus supervisor 
of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe at Topeka, Kan., and 
will have territorial charge of bonus work on the Eastern 
Grand division and functional supervision over standardiza- 
tion of schedules. 

Mr. S. S. Riegel has been appointed mechanical engineer 
of the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western, at Scranton, Pa., 
succeeding J. A. Mellon, resigned. 

Mr. T. McHattie, master mechanic of the Grand Trunk at 
Montreal, Que., has been appointed superintendent of motive 
power of the Central of Vermont. 

Mr. Charles L. Gasper, mechanical engineer of the Wis- 
consin Central, has been appointed' superintendent of the 
mechanical department of the Canton & Hankow Ry., at 
Canton, China, to succeed T. S. Reilly, whose death was re- 
cently noted. Mr. Reilly, who died of an abscess of the 
liver, has been buried at Hongkong, a British colony. Mr. 
Gasper will leave for China at once. 

Mr. R. G. Cullivan, general foreman of the locomotive de- 
partment of the New York Central at West Albany, N. Y., 
has been appointed division superintendent of motive power, 
to succeed Mr. E. A. Walton, resigned. Mr. Cullivan will be 
succeeded by Mr. Marvin Howe, general foreman of the 
locomotive department at Oswego, N. Y. 

Mr. J. C. Garden has been appointed master mechanic of 
the eastern division of the Grand Trunk, with headquarters 
at Montreal, in place of Mr. T. McHattie, who has resigned 
to take service with another company. 

Mr. W. S. Kenyon has been appointed master mechanic 
of New Orleans & Northwestern, with office at Ferriday, 
La., vice Mr. B. J. Peasley, transferred to St. Louis, Iron 
Mountain & Southern shops at De Soto, Mo. 

Mr. P. N. Jones, electrical and mechanical engineer of the 



Cleveland Flush Front Shear, New York Central Lines. 



Pittsburg Railways Co., has been appointed general superin- 
tendent of the company. 

Mr. G. E. Johnson has been appointed master mechanic of 
with headquarters at Wymore, Neb., vice Mr. A. B. Pirie, 
assigned to other duties, 
the Wymore division of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, 

Mr. A. S. Work, road foreman of engines of the Chicago 
& Alton at Bloomington, 111., has resigned, and Mr. James 
Butler has been appointed to succeed him. 

Mr. C. B. Smyth, assistant mechanical engineer of the 
Union Pacific, has resigned to accept the position of superin- 
tendent of the McKeen Motor Car Co., with headquarters at 
Omaha, Neb. 

Mr. F. C. Pickard, formerly master mechanic of the Mis- 
sissippi Central, has been appointed master mechanic of the 
Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton at Moorfield, Ind., to suc- 
ceed Mr. C. B. Cadman, resigned. 

Mr. E. G. Osgood has been appointed master mechanic of 
the Williamsville, Greenville & St. Louis, succeeding Mr. 
O. D. Greenwalt, resigned. 

The jurisdiction of Mr. J. P. Nolan, master mechanic of 
Morgan's Louisiana & Texas, has been confined to the 
Algiers shops and Mississippi terminals. 

Mr. W. H. Edgecombe has been appointed bonus super- 
visor of the Western Grand division of the Atchison, To- 
peka & Santa Fe, with office at La Junta, Colo. 



Trade Notes 

Mr. Russel Dale, formerly sales manager of the Celfor Tool 
Company, is now the Chicago representative of the Carpenter 
Steel Company, of Reading, Pa., with offices in the Commer- 
cial National Bank building, Chicago. Mr. Dale is one of 
the well known and popular railway supply salesmen, having 
been sales manager for the Rich Manufacturing Company, 
which was later changed to the Celfor Tool Company, for 
the last few years. He introduced the Rich drill chuck and 
Celfor high-speed flat drills in many shops, both in this coun- 



108 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



March, 1909. 



try and abroad. The Carpenter Steel Company is one of the 
largest manufacturers of high grade steels and wire in the 
country. Among their products are "Zenith," high-speed tool 
steel, T. K. alloy steel, Air Hardening steel, Fast Finishing 
steel, "Extra," "Standard" and "Comet" tool steels. 

Mr. J. E. Simons, Fisher building, Chicago, formerly of the 
firm of Lawson & Simons, Chicago, has been appointed 
Western agent for the Damascus Bronze Company, Pitts- 
burg, Pa., and the Composite Board Company, Niagara Falls, 
N. Y. The latter company makes an inflammable board for 
the interior lining of steel cars. 

Announcement is made that the Rockwell Furnace Com- 
pany, of 26 Cortlandt street, New York, have purchased the 
factory, drawings, patterns, etc., of the Rockwell Engineering 
Company, and the business will hereafter be transacted under 
the name of Rockwell Furnace Company, incorporated under 
the laws of the state of New York. All customers of the 
Rockwell Engineering Company are assured prompt fulfil- 
ment of all orders for repair parts, etc., and the new company 
will be pleased to submit prices on any new work in the 
furnace line. 

The Plunger Plastic Packing Company, of St. Paul, Minn., 
in placing the D. & L. throttle rod equipment upon the mar- 
ket, have broken away from the old coil and ring packing 
and use a plastic packing that has many advantages over the 
old style; the chief among them is the fact that it is leak 
proof and stays so, and it can be renewed without killing the 
engine. Packing put up ifi the usual form cannot retain its 
elasticity and lubrication for any length of time, and when 
these elements disappear the throttle packing leaks as a 
natural consequence. The only remedy is to kill the engine 
and repack the throttle with some other of the "53" varieties 
upon the market, in the hope of better results next time. 

The Light Feed Oil Pump Company, Milwaukee, Wis., 
submits a copy of Bulletin No. 209, which contains a descrip- 
tion, illustrated by photographs and line drawings, of the 
Richardson automatic sight feed oil pump. 

The American Wood Working Machinery Company, Roch- 
ester, New York, issued a circular on their four-column 
moulder, which is one of their late style machines. 

After prolonged and earnestly contested litigation between 
the rival claimants for the patent for the "impositive lock" 
which forms part of the well-known Gold hose coupler, a 
decision has just been rendered by the Commissioner of 
Patents on appeal in favor of Mr. Edward E. Gold, president 
of Gold Car Heating & Lighting Company. The Gold coup- 
ler is provided with a lock which locks automatically and 
prevents accidental uncoupling, but yields when the cars pull 
apart and permits the couplers to uncouple automatically. 
The contest for the patent for this important invention has 
been a vigorous one for four years past, and much testimony 
has been taken, resulting in the recent decision of the Com- 
missioner of Patents on appeal in favor of Mr. Edward E. 
Gold. 

The Helwig pneumatic hammer, here illustrated, is de- 
signed to meet the demand for a pneumatic hammer of in- 
creased capacity, simple design, substantial construction, one 
convenient to handle, easy of operation, and low in cost of 
operation and maintenance. The valve mechanism is very 
simple. The valve is balanced, of piston type, and of large 
wearing surface. It is made of solid tool steel, hardened 
and ground, and as it operates in the same direction as pis- 
ton, the wear on it is reduced to a minimum and the full 
power of air allowed to be utilized for effective work instead 
of being wasted in overcoming friction. It is made by the 
Helwig Manufacturing Company, St. Paul, Minn. 

C. W. Leavitt & Company, New York, are now located in 
the Hudson Terminal, Cortlandt building, 30 Church street, 
New York. 

Burton W. Mudge & Brother, Commercial National Bank 



building, Chicago, has been appointed western representa- 
tives for the Mclnnes Steer Company, of Corry, Pa., who 
handle a complete line of high-grade tool steel of all kinds. 
A complete stock will be carried at the warehouse, 52 West 
Washington street, Chicago. 

"Aid to Shippers" is the title of a 72-page book containing 
a quantity of information of value to all engaged in the ex- 
port or import trade. The book is issued by Oelrichs & Com- 
pany, of New York, for more than 40 years the American 
representatives of the North German Lloyd Steamship Com- 
pany, who by reason of long experience are qualified to ad- 
vise. The table of foreign moneys with United States equiv- 
alents, together with weights, measurements, tariffs, customs 
requirements, etc., etc., will be found of great value. "Aids 
to Shippers" will be sent, postpaid, on request to Oelrichs & 
Company, Forwarding Department, 5 Greenwich street, New 
York. 

Mr. Alexander B. Wetmore has accepted the position of 
sales manager of the Monarch Steel Castings Company, of 
Detroit, Mich., effective March 1. Mr. Wetmore leaves a 
long period of service with the Detroit Lubricator Company 
to take up the sales of the well-known "Monarch" couplers 
and "Monarch" graduated draft gear, made by the Monarch 
corporation. 

"Peerless" high speed reamers are claimed to reduce the 
tool cost per reamed hole one-half, and with the same ma- 
chines and operators, turn out twice as many reamed holes 
per day as carbon steel reamers. They are made by the 
Cleveland Twist Drill Company, Cleveland, Ohio. 

The American Car & Equipment Company, Chicago, has 
moved its offices from the Monadnock block to 730 Colony 
building. 

The newly organized Duntley Manufacturing Company, 
Chicago, has taken the whole of the fourth floor of the 
Plymouth building for its general offices. 

The Northwestern Railway Supply Company, 8 South 
Canal street, Chicago, has changed its name to the Central 
Railway Supply Company, and has increased its capital stock 
from $500 to $25,000. 

Mr. C. B. Smyth, assistant mechanical engineer of the 
Union Pacific, has been appointed superintendent of the Mc- 
Keen Motor Car Company, Omaha, Neb., and will hereafter 
devote his entire time to the interests of that company. 

The Indianapolis Railway Mail Equipment Company, In- 
dianapolis, Ind., has been incorporated to manufacture and 
sell railway mail equipment, capital stock, $100,000. The in- 
corporators are Messrs. William A. Zumpfe, Ernest L. Kill'en 
and George B. Mabin. 

Mr. Charles W. Waughop, Jr., has been appointed sales 
agent of the Scullin-Gallagher Iron & Steel Company, St. 
Louis, Mo., with headquarters at St. Louis. Mr. Waughop 
will act as the coupler expert of the company. 

Mr. T. Herbert Taylor, 419 Empire building, Atlanta, Ga., 
has about completed the organization of a railway and mill 
supply company, to be located in Atlanta, and would like to 
hear from concerns manufacturing articles handled by railway 
Sand mill supply houses. 

The long series of producer gas tests on various grades of 
bituminous coal, conducted by the U. S. Geological Survey 
at the St. Louis Exposition, have been productive of such 
fruitful results that the testing work has been perpetuated 
and the government has secured for this purpose a 140-h. p. 
Westinghouse 3-cylinder vertical single-acting gas engine. 
This engine is of the same type as that installed at St. Louis, 
upon which all of the producer gas tests were made. An im- 
portant schedule of experimental work has been laid out by 
the government engineers and tests will be run on all classes 
of bituminous coals, lignites, peat, etc. 



April, 1909. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



]0'.) 



$2<^— ■*:*. ing Societies Building, New York, April 13, 1909. Besides 

0^\^\ 1 T iVyfl[^^^^^^ ^^t^ v - ''"' s ' ni P' c ritual oi the presentation of tin- medal, in the 

T^iTl"*' * <s=3 == =5&>*™^ -=^ presence ol invited quests and distinguished representatives 

L'^O r ^^L.Jm a "' engineering, there were addresses by representatives of 

zmrs ^^^ M #**B* B T B % ■▼llTr^^Hr /RT^TTT^r^ 1 tnc '"'" "^ '' 1{ P ro • f ' concerned '| h< 

W3 Wfjy\i J\IVL JiffjUlim^fLJ |,r ° grani inclu(k '' 1 Ul( ' f " ]1 " wi »K MH-akers: Dean W. F. M. 

II JJT «^*""»- «• ^3 , ^™' /gs3\ Goss ' of the Universit y of Illinois; Prof. F. R. Hutton, of 

*^ ESTABLISHED j 87g " i ^* r ^ J Columbia University; Mr. Robert W. Hunt, of Chicago, and 

Mr. Frank J. Sprague, of Xcw York. 

Entered as Second-Class Matter June 18, 1895, at the Post Office 

at Chicago, Illinois, Under Act of March 3, 1879. 

vol. xxxiii Chicago, April, 1909 "HT? Transportation Exhibit, Alaska-Yukon- 

~ Pacific Exposition 

CONTENTS. Actual demonstrations of every railway safety device, ap- 

Xon-Rcsident Lectures, University of Minnesota 109 pr0 ved and unexploited, will be made daily in the tran-por 

Presentation Ceremony of the John Fritz Medal ... •■■••■■ J°» tation building and yards of the Alaska- Yukon-Pacific Ex- 
Transportation Exhibit, Alaska- Yukon-Pacific Exposition. 109 .. ,.,.,, T . _ . 
Oil-Burning Locomotive 109 position, which will open on June 1 in Seattle. J he trans- 
Panama Canal Work 109 portation building is now being hurried to completion and 

Locomotive Wrecking Crane, P. R. R 110 tracks, spurs, switches, and "Y's" are already laid for the 

Balanced Compound Atlantic Locomotives Ill complete exemplification of general and special rail- 
Abuse of the M. C. B. Repair Card 113 * b ' 

Safety Valve Capacity 114 wa ^ trafhc ever aottempted on the grounds of an exposition. 

Cost of Motor Car Service, C, R. I. & P. Ry 118 So desirous were eastern locomotive builders of taking 

Boulton Shops, R., F. & P. R. R 119 advantage of reaching the Oriental field through the medium 

Passenger Cars in Zanzibar. .................. .. 122 of the Seattle fair, that they provided the major portion of 

Approaching Transfer of the Electrification Problem 122 , ,.,, . . . 

Improvised Boiler Tube Welding Hammer 125 the $75,000 which the construction of the transportation 

Engineer Who Is Also Doctor 125 building has cost, in order that the structure should be of 

Experimental Railway Refrigerating Plant 125 ;: mpl e size for their most complicated illustrations. Locomo- 

New Firebox for Locomotives ■••■••■■•• 126, 128 t]yes of M ma]<es and a]] iods wi]1 be exhibited. Every- 

Consolidation Locomotives, W. M. K. K 126 . ■ , ... ,, e , , 

Locomotive Valve Gear Tests 128 thl "g- from the old ha y burners of the cotton belt, to the 

Machinists as Enginemen 128 big transcontinental mogul will be shown under full steam. 

Locomotives Left Side 128 an d a modern passenger train, equipped with the last word 

The Atlantic City Conventions 129 jn Pullrnan ser vice, lights, brakes and wireless alarms will 

Cr3 s Producer Tests .129 

Largest Locomotives in the Worid.' '. .................... .129 be a dai] y show - 

Cylinder Boring Machine 130 

?""i g orS,! S of Explosives : ! : [ ! ! ! ] ! : [ .' ! : : S3 Oil-Burning Locomotive 

Systems of Governing Shop Laborers 136 In the proceeding brought by the forest, fish and game 

Shop Time Keeping and Labor Distribution 137 commissioner before the New York state public service corn- 
Evolution of the Brake Shoe 139 mission second district to ire the railroads operating 

British Patent Revocation 141 . ' H v 

The Railroad Club Its Worth ..142 in t^e forest preserve of the Adirondacks to take measures 

An Ounce of Rust Prevention 142 to prevent railroad fires in that region, the commission has 

Emergency Leak Stopper for Air Hose 143 rendered a decision ordering oil to be burned through the 

Car Mortising Machine for Heavy Work 143 h f A j, tQ November 1 of each year . The 

I rade JN otes 144 

New Literature 146 complete installation of oil burning is to be effected by April 

Personals 146 15, 1910, and at least two locomotives on the Mohawk & 

Patents 148 Malone R. R. and two on the Delaware & Hudson road are 

■ to be fitted with oil-burning apparatus and placed in service 

Non-Resident LeCtUreS at the University this summer in order to accustom the men to the use of 

Of Minnesota °^ anc ' avo ^ ar) y experimenting next year. 



Mr. Edward P. Burch, consulting engineer, Minneapolis, 
is giving a course of ten lectures on "Electric Traction for 
Railway Trains" at the College of Engineering of the Uni- 
versity of Minnesota. The lectures include the following 
subjects: History of Electric Traction, Advantages of Elec- 
tric Traction, Characteristics of Steam Locomotives, Charac- 
teristics of Electric Locomotives, Motor Car Trains, Electric 
Railway Motors, Power Required for Trains, Steam, Gas, and 
Water Power Plants, The Transmission System, and Elec- 
trification of Railroads. 



Presentation Ceremony, the John Fritz 
Medal 

The John Fritz medal for 1909' has been awarded by the 
"Board of Award" - specially selected for the purpose, and 
consisting of four members of each of the National Engi- 
neering Societies, to Mr. Charles T. Porter, Hon. Mem. Am. 
Soc. M. E., for his work in advancing the knowledge of 
steam engineering, and in improvements in engine construc- 
tion. The public ceremony of the presentation of the medal 
to Mr. Porter took place in the auditorium of the Engineer- 



Panama Canal Works 

The record for daily excavation in the Central Division on 
the Panama Canal was broken on February 27, 1909, for the 
fifth time during the month. On that date, 59 shovels ex- 
cavated 77,064 cubic yards, an average of 1,306 cubic yards 
per shovel for the eight-hour day. The material excavated 
was loaded in 2,177 Lidgerwood flats, 352 large Western dump 
cars and 2,754 small Western and Oliver dump cars, a total 
of 5,283 car loads. 

Work on the widening" of Culebra Cut between Las Cas- 
cadas and Paraiso was begun the middle of November and 
already considerable progress has been made. Authority for 
the change from a 200-ft. to a 300-ft. channel at the bottom 
of the Cut 4 was given at an advantageous time from the 
construction point of view, as the steam shovels had not 
excavated to so low a level that they could not be taken to 
the higher levels with advantage. Most of the excavation 
for the widening is to be on the east side of the channel, al- 
though cuts are made on each side and in places 50 ft, will 
be taken from both sides. The width of the Cut at the top 
and at the lowest levels yet reached is not uniform, as it 



110 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



April. 1909. 



depends on the nature of the material in the upper slopes. 
The width is 1,000 ft. at Gold Hill and other points, and is 
only 500 ft. at the top at Paraiso. 

At the angle at Gold Hill little or no additional excavating 
will be necessary at the present levels, as a 350-ft. turning 
basin is under construction at this tangent. At the point 
between Gold Hill and Cucaracha, where there was a small 
angle in the line of the 200-ft. channel, there will be none 
in the 300-ft. canal. 

Slides have been taken advantage of in the plan for the 
300-ft. channel. The slides on the west bank at Culebra 
had been removed to such an extent that steam shovel No.. 
205 made only one cut on the widening, and this completed 
the excavation necessary at about elevation 180. At Cuca- 
racha, where the big slide is still creeping into the prism 
and where several hundred thousand yards of materal have 
already been taken out outside the slopes necessary for the 
original 200-ft. channel, the line has been turned so as to 
eliminate the angle mentioned above and and to include much 
of the excavation already done. On the east bank between 
Empire and Culebra shovel No. 257 is taking out material 
so unstable that it would have been necessary to remove it 
even if the width of the canal at the bottom had not been 
increased, and the widening does not make it necessary to 
remove any more material from this point than would have 
been removed for the 200-ft. canal. Shovels Nos. 205, 220, 
225, and 232, working on the east slope of the Cut, and 
shovels Nos. 257, 206, and 211, working on the west slope, 
are all engaged on the widening. — Canal Record. 



One thousand pounds of old French scrap have been for- 
warded to the director of the United States mint at Phila- 
delphia by the Chief Quartermaster of the Isthmian Canal 
Commission to be used in making canal medals. Up to Jan. 
1, 1909, about 2,400 medals have been earned, and it is esti- 
mated that the number of medals to be earned in the future 
will aggregate about 500 per annum. In the distribution of 
the metals the following method will probably be observed. 
Medals which have been earned by persons no longer con- 
nected with the Commission or Panama Railroad Co. will be 
distributed from the Washington office of the Commission; 
medals earned by employes who have died subsequently will 
be delivered to their heirs, and medals earned by present em- 
ployes will be distributed from Culebra. 



Locomotive Wrecking Crane, Pennsyl- 
vania R. R. 

The Pennsylvania R. R. has recently added a locomotive 
crane to its wrecking equipment. This crane, which is of 
100-ton capacity, is shown in the photographic reproduc- 
tion herewith. The steel framework is 26 ft. long and 9 ft. 
wide, with the crane pivoted at the center, making it equally 
serviceable in any location of the jib. The longitudinal sills 
are made up of 24-in. I-beams of 100 lbs. to the foot, which 
are boxed with heavy plates, the connection with the side 
beams being made wtih angles double riveted. The end sills 
are 36 ins. deep and of 34-in. stock. Two 10-in. brake cylin- 
ders, piped to a common reservoir, operate the brakes, and 
the equipment includes a vertical, submerged tube boiler, 
62 ins. in diameter by 9 ft. in height, a 500-gallon water 
tank, and a double engine with 12xl2-in. cylinders. 

The maximum radius of the main hoisting block is 23 ft. 
4 ins., and of the auxiliary hoist, 30 ft. with an ordinary 
working radius of 27 ft. The crane has a capacity of 100 
tons at a radius of 16 ft., while at a radius of 20 ft. the 
capacity is diminished to 80 tons. When in working orcier, 
with coal, water and ballast, the weight is about 106 tons. 
The car is carried on two four-wheeled trucks with steel- 
tired wheels 33 ins. in diameter. Four nests of coiled springs 
are used to support each bolster, roller side bearings being 
also provided. 

The main, auxiliary and jib hoisting motions are entirely 
independent of each other, being operated by independent 
trains of gearing, and are provided with independent brakes. 
Telescopic out-riggers are used to secure stability for the 
crane with its various loads. In none of three motions is 
any use make of ratchets or other devices for holding sus- 
pended loads. The drum for the main hoisting rope is of 
very large capacity, allowing for a total length of 200 ft. 
The auxiliary hoist also has a drum of large capacity and 
purchase arranged in gearing. The jib hoist motion is pro- 
vided with a train of steel gearing, ending in the bronze 
worm and steel worm wheel operating, directly, the hoist- 
ing drum. In this way the danger of dropping the boom 
with or without loads is entirely obviated. The crane was 
manufactured by the Industrial Works, Bay City, Mich. 




New Locomotive Crane, Pennsylvania R. R. 



April, 1909. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



111 



Balanced Compound Locomotive 

Spokane, Portland & Seattle Ry. 



The Spokane, Portland and Seattle Ry. is under construc- 
tion from Portland to Spokane, at which point it will con- 
nect with the Great Northern Ry., thus giving the latter a 
direct line to Portland. For passenger service on the new 
road, the Baldwin Locomotive Works have recently com- 
pleted ten balanced compound locomotives of the Atlantic 
type. An equal number of similar engines were built at 
these works for the Great Northern Ry. in 1906, and have 
been giving satisfactory service. The new locomotives exerl 
a tractive force of about 23,000 lbs. when working compound 

In accordance with Great Northern practice, these loco- 
motives are equipped with Belpaire boilers. The first and 



two 15-in. piston valves, which are driven by Stephenson link 
motion. As the leading driving axle is cranked, the eccen- 
trics arc placed on the second axle, and the valves are driven 
by long rods which are provided with knuckle joints and in- 
termediate bearings. The outside cylinders drive the second 
pair of wheels. The four guides are braced by cast steel 
bearers, which are bolted to a single yoke extending across 
the locomotive. The crank axle is built up with a cast steel 
central web. 

The main frames are of cast steel, 5 ins. wide, spaced 4.'i 
ins. between centers. The rear frames are of the same ma- 
terial; they measure 4 ins. in width, and are spliced to the 




Balanced Compound Atlantic, S., P. & S. Ry. 



second rings in the barrel have "diamond" seams on the top 
center line, while the third ring, which carries the dome, has 
a welded seam on top with a liner inside,. The firebox is 
built with a straight back head and sloping throat, and is 
double riveted to the mud ring, which is of cast steel, 5 ins, 
wide all around. The throat sheet completely encircles the 
barrel; it is flanged out of a single piece, and formed to fit 
the top corners of the outside firebox shell. The back head 
is stayed with gusset-plates, which in turn are braced by 
longitudinal stay rods, anchored on the boiler barrel. The 
gusset plates are cut out to accommodate two rows of trans- 
verse tie rods, which support the flat surfaces of the outside 
sheets above the crown. The smoke box is slightly ex- 
tended and is made in one piece. It is of the self-cleaning 
type, fitted with perforated plates and a single high exhaust 
nozzle. , 

The cylinders are of the design usually applied to this 
type of locomotive. The steam distribution is controlled by 



main frames back of the rear driving pedestals. A steel cast- 
ing provides a transverse brace at this point, and also sup- 
ports an expansion plate which carries the front end of the 
mud ring. The rigid trailing wheels frequently used in this 
type of engine are replaced in the present design by a radial 
swing truck with outside journals. The front and back truck 
wheels have cast steel spoke centers, and were supplied by 
the Standard Steel Works Co. 

The cab is of steel, with interior fittings conveniently ar- 
ranged. The throttle lever is placed in a vertical position 
and is carried by a bracket mounted on the boiler shell, a 
short distance in front of the back head. The throttle rod 
runs outside the boiler, and the valve is operated by a shaft 
which passes through a stuffing box located in the side of 
the dome. The tender is equipped with a water bottom tank 
and steel channel frame. The trucks are of the equalized 
type, with semi-elliptic springs and "Standard" steel tired 
wheels. As at present equipped, the engines are fitted for 



o 



28j" 



4- 



J — i- 



A r 1 ??-^) Q O O . ■*-- 



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O iD — (t't'; 



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I O-O SJLS.Q. gj 



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Boiler of Atlantic Compound, S., P. & S. Ry. 



112 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



April, 1909. 



coal burning, but oil tanks are also furnished in case a 
change of fuel should prove desirable in the future. 

This is an interesting example of a high powered Atlantic 
type locomotive, in which large boiler capacity is provided 
in conjunction with compound cylinders. The principal di- 
mensions, given in the table, indicate that these engines are 
well adapted to heavy express service. 

Gauge 4 ft. 8% ins. 

Cylinders 15 ins. and 25x26 ins. 

Valves Balanced Piston 

Boiler — 

Type Belpaire 

Material Steel 

Diameter 72 ins. 

Thickness of sheets Y\ in. 

Working pressure 210 lbs. 

Fuel Soft coal 

Staying Vertical 

Firebox — 

Material Steel 

Length 116^ ins. 

Width 66^ ins. 

Depth, front 72 ins. 

Depth, back 64 ins. 

Thickness of sheets, sides Y, in. 

Thickness of sheets, back • Y% in. 

Thickness of sheets, crown Y, hi. 

Thickness of sheets, tube V2 in. 

Water Space — 

Front 5 in. 

Sides 5 in. 

Back 5 in. 

Tubes — 

Material Steel 

Wire gauge No. 11 

Number 301 




Diameter 2^ ins. 

Length 18 ft. 6 ins. 

Heating Surface — 

Firebox 208 sq. ft. 

Tubes 3,265 sq. ft. 

Total 3,473 sq. ft. 

Grate area 53.4 sq. ft. 

Driving Wheels — 

Outside diameter 73 ins. 

Inside diameter *..... 66 ins. 

Journals, front 10x10^ ins. 

Journals, back 9%xl2 ins. 

Engine Truck Wheels — 

Front diameter 36 ins. 

. Journals 6x12 ins. 

Back diameter 49 ins. 

Journals 8x14 ins. 

Wheel Base- 
Driving 7 ft. iy 2 ins. 

Rigid 7 ft. 1% ins. 

Total, engine 30 ft. 5 ins. 

Total, engine and tender 63 ft. 5^4 ins. 

Weight- 
On driving wheels 115,000 lbs. 

On truck, front 51,900 lbs. 

On truck, back 52,300 lbs. 

Total engine 219,200 lbs. 

Total engine and tender, about 368,000 lbs. 

Tender — 

Number of wheels 8 

Wheels, diameter : .... 36 ins. 

Journals 5^x10 ins. 

Tank capacity, water 8,000 gals. 

Tank capacity, coal 13 tons 

Service Passenger 



•' ''■ x l 





S^^RS 




!• *>i' - 



Elevation and Sections of Atlantic Type Compound, S., P. & S. Ry. 



April. 1909. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



113 



Abuse of the M. C. B. Repair Card* 

Current M. C. B. rule 76 requires that when repairs of any 
kind are made to foreign cars, a repair card shall be securely 
attached to designate locations of the repairs, this card to 
specify fully the repairs made, reasons for same, date and 
place same were made and name of road making the repairs, 
etc. Obviously, the repair card was adopted for the purpose 
of establishing a close relationship between the car owner 
and the road making repairs and thus eliminate tracing upon 
the part of the car owner to determine the responsibility in 
the event of wrong repairs having been made, and at the 
same time relieve intermediate or delivering roads from any 
responsibility. 

The object was most worthy, and if all roads actually 
making repairs to foreign cars fully complied with rule 76, 
identification by owners would be easy, and prompt adjust- 
ment in the event of wrong repairs possible. Unfortunately, 




Firebox of Atlantic Compound, S., P. & S. Ry. 

however, it is claimed that rule- 76 is not being complied 
with by all railway companies who are parties to the M. C. B. 
rules, thus producing a very unsatisfactory condition and 
practically annulling the purpose for which the repair card 
was created. It has been discovered on some roads that the 
card is often attached to cars by attempting to force the 
tacks into the timber with the thumb, with unsatisfactory 
results. When the car finally reaches home, minus the card, 
and it is found that wrong repairs have been made, the owner 
must pay the cost of repairs or employ an additional force of 
clerks to trace and locate the malefactor. The length of time 
required for the car to reach home is often great, and the 
stubs that have accumulated with the bills from foreign roads 
reach such proportions that the function of selecting the par- 
ticular stub to check against the card on a car requires time 
and patience not usually allotted to the busy railway man. 
If you are fortunate enough to finally locate the stub for the 
car in question, and upon examination of the car discover 
that the metal parts are so corroded or tarnished that you 
are unable to distinguish between alleged new work and the 
old, one is apt to give the billing road the benefit of the doubt 
and pass the bill for payment; also in cases where you are 
in receipt of a bill for repairs and the car itself bears no 
repair card or evidence of the work described, you still have 
left the choice of two evils, that of passing the bill without 
finally locating the work, or refusing payment. 

When unquestionably rule 76 has been and is to-day being 



*From a paper read before the New York Railroad Club, 
March 19, 1900. 



flagrantly violated, one would be without standing in court 
should he without positive proof allege dishonesty upon Hi' 
part of any railway in the non-application of repair cards. 
It is possible that the fault may lie in the indifferenci of re 
pair men. The fact remains that bills arc being rendered 
for repairs to cars that bear no repair card, and in some 
instances no evidence of repairs having been made. In the 
light of experience, it would appear that the repair card in 
its present form is not what it should be, and even if rub- 
76 be fully and honestly complied with by all road-,, the 
weakness still remains and is about equally divided between 
the possible loss when attached or failure to attach the re- 
pair card to the car, and the difficulty of determining by ex- 
amination of the car whether specific repairs have or have- 
not been made, especially when car-, arc long absent from 
home. 

Assuming that all roads are, or intend to be, perfectly 
honest in complying with rule 76, what in the rule will pre- 
vent a road from removing a pair of wheels in perfectly good 
condition, that have been in service but a year under a for- 
eign car, and placing this pair of wheels for further service 
under one of its own cars, and billing the foreign road for 
a pair of new wheels to replace those which it claims were 
shelled out, and attach a repair card to the car in evidence 
of work done? Again, what in rule 76 will prevent any road 
taking the initials and numbers of any and all foreign equip- 
ment which may be standing upon their sidings in perfectly 
good condition, attaching repair cards thereto without doing 
any work at all and rendering bills for alleged repairs? Jt i^ 
rumored that a certain railway established the practice of 
applying side doors to the majority of foreign cars passing 
one repair point, brake-shoes at another repair point, air- 
brake hose at another, etc. This scheme worked well until 
the side door specialist became over zealous and began to 
apply side doors to coal cars, which fact the car owners dis- 
covered when about to pass the bill. Whether this be true 
or not, the possibilities are certainly present. 

It has been suggested that many so-called combination car 
users' defects, as described in M. C. B. rules 49 and 56, are 
somewhat dangerous for the car owner, in view of the fact 
that they, can be speedily converted into the owners' defect 
by a slight error on the part of a repair man in omitting to 
repair the end sill, where both that and a longitudinal mem- 
ber are damaged and require replacement on the same end 
of a car. The loss of the repair card takes from the car 
owner the only means of identifying the actual repairs made. 
Should the owners, upon examination of the car, discover 
that a new end sill had been applied in conjunction with the 
longitudinal sill, they would doubtless refuse payment for the 
latter. These queries are simply submitted as food for 
thought and are in no wise intended to convey the idea that 
any railway in the country would adopt any other than fair 
and honest measures; but I am reminded that any rule which 
would make absolutely impossible nefarious practice would 
be an excellent one to adopt as a substitute for present 
rule 76. 

It is human nature to criticise or pick flaws in any rules 
provided for the government of men or business, and I am 
only one of the great army that comes before you without 
a remedy wdiich practice has proven faultless. The remedy 
will come in due time through the united effort, thought 
and action of the railway men of this country, to whom I 
bare my head in recognition of their unquestioned fairness 
and honesty of purpose. In the meantime, and still operat- 
ing under the present rule 76, let us aim to obey it to the 
letter and if necessary establish an inspection that will leave 
no doubt in our minds that the provisions of the rule are 
being absolutely complied with on the road we are repre- 
senting. 



11< 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



April, 1909. 



ff=^ 



Paper Spool 



Safety Valve Capacity* 

It is the purpose of this paper to show an apparatus and 
method employed to determine safety valve lifts, giving the 
results of tests made with this apparatus upon different 
valves; to analyze a few of the existing rules or statutes gov- 
erning valve size; and to propose a rule giving the results 
of a series of direct capacity tests upon which it is based, 
its application to special requirements, and finally, to indi- 
cate its general bearing upon valve specifications. 

Two factors in a safety valve geometrically determine the 
area of discharge, and hence the relieving capacity: the 
diameter of the inlet opening at the seat, and the valve lift. 

The former is the nominal valve size, the latter is the 
amount the valve disc lifts vertically from the seat when in 
action. In calculating the size valves to be placed on boil- 
ers, rules, which do not 
include a term for this 
valve lift, or an equiva- 
lent, such as a term for 
the effective area of dis- 
charge, assume, in their 
derivation, a lift for each 
size valve. Nearly all ex- 
isting rules and formulae 
are of this kind, which 
rate all valves of a given 
nominal size as of the 
same capacity. 

To find what lifts stand- 
ard make valves actually 
have in practice and thus 
test the truth or error of 
this assumption that they 
are approximately the 
same for the same size 
valves, an apparatus has 
been devised and tests 
upon different makes of 
valves conducted. With 
this apparatus not only 
can the valve lift be read 

at any moment to thou-„ 

, . Connection for determining 

sandths of an inch, but anbock pressure 

exact permanent record is 
obtained somewhat simi- 
lar to a steam engine in- 
dicator card in appear- 
ance, and of a quite sim- 
ilar use and value in ana- 
lyzing the action of the 
valve. 

As appears in Fig. 1, 
the valve under test is 
mounted upon the boiler 
in the regular manner, and 



Shaft driven bu 
smalt motor. 




Connection to boiler. 



Fig. 1. — Apparatus Used in Valve Lift Tests. 



a small rod is tapped into the top end of its spindle, which rod 
connects the lifting parts of the valve directly with a circular 
micrometer gauge, the reading hand of which indicates the 
lift upon a large circular scale or dial. The rod 
through this gauge case is solid, maintaining a 
direct connection to the pencil movement of the 
recording gauge above. This gauge is a modified Edson 
recording gauge, with a multiplication in the pencil move- 
ment of about S to 1, and with the chart drum driven by an 
electric motor of different speeds, giving a horizontal time 
element to the record. The steam pressures are noted and 
read from a large test gauge graduated in pounds per square 



inch, and an electric spark device makes it possible to spot 
the chart at any moment, which is done as the different 
pound pressures during the blowing of the valve are reached. 
The actual lift equivalents of the pencil heights upon the 
chart are carefully calibrated so the record may be accurately 
measured to thousandths of an inch. 

In testing, the motor driving the paper drum is started 
and the pressure in the boiler raised. The valve being 
mounted directly upon the boiler, then pops, blows down, 
nnd closes under the exact conditions of service, the pencil 
recording on the chart the history of its action. 

With this apparatus, investigations and tests were started 
upon seven different makes of 4-in. stationary safety valves, 
and these tests were followed with similar ones upon nine 
makes of muffler locomotive valves, six of which were 
3v£ ins., all of the valves being designed for and tested at 

200 lbs. The stationary 
valve tests were made 
upon a 94-h. p. water 
tube boiler made by the 
Babcock & Wilcox Co. 
The locomotive valve tests 
were made upon locomo- 
tive No. 900 of the Illi- 
nois Central R. R., the 
valve being mounted di- 
rectly upon the top of the 
main steam dome. This 
locomotive is a consolida- 
tion type, having 50 sq. ft. 
of grate area and 2,953 sq. 
ft. of heating surface. Al- 
though a great amount of 
additional experimenting 
has been done, only the 
results of the above will 
be quoted in this paper. 
These lift records show 
(with the exception of a 
small preliminary simmer, 
which some of the valves 
have) an abrupt opening 
to full lift and an almost 
equally abrupt closing 
when a certain lower lift 
is reached. Both the open- 
ing and closing lifts are 
significant of the action 
of the valves. 

The results of the 4-in. 
iron body stationary valve 
tests summarized are as 
follows: of the seven 
valves, the average lift at 
opening was .079 ins. and 
at closing .044 ins., or, 



*From a paper by Philip G. Darling before the American 
Society of Mechanical Engineers, Feb. 23, 1907. 



excluding the valve with the highest lifts, the averages were 
.07 ins. at opening and .037 ins. at closing. The valve with 
the lowest lifts had .031 ins. at opening and .017 ins. at 
closing, which that with the highest had .137 ins. and .088 ins. 
Expressing the effective steam discharge areas of the valves 
taken at the opening lifts as percentages of the largest ob- 
tained, the smallest had 31.4 per cent, the next larger 40.8 
per cent, and the next 40.6 per cent. Of the six 3J^-in. muf- 
fler locomotive valves the summarized lifts are as follows: 
average of the six valves .074 ins. at opening and .043 ins. at 
closing. Average, excluding the highest, .061 ins. at open- 
ing and .031 ins. at closing. The lowest lift valve had .04 ins. 
opening and .023 ins. closing; the highest, .140 ins. opening 
and .102 ins. closing. As percentages of the largest effective 



April, 1909. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



115 



steam discharge area the smallest was 36.4 per cent, the next 
larger 39.8 per cent, and the next 46.4 per cent. In both the 
stationary and locomotive tests the lowest lift valve was flat 
seated which is allowed for in the above discharge area per- 
centages See Table). 

The great variation — 300 per cent — in the lifts of these 
standard valves of the same size is startling, and its real sig- 
nificance is apparent when it is realized that under existing 
official safety valve rules, these valves, some of them with 
less than one-third the lift and capacity of others, receive 
the same rating. Three of these rules are given as an illus- 
tration of their nature: The United States Supervising In- 
spectors' Rule, the Boiler Inspection Rule of Philadelphia 
and the rule of the Board of Boiler Rules of Massachusetts. 
Rule of the U. S. Board of Supervising Inspectors. 

W 
A = .2074 X — 
P 
A = area of safety valve in square inches per square foot of 

grate surface. 
W = lbs. of water evaporation per square foot of grate sur- 
face per hour. 
P = boiler pressure per square inch (absolute). 

In 1875 a special committee was appointed by this board 
to conduct experiments upon safety valves at the Washing- 
ton navy yard. Although the pressures used in these experi- 
ments (30 and 70 lbs. per sq. in.) were too low to make the 
results of much value today, one of the conclusions reported 
is significant. 

"First: That the diameter of a safety valve is not an in- 
fallible test of its efficiency. 

"Second: That the lift which can be obtained in a safety 
valve, other conditions being equal, is a test of its efficiency." 

The present rule of the board, as given above, formulated 
by Mr. L. D. Lovekin, chief engineer of the New York 
Shipbuilding Co., was adopted in 1904. Its derivation as- 
sumes practically a 45-degree seat and a valve lift of 1-32 of 
the nominal valve diameter. The discharge area in this rule 

D 
is obtained by multiplying the valve lift — by the valve cir- 

32 
cumference (w x D), and taking but 75 per cent of the result 
to allow for the added restriction of a 45-degree over a flat 
seat. The 75 per cent equals approximately the sine of 45 
degrees, or .707. This value for the discharge area i. e. 

(.75 x v x — -) is substituted directly into Napier's formula 
32 

P 
for the flow of steam, W = a x — . Thus in the valves to 

70 
which this rule is applied the following lifts are assumed to 
exist. 

1 in. valve, .03 in.; 3 in. valve, .09 in.; 5 in. valve, .16 in. 

2 in. valve, .06 in.; 4 in. valve, .13 in.; 6 in. valve, .19 in. 

Massachusetts Rule of 1909. 

Wx70 

A = x 11 

P 
A = area of safety valve in sq. in. per sq. ft. of grate. 

W = lbs. of water evaporation per sq ft. of grate surface per 
second. 

P = boiler pressure (absolute). 



One of the most recently issued rules is that contained in 
the pamphlet of the new Massachusetts Board of Boiler 

Rules, dated March 24, 1908. This rule is merely the United 
States rule given above, with a 3.2% larger constant, and 
hence requiring that amount larger valve The evaporation 
term is expressed in lbs. per second instead of per hour, and 
two constants are given instead of one; but when reduced 

W 
to the form of the United Slates rule it gives A = .214 x — . 

P 
Figuring this back, as was done above with the United St. 
rule, and taking the 75% of the flat seat area as there done, 
shows that this rule assumes a valve lift of 1-33 of the valve 
diameter instead of 1-32 of the United States rule. This 
changing of the assumed lift from 1-32 to 1-33 of the valve 
diameter being the only difference between the two rules; 
the inadequacy of the United States rule just referred to 
applies to this more recent rule of the Massachusetts Board. 

Philadelphia Rule. 

22.5 G 
A = 



p plus 8.62 
A = total area of safety valve or valves in sq. in. 
G — grate area in sq. ft. 
p — boiler pressure (gauge). 

The Philadelphia rule now in use came from France in 
1868, being the official rule there at that time, and having 
been adopted and recommended to the City of Philadelphia 
by a specially appointed committee of the Franklin Institute, 
although this committee frankly acknowledged in its report 
that it "had not found the reasoning upon which the rule 
has been based." The area (A) of this rule is the effective 
valve opening, or, as stated in the Philadelphia ordinance of 
July 13, 1868, "the least sectional area for the discharge of 
steam." Hence, if this rule were to be applied as its deriva- 
tion by the French requires, the lift of the valve must be 
known and considered whenever it is used. However, the 
example of its application given in the ordinance, as well as 
that given in the original report of the Franklin Institute 
Committee, which recommended it, shows the area (A) ap- 
plied to the nominal valve opening. In the light of its deriva- 
tion, this method of using it takes as the effective discharge 
area, the valve opening itself, the error of which is very 
great. Such use, as specially stated in the report of the 
committee above referred to, assumes a valve lift at least 
x /$ of the valve diameter, i. e., the practically impossible lift 
of 1-in. in a 4-in. valve. 

The principal defect of these rules in the light of the pre- 
ceding tests is that they assume that valves of the same 
nominal size have the same capacity, and they rate them 
the same without distinction, in spite of the fact that in 
actual practice some have but one-third of the capacity of 
others. There are other defects, as have been shown, such 
as varying the assumed lift as the valve diameter, while in 
reality with a given design the lifts are more nearly the 
same in the different sizes, not varying nearly as rapidly as 
the diameters. And further than this, the actual lifts as- 
sumed for the larger valves are nearly double the actual 
average obtained in practice. 

The direct conclusion is this, that existing rules and 
statutes are not safe to follow. Some of these rules in use 
were formulated before, and have not been modified since, 
spring safety valves were invented, and at a time when 120 
lbs. was considered high pressure. None of these rules take« 



1.16 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



April. 1909. 




Lift Apparatus at the Plant of the Consolidated Safety Valve Co. 

account of the different lifts which exist in the different 
makes of valves of the same nominal size, and they thus 
rate exactly alike valves which actually vary in lift and re- 
lieving capacity over 300 per cent. It would therefore seem 
the duty of all who are responsible for steam installation and 
operation to no longer leave the determination of safety 
valve size and selection to such statutes as may happen to 
exist in their territory, but to investigate for themselves. 

The uncertainity of the co-efficient of flow, that is, of the 
constant to be used in Napier's formula when applied to the 
irregular steam discharge passages of safety valves, has prob- 
ably been largely responsible for the fact that this method of 
obtaining valve capacities has not been more generally used. 
To determine what this constant or coefficient of flow is, and 
how it is affected by variations in valve design and adjust- 
ment, an extended series of tests has recently been conducted 
by the writer at the Stirling department of the Babcock & 
Wilcox Co., at Rarberton, O. 

A 373-h. p. class K, No. 20 Stirling boiler, fired with a 
Stirling chain grate, with a total grate area of 101 sq. ft., 
was used. This boiler contained a U type of superheater 
designed for a superheat of 50 deg. F. The water feed to 
(his boiler was measured in calibrated tanks and pumped 
i steam for the pump being furnished from another boiler) 
through a pipe line which had been blanked wherever it was 
impossible with stop valve and intermediate open drips to 
insure that there was no leakage. The entire steam discharge 
from the boiler was through the valve being tested, all other 
steam connection- from the boiler being either blanked or 
closed with stop valves, beyond which were placed open drip 
connections to indicate any leakage. A constant watch was 
kept throughout the testing upon all points of the feed, and 



steam lines to insure that all water measured in the cali- 
brated tanks was passing through the tested valves without 
.intermediate loss. 

The valves tested consisted of 3-in., 3%-in., and 4-in. iron 
stationary valves, and 1%-in., 3-in., and 3%-in. locomotive 
valves, the latter with and without mufflers. These six valves 
were all previously tested and adjusted on steam. Without 
changing the position of the valve disc and ring and 
springs of these valves were then removed and solid 
spindles threaded (with a 10-pitch thread) through the valve 
casing above inserted. Upon the top end of these spindles, 
wheels graduated with 100 divisions were placed. Figure 2 
shows the arrangement used with the locomotive valves, the 
spindle and graduated wheel being similar to that used with 
the stationary valves. By this means the valve lift to thou- 
sandths of an inch was definitely set for each test and the 
necessity for constant valve lift readings with that source of 
error eliminated. 

In conducting the tests, three hours' duration was selected 
as the minimum time for satisfactory results. Pressure and 
temperature readings were taken every three minutes, water 
readings every half hour. A man stationed at the water- 
glass regulated the feed to the boiler to maintain the same 
level in the boiler during the test; other men were stationed, 
one at the water tanks, one firing, and one taking the pres- 
sure and temperature readings. Pressure readings were 
taken from two test gauges connected about 4 ins. below 
the valve inlet, the gauges being calibrated both before and 
after the series of tests was run and corrections applied 
In all, 29 tests were run; 15 were 3 hours long, 4 2V& hours, 
3 2 hours, and 7 of less duration. 

Tests numbered 1 to 5 were preliminary runs of but one 
hour or less duration apiece, and the records of them are 
thus omitted in the appended table which gives the lifts, dis- 
charge areas, average pressure and superheat, and the steam 
discharge in lbs, per hour of each of the other tests. The 
discharge areas have been figured for 45 degree seats from 
the formula a —2.22 x d xL plus 1.11 xL2; where a equals 
the effective area in sq. in., d equals the valve diameter in 



• ^^ v — 




Apparatus as Arranged to Measure the Lift of Locomotive Valves. 



April, 1909. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



117 



inches, and L equals the valve lift in inches. In tests 8 and 
23. where the width of valve seat was .225 in. and .185 in. 
respectively, and the valve was thus slightly above the depth 
of the valve seat, the area was figured for this condition. 

As previously stated, the application of these results is in 
fixing a constant for the flow of Napier's formula as applied 

P 

to safety valves. The formula is w— A in which w equals 

70 

lbs. of steam discharged per second, P equals the absolute 
steam pressure behind the orifice or under the valve, and a 
equals the effective discharge opening in sq. in. This may 
be stated as E = CxaxP; in which E equals the lbs. steam 
discharged per hour, and C equals a constant. The values 
of E, a, and P being given for the above tests, C is directly 
obtainable. 

Safety Valve Capacity Tests 

Run at the Stirling Works of the Babcock & wticox Co., Barberton, Ohio, Nov. 30 to Dec. 23, 1908 













s 




S 




Xt 


w w 








o- 




0. « 


< 




I 


^ 1 


Size and Type of 


Adjustment 






Sfc> 






Remarks 


z 




Valve 


Remarks ' 


J 


jfi a 


Is 


1 -° 


!? c 


















So". 




H 


fl£ 






>.E 


l5l 


cn-S 5_§,-; 


a So? 







3 


4-in. R. F. Iron 
Stationary 


Regular Adjustment 
Exh. Piped 


• 0695 


15'-7 


43.6 


5120 


.6226 


No back pressure 


7 


3 






• 139 


145.4 


45-1 


8600 


1.255 


Back pressure 2 lbs. 


8 


3 


" 




.180 


135.7 


49-2 


1 1020 


1.704 


Back pres. 3 lbs., max. 
lift. 


9 


3 






.1045 


149.4 


41.9 


7290 


.9400 


Back pressure 1 lb. 


10 


2V, 


Type R 


Regular Adjustment 
without Muffler 


.140 


146.7 


39-0 


8685 


1. 109 


1 

Tests ,oto 12, inclu- 
f sive, with an open 


11 


3 






.070 


152.5 


38.0 


4670, 


•5493 






















12 


3 


" 




.105 


150.3 


41.2 


6780 


.8280 


J 


13 


3 


Type S 


with Muffler 


•1395 


146.3 


38.1 


84OO 


1.106 


Muf. valve in this and 
following loco, tests 


•4 


2 






.140 


52.2 


51.3 


3620 


1.109 


Test at low steam 

pressure 


15 


2% 


Same except 
with lipped feather 




.140 


146.4 


39-0 


8600 


1.109 


Different type of 

valve disc 


.6 


3 


4-in. R.F.Iron 

Stationary 


Regular Adjustment 
. Exh. Piped 


.140 


138.5 


42.3 


8770 


1.265 


No back pressure, 
repetition of test 7 


17 


3 




Adj. Ring one turn 


.140 ■ 


142.0 


50.1 


8900 


1.265 


Back pres, 3 lbs. Adj. 


18 


2 


ii4-in. Locomotive 
Type S 


rVin. above reg.pos. 

Regular Adjustment 

with Muffler 


.107 


140.8 


23.0 


2515 


.4272 


ring pos. changed. 
Tests 181021 inclu- 


iq 


' 


" 




.060 


151.2 


.0 


1550 


.2038 


sive unsatisfactory 
y as the valve was 


JO 


2H 






• 075 


146.3 


.."0 


2025 


.2560 


I too small for the 
1 boiler used. 


21 


2% 






.075 


147.7 


.0 


1975 


.2560 


J 


22 


1% 


3 K-in. R. F. Iron 
Stationary 


Regular Adjustment 
Exh. Piped 


.070 


146.8 


42.6 


4320 


.5493 


Mo back pressure 


23 


3 


" 




.140 


'399 


43-6 


836O 


1.136 


Mo back pres. 


24 


3 






.105 


I4I.6 


48.7 


6300 


.8280 


1 


25 


3 


3-in. R. F. Iron 
Stationary 




■130 


140.1 


48.4 


6370 


.8846 


1 Tests 24 to 27 incl. 
j No back pressure 


26 


3 






.100 


142.8 


45-6 


5l60 


•.6770 


27 


2 






.070 


142.4 


29-5 


3705 


.4716 


j 


28 


3' 


3-in. Locomotive 
TypeS 


Regular Adjustment 
with Muffler 


.130 


138.4 


48.7 


7060 


.8846 




20 


3 






.090 


139.3 


43-9 


4950 


•6034 





Note.. 

The valves all having 450 bevel seats, these areas are obtained from formula— A — 2.21 x Dx 1 + hi x l f , 
except where, as in tests Nos. 8, 23. the valve lift is greater than the depth of the valve seat where 
ihe following formula is used: A=2.22 x D xd+1.11 x d'-i- TJx D x(l - d). a=Discharge area (sq. in.) 
D Valve diameter (in.) l=valve lift (in.) d=depth of valve seat (in). 

Note a. 

The four wings of the valve feather or disc probably reduce the flow slightly, but as these ar 
eul away at the seat, a definite correction of the exil areas lor them is impossible. Furth 
the formula constants are desired for the valves as made. 




Table Showing Results of Lift Tests. 

Figuring and plotting the values of this constant indicates 
the following conclusions: 

(1st) Increasing or altering the steam pressure from ap- 
proximately 50 to 150 lbs. per sq. in. (tests 14 and 10) does 
not affect the constant, this merely checking the applica- 
bility of Napier's formula in that respect. 

(2d) Radically changing the shape of the valve disc out- 
side of the seat, at the huddling or throttling chamber, so- 
called, does not affect the constant or discharge. In test 
No. 15 the valve had a downward projecting lip, as in cut 
on page 7, deflecting the steam flow through nearly 90 de- 
grees; yet the discharge was practically the same as in tests 
No. 10 and No. 14, where the lip was cut entirely away, as 
in cut on page 16, giving a comparatively unobstructed flow 
to the discharging steam. 

(3d) Moving the valve adjusting ring through much more 



than its complete adjustment range floes not affect the con- 
stant or discharge. (Tests No. w; and No. 17.; 

(4th) The addition of the muffler to a locomotive valve 
does not materially alter the constant or discharge. There 
is but 2% difference between tests No. I') and No. 13, 

(5th) Diregarding the rather unsatisfactory 1 ^ in. and 
•'! in. locomotive valve tests, the different sixes of val 
tested show a variation in the constant when plotted to 
given lifts of about 4%. 

(6th) There is a slight uniform decrease of the constant 
when increasing the valve lifts. 

The variations indicated in the last two conditions 
are not large enough, however, to materially impair the value 
of a single constant obtained by averaging the constants of 
all the 24 tests given. The selection of such a constant is 
obviously in accord with the other four conditions men- 
tioned. This average constant is 47.5, giving as the formula 
(E =47.5 x ax P). Its theoretical value for the standard ori- 
fice of Napier's formula is 51.4, of which the above is 
92^%. 

To make this formula more generally serviceable, it 
should be expressed in terms of the valve diameter and lift, 




Lift Apparatus Rigged for Locomotive Test at Burnside Shops, 
111. Cent. Ry. 

and can be still further simplified in its application by ex- 
pressing the term E' (steam discharged or boiler evaporation 
per hour) in terms of the boiler heating surface or grate 
area. For the almost universal 45 degree seat the effective 
discharge area is, with a slight approximation (Lxsine 45 
xirxD), in which L equals the valve lift vertically in 
inches, and D the valve diameter in inches. Substituting 
this in the above formula gives E = 47.5 x L x sine 45xtx 
D x P, or E = 195.5 x L x D x P. 

The slight mathematical approximation referred to con- 
sists in multiplying the (Lxsine 45) by (t D), instead of 
by the exact value (txD plus [ ^L). To find directly the 
effect of this approximation upon the above constant, the 
values for E, L, D, and P from the tests have been substi- 
tuted into the above formula and the average constant re- 
determined, which is 108.1. The average lift of all the tests 
is .111 in. Plotting the constants obtained from the above 
formula in each test, as ordinates, to valve lifts, as absissae; 
obtaining thus the slight inclination referred to in condition 
6, paragraph 23, and plotting a line with this inclination 
through the above obtained average constant 108.1, taken at 
the .111 in. average lift, gives a line which, at a maximum 
lift of, say, .14 in., shows a constant of just 105. At lower 
lifts this is slightly larger. Hence 105 would seem to be 
the conservative figure to adopt, as a constant in this formula 
for general use, giving 

E =105xLxDxP. 
This transposed for D gives: 

E 
D=.0095x — 
LxP 



118 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



April, 1909. 



Note that the nominal valve area does not enter into the 
use of this formula, and that if a value of 12, for instance, 
is obtained for D, it would call for 2-6 in. or Y4. in. valves. 
For flat seats these constants become 149. and .0067 
respectively. 

The fact that these tests were run with some superheat 
(an average of 37.2 degrees F.), while the majority of valves 
in use are used with saturated steam, would, if any material 
difference exists, place the above constants on the safe side. 
The capacities of the stationary and locomotive valves, the 
lift test results of which are summarized in paragraph 8, 
have been figured from this formula, taking the valve lifts at 
opening and in pounds of steam per hour, are as follows: 

Of the seven 4-in. iron body stationary valves, the average 
capacity at 200 lbs. pressure is 7370 lbs. per hour, the smal- 
lest capacity valve (figured for a flat seat) has a capacity of 
3960 lbs., the largest 12,400 lbs.; and of the six 3^-in. 
muffler locomotive valves at 200 lbs. pressure, the average 
capacity is 6060 lbs. per hour, the smallest 4020 lbs., the 
largest 11,050 lbs.. 

To make the use of the rule more direct where the evapor- 
ation of the boiler is only indirectly known, it may be ex- 
pressed in terms of the boiler heating surface or grate area. 
This modification consists merely in substituting for the 
term E (lbs. of total evaporation) a term H (sq. ft. of total 
heating surface), multiplied by the lbs. of water per sq. ft. 
of heating surface which the boiler will evaporate. Evident- 
ly the value of these modified forms of the formula depends 
upon the proper selection of average boiler evaporation fig- 
ures for different types of boilers, and also upon the possi- 
bility of so grouping these boiler types that average figures 
can be thus selected. This modified form of the formula is 

H 

D =Cx 

LxP 
in which H equals the total boiler heating surface in sq. ft. 
and C equals a constant. 

In locomotive practice there are special conditions to be 
considered which separate it from regular stationary and 
marine work. In the firs't place, the maximum evaporation 
of a locomotive is only possible with the maximum draft 
obtained when the cylinders are exhausting up the stack, at 
which time the throttle is necessarily open. The throttle 
being open is drawing some of the steam, and therefore the 
safety valves on a locomotive can never receive the full 
maximum evaporation of the boiler. Just what per cent of 
this maximum evaporation the valve must be able to relieve 
under the most severe conditions can only be determined 
experimentally. Evidently the severest conditions obtain 
when an engineman, after a long, hard, uphill haul with a 
full glass of water and full pressure, reaching the top of the 
hill, suddenly shuts off his throttle and injectors. The work 
on the bill has gotten the engine steaming to its maximum, 
and the sudden closing of throttle and injectors forces all 
tlie steam through the safety valves. Of course, the minute 
the throttle is closed the steaming quickly falls off, and it 
is at just that moment that the severest test upon the valves 
comes. 

A large number of service tests has been conducted to de- 
termine this constant. The size valves upon a locomotive 
has been increased or decreased until one valve would just 
handle the maximum steam generation, and, the locomotive 
heating surface being known, the formula was figured back 
to obtain the constant. Other special conditions were con- 
sidered, such as the liability in locomotive practice to a not 
infrequent occurrence of the most severe conditions; the 
exceptionally severe service which locomotive safety valves 



receive; and the consequent advisability on locomotives to 
provide a substantial excess valve capacity. 

As to the method of applying the proposed safety valve 
capacity rule in practice, manufactures could be asked to 
specify the capacity of their valves, stamping it upon them 
as the opening and closing pressures are now done. This 
would necessitate no extra work further than the time re- 
quired in the stamping, because for valves of the same size __ 
and design, giving practically the same lift, this would have 
to be determined but once, which of itself is but a moment's 
work with a small portable lift gauge which is now manu- 
factured. The specifying of safety valves by a designing 
engineer could then be as definite a problem as is that 
of other pieces of apparatus. Whatever views are 
held as to the advantages of high or low lifts, 
there can be no question, it would seem, as to the 
advantage of knowing what this lift actually is, as 
would be shown in this specifying by manufacturers 
of the capacity of their valves. Further, as to the feasibility 
of adopting such a rule (which incorporates the valve lift) 
in statutes governing valve sizes; this would involve the 
granting and obtaining by manufacturers of a legal rating 
for their valve designs based upon their demonstrated lifts. 

This paper has dealt with bu,t one phase of the subject of 
safety valves in order that its conclusions might be drawn 
more clearly. The apparatus and tests shown indicate that 
the lifts and capacities of different make valves of the same 
size and for the same conditions vary as much as 300%, and 
that there is, therefore, the liability of large error in speci- 
fying valves in accordance with existing rules and statutes, 
because these rules, as shown, rate all valves of one size as 
of the same capacity, irrespective of this variation. A simple 
rule, based upon an extended series of direct capacity tests, 
is given, which avoids this error by incorporating a term for 
the valve lift. Finally the method and advantage of applying 
this rule in practice has been briefly indicated. 

Recapitulation of Capacity Formula. 
For 45 degree Valve Seats. 

1. E = 105xlxPxD 

or transposed 
E 

2. D = .0095 

lxP 

Modified Forms for Special Applications. 

For Locomotives. 

H 

3. D = .055 

lxP 

For cylindrical multitubular, vertical and water tube 

stationary boilers. 

H 

4. D = .068 

lxP 

For Water Tube Marine and Scotch Marine Boilers. 

H 

5. D = .095 

lxP 
E = Pounds of steam relieved per hour. 
1 = Verticle lift of valve in inches. 
P — Steam Pressure (absolute) lbs. per sq. in. 
D = Nominal diameter of valve (inlet) in inches. 
H = Total boiler heating surface in sq. ft. 
For flat seated valves the constants in these formulae are 
as follows: 1—149.; 2— -.0067; 3— .052; 4— .065; 5— .090. 



April. 1909. RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 119 

Cost of Motor Car and Locomotive 130 ,( " 1S > but th< ' oil consumption «,-, n b< materially in- 

o . g^ t> t fl T r> t> „ creased over that of the motor car alone. 

Service, C. R. I. & r. Ky. 

^ . , r xt u j n u „,™ i The table below gives in detail the items making up the 

During the months of November and December, 11)08, and ° 

* „, . r^ i t i i o tj -c i cost per mile of the motor car performing 20 day 

January. 1909. the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific used, on . v ' 

.",.', .- . i - u i *i a • ni November, 1008, when it made a total mileage of 2,325 

its Salma branch, a motor car which was built by the Amen- ' . 

„ „, , u . . F miles, compared with the locomotive and train whuh per- 

can Locomotive Co. The run from Henngton, Kan., to ,„,.,, , * nnn , i n 

_ ,. . .. _. . , ,„ , formed 26 days service in January, 1909, and made a mileage 

Sabna is 49 miles. The motor car was operated 47 days „ ' 

1 t • ^ i -i c a f^r of 2,548 miles, 

during these three months, making a total mileage of 4,975 

miles. The average cost of operation per mile in November —Average cost per mile.— 

was 15 cents; in December 18.5 cents and in January 20.4 Motorcar. Loco, and train. 

cents. 20 days. 26 days. 

In January the motor car was in service live days and the Nov., 1908 Jan., 1909. 

service for the balance of the month, 26 days, was performed 

by a steam locomotive and train, making a total mileage of ' ' 

JmicI oil » »*-* •> 84 

2.548 miles, and the average cost per mile was 17.31 cents. ..... • ■ 

The train was made up of one combination car and one coach, W a ges, engmemen 3.15 

the two having a total weight of 60 tons. The locomotive was Wages, conductor 2.15 2.48 

an 8-wheel engine with cylinders 18 ins. x 24 ins. and drivers Ruiim "g repairs 4.1.5 

64 ins., weight on drivers 54,400 lbs., weight of engine 89,000 Cleaning 0.96 

lbs., weight of engine and tender, 80 tons, and the weight of Roundhouse service 0.62 0.57 

, , . ,.- , . Miscellaneous supplies 0.56 4.56 

engine and train, 140 tons. 

The total weight of the car is 100,000 lbs. : weight on driv- 0]1 and waste °' 21 

ers, 32,400 lbs., the cylinders are compound, 9%. in. and .14% 

in. x 12 in. stroke. The boiler is of the return tubular type TotaI 15 ' 13 

with working pressure 250 lbs. Its total heating surface is 

624 sq. ft. and it is furnished with a superheater. The maxi- "Coal. 

mum power of the engine is 250 h. p. The car is 55 ft. 9 ins. fFireman included. 

long. It has engine and baggage compartments and a seating It is now intended to further experiment with the motor 

capacity for 40 passengers. Much of the time the motor car on a short stub run of 5 miles with frequent service be- 

hauled a coach as a trailer and the total weight was then tween Atchison and Rushville. 



Boulton Shops 

Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac R. R. 



In every railroad shop there are two points which must be 
constantly kept in mind, keeping the cost of repairs down and 
decreasing the length of time that the rolling stock is kept 
out of service while the work is being done. Every shop 
superintendent is ready to give a trial to any plan which, on 
investigation, offers good evidence of being capable of reduc- 
ing these items. It has been urged in the past that the appli- 
cation of motors to the individual machines in railroad shops 
would effect many economies and the installations that have 
been made have, to a certain extent, justified these state- 
ments. 

Flexibility in location is one important advantage which 



results from the use of motors, as the power is applied di- 
rectly to the individual machines, and hence the location of 
each one in the shop, is independent of any line shaft or belt- 
ing limitations. Only in the case of small machines, is use 
made of line shafting, and here a few machines are driven 
from a short shaft which is usually belted to a motor. An- 
other important advantage is the gain which is made in the 
productive capacity of the machines; this shortens the time 
required for a given piece of work and hence decreases the 
labor cost. Not the least important items are the high de- 
gree of reliability and great convenience of this method of 
drive. 




General View of Planing Mill, Boulton Shops. 



120 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



April, 1909. 




Fig. 1. — Generator and Exciter, Boulton Snaps. 

An excellent example of the change from steam to electric 
drive is furnished by the Boulton shops of the Richmond, 
Fredericksburg and Potomac R. R. at Richmond, Va., 
familiarly known as the "Washington-Richmond Line" as it 
runs from Washington, D. C, to Richmond, Va., and is one 
of the fastest lines of communication between the two cities. 
The maintenance of the rolling stock and the manufacture 
of both freight and passenger cars is carried on at these 
shops. A three-phase, 220 volt, 60-cycle, system of distribu- 
tion is employed with constant speed induction motors. 

The original electrification was begun about six years ago 
by the installation of a 75-kilowatt, belted generator which 
was used only for lighting purposes, and about one year later 
a 125-kilowatt Westinghouse generator was added to supply 
power for the machine shop. This is in use at present and 
is driven by a Ball engine of 225 horsepower capacity, direct 
connected to the generator. Upon the erection of the new 
planing mill it was necessary to replace the 75-kilowatt gen- 
erator by one of 150 kilowatt capacity to drive the wood- 
working machines. This latter generator is direct connected 
to a Ball engine of 250 horsepower capacity. The generators 
are excited from a lT^-kilowatt, 125-volt, direct-current 




Westinghouse generator driven by a Troy upright engine. 
The larger generating unit and the exciter are shown in 
Fig. 1. Steam is supplied from two locomotive type boilers 
at 125 pounds pressure. 

The entire electrical equipment was installed by the local 
operating force of the company under the direct supervision 
of Mr. W. F. Kapp, superintendent shops and machinery. 
From the time of the original installation no interference 
whatever has been experienced by the failure of any of the 
power plant equipment or the motor, the only interruption 
of service which has occurred has been the occasional blow- 
ing of a fuse when some one of the motors was started im- 
properly. 

The switchboard, shown in Fig. 2, has two generating 
panels, one exciter panel and two feeder panels, all of blue 
Vermont marble. Ammeters are provided for all three legs 
of the circuits on each generator panel, with a voltmeter for 
each generator as well as a voltmeter and ammeter for the 
exciter. While the lighting and power circuits are kept sepa- 
rate the switchboard is so arranged that these circuits can be 
supplied for either or both of the generators as may be neces- 
sary. 

The machine shop equipment is particularly well arranged, 
both with respect to the machines and the driving motors 
and the natural lighting facilities. Several of the individually 
driven machine tools are shown herewith, clearly indicating 




Fig. 2. — Switchboard, Boulton Shops. 



Fig. 3. — Motor Under Planing Mill Floor. 

the convenience of the motor drive as well as the general 
cleanliness of the shop, as a result of the elimination of a 
large part of the belts. The accompanying table shows the 
different equipments used in the shops, including the wood- 
working -epartment, the machine shop, the wheel mounting 
shop and the blacksmith shop. In addition to the equipment 
shown in the table should be mentioned a storehouse elevator, 
operated by a 10-horsepower induction motor, and a Sturte- 
vaut fan in the punch shop, for use in connection with the 
heating system, driven by a 10-horsepower motor. The 
heating of the paint shop is done by a 50-in. fan and heater 
coils which are located in the roof trusses, the fan being 
operated by a 7^-horsepower motor. 

In connection with the installation of the 40-horsepower 
motor driving the two boring mills, the wheel press and 
the double head axle lathe in the wheel mounting shop, it 



April, 1909. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



121 




Fig. 4. — Planer with Individual Drive. 

should be noted that the original intention was to drive the 
entire machine equipment from this one motor, but circum- 
stances allowed a regrouping of the tools so that this motor 
became available for its present work. It has ample capac- 
ity to allow considerable expansion in this department when 
such proves to be necessary. 

Main Shop Equipment. 

Machine Size. Manufacturer. H.P. Drive. Location. 

Planer 36x11 in. Niles, Bement, iy 2 Individ. Mach. Shop 

Pond 
Driving wheel 

lathe 90 in. " 20 & 3 

Shaper 24 in. " 7y 2 

Boring mill 5 " " 

Planer "1 

"Wheel press... " r 10 Group " 

Drill press .... "J 

Boring mill 44 in 

Lathe 35 in. 

Lathe 24 in. 

Guide grinder 

Lathe 43 in. 

Lathe 24 in. 

Drill press " f 10 

Emery grinder. 

3 lathes 24 in. 5 

Punch and shr. "] Hilles & 

2 bolt threaders > Jones 7V 2 " .Blksmth Shop 

Grindstone J 

Bolt header iy 2 in. " ") 

Drill press 24 in. " > 10 

Pipe threader.. 4 in. " J 

2 tool grinders.. " 3 " Tool Room 

Fan 30 in. Sturtevant 3 Individ. Blacksmith 

Shop 
2 boring mills.. 44 in 
Dble Head Axle 

lathe 

Wheel press. . . 250 tons ( w. Group Wheel 

Mounting Shop 
Tool grinder. . . 24 in. 
Flue tumbler... 200 flues 30 Individual Outside 

P.anrl saw 42 in. Fay & Egan iy 2 " PI. Mill 

Car Sill Tenoner 

and gainer... 12 in. " 7y 2 •• 

Cut off saw.... 40 in. Greenlee 15 " " 

4-side moulder. 10 in. " 20 

Double cabinet 

makers* saw. 24 in. " 15 

Universal plane 12 ft. x 30 in. Woods 40 

Jointer 24 in. 

Double head shaper 

Lathe 20 in ^ 20 Group 

Sash sticker. . . . 

Jig saw. . .• 

3-tool grinders. . 

In the machine shops the line shafts of the group drives 
present an unusual feature in the high speed at which they 



arc run. Standard practice usually gives a maximum line 
shaft speed of approximately 200 revolutions pet minute, but 
here one shaft runs at 400 r. p. in. and the other three at 
300 r. p. m. No trouble whatever has resulted from these 
unusual speeds. 

The planing mill, an interior view of which is shown, i-. 
especially interesting owing to the manner of mounting the 
motors. In the extension of the shop plant it became m 
sary to fill in to a considerable depth the ground on which 
the planing mill is situated in order to bring the floor level 
up to a grade. It was decided not to fill in the space im- 
mediately beneath the building but to leave this portion in 
the shape of a basement, utilizing the space to mount the 
motors and such shafting as is necessary to operate the vari- 
ous machines. The motors are suspended from the lower 
side of the floor beams and connected to the machine^ or 
shafting which they operate by means of a flexible chain; 
the method of support is clearly shown in one of the illus- 
trations. 

This solution of the motor drive question has resulted in 
a planing mill which is practically free of obstructions with 
the exception of the tools themselves and such material as 
may be in process of manufacture, the only motors above 
the floor being the one on the traversing bed planer as illus- 
trated, which is driven by a 10-horsepower motor mounted 
directly on the machine, and the one above the floor line driv- 
ing the fans which take care of the shavings. This latter i- 
situated in the roof trusses. The blast and exhaust pipes 
drop from the trusses directly to the machines which they 
serve. 

The refuse from the machines is collected by means of a 
50-in. fan and driven to the boiler room where it is con- 
sumed by means of a second 50-in. fan. Both fans are driven 
by a 40-horsepower induction motor. 

The length of time which the plant has been in service 
has given an opportunity to prove or disprove the claims 
made of the advantages of electric drive. The results of the 
equipment at Boulton have been a justification of the fore- 
sight of the men responsible for the installation at a time 
when the question of the suitability of electric power for 
railroad shops was much discussed. The entire electrical in- 
stallation was made with Westinghouse Electric & Manu- 
facturing Co. apparatus. 



The large new works of the National Sanitary Mfg. Co., 
located at Salem, Ohio, are equipped throughout with the "Kirk- 
wood" system of fuel oil burning as manufactured by the Tate, 
Jones & Co., of Pittsburg, Pa. Due to the peculiar topographical 
conditions, it is necessary to lift the oil. to quite an elevation 
in order to reach the furnaces where it is used, yet so perfect 
is the system that but one side of their ordinary pumping system 
is required. Due to the uniform heat secured, the low cost of 
maintenance and the little care required, it is found to be most 
admirably adapted for this particular purpose. The Salem com- 
pany manufactures high quality bath tubs and other sanitary 
articles. 




Fig. 5. — Shaper with Individual Drive. 



122 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



April, 1909. 



Passenger Cars in Zanzibar 

The Island of Zanzibar is located about twenty miles off 
the coast of German East Africa. The population of the 
island is about 150,000 and about two-thirds of the popula- 
tion live in the town of Zanzibar. The Zanzibar R. R. has 
been in operation for over two years and a regular daily 
schedule is maintained. The track is laid with rails weigh- 
ing 23 lbs. to the yard and varying in length from 18 to 24 
ft. The road is single track for its entire length of seven 
miles. At each end of the road there is a water tank of 
approximately 1,000 gallons capacity and in addition to these 
the road is equipped with an engine shed and complete ma- 
chine shop. 

Zanzibar is under English rule, the present system being 
established in October, 1891, by the appointment of the First 
Minister to the Sultan, who is in effect the governor of the 
island. The Sultan who occupies the royal palace in the 
town of Zanzibar and enjoys the privileges of a monarch, 
is but the nominal ruler. His subjects for the most part in- 
clude representatives 
of all the tribes of 
East Africa with an 
intermingling of As- 
iatic elements and 
are called Swahili. 
The actual popula- 
tion of the island is 
unknown, but it is 
estimated at about 
200,000, of which 
100,000 live in the 
town of Zanzibar. 
The European pop- 
ulation is probably 
not more than 500 
persons. 

The railroad has 
recently received a 
shipment of passen- 
ger cars from the J. 
G. Brill Co., one of 
which is shown in 
t h e accompanying 
illustrations. It is an 
ordinary 22-ft. flat 




Approaching Transfer of the Electrifica- 
tion Problem* 

It has been very interesting to watch the assaults of the 
electrical engineer on the transportation problem, and his 
gradual approach to the final task — the supplanting of the steam 
locomotive. The street railway problem was solved years 
ago; then came the heavier elevated and subway applications; 
finally a certain amount of steam road electrification became 
necessary. Perhaps the opportunity would not have pre- 
sented itself yet, had it not been for legislation in response 
to public clamor for relief from smoke and accidents in 
tunnels. 

The electrical man approached this last important under- 
taking with supreme confidence, based on his past successes, 
so that under the stress of enthusiasm there was consider- 
able prophecy of quick and extraordinary results. All diffi- 
culties were not foreseen, however, and in the working out 
temporary setbacks were recorded. Nevertheless, enthusi- 
asm supportd by patience and energy prevailed to bring suc- 
cess. This success 
is not final — will not 
be for years — but the 
thing is done. Train 
service can be han- 
dled reliably and 
economically by elec- 
tric power. Proof of 
this is close at hand 
in the magnificent 
success of the New 
York Central and 
the New Haven in- 
stallations, both of 
which are now oper- 
ating with most sat- 
isfactory reliability, 
and so far as we can 
learn, with pleasing 
economy. 

As a result, the 
electrification prob- 
lem is practically 
ready to be trans- 
ferred to the field 
of the railway en- 



Scene on Zanzibar R. R. 

car body mounted on Brill No. 420 freight car trucks and gineer. Hereafter the question will never be "Can I?" but must 
provided with wood slat longitudinal seats and a removable be "Shall I?" 



roof with striped duck side curtains. The roof is supported 
by five posts on each side which fit into iron post sockets 
of the same type as is used on American flat cars. The 
cars are built for 36-inch guage track and are five feet wide 
over the sills. Each car has a center oil lamp and two sig- 
nal bells. 

For the private use of the Sultan, two special cars were 
built, which resemble the horse cars in use in the United 
States twenty years ago. These cars are fitted "luxuriously" 
with carpets, rugs and rattan chairs. 

We arc indebted to Brill's Magazine for the photographic 
reproductions which illustrate different phases of the island's 
railroad traffic. The locomotive, which is shown hauling 
five cars in a passenger train, is a study in itself. 



"Foster Interlocking Switch Stands" is the title of a cata- 
log recently issued by ("rank Al. Foster, of Columbus, Ohio. 
The pamphlet describes the action of the switch stands bear- 
ing this name. The stand is so constructed as to perform 
all th<- operations of a interlocking switch with one move- 
nt" one lever. The action of the apparatus is clearly 
illustrated in the catalog. 



Of course, it is not to be understood that the electrical 
engineer may drop all connection with the work. He will be 
just as necessary as a mechanical engineer is at present. 
But if he is an electrical engineer and nothing more, his 
sole function will be the perfection of details and methods. 
The real problem will .be solved by the men who have both 
a thorough knowledge of railroading and or the possibilities of 
electric traction. Such men can be derived from the two here- 
tofore distinct electric and railway fields, and the process is 
started. For some time numerous electrical engineers have 
been acquiring an accurate and profound knowledge of rail- 
roading and vice versa. 

One can conceive of condition which, if they had pre- 
vailed, would have called for nothing more than an extension 
of modern subway and elevated practice. But these condi- 
tions did not obtain in the work to be done. Through trains, 
and other traffic, requiring interchange of motive power de- 
manded the development of large electric locomotives. This 



*From a paper read before the New York Railroad Club 
March 19. 



April, 1909. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



123 




Car for Passenger Service, Zanzibar R. R. 

feature marked the departure from all previous experience 
and was looked upon as the only uncertain element. As a 
consequence much attention and study was put on the loco- 
motive with most satisfactory results. In one great terminal 
electrification it was the only part of the work which was 
not an enlargement or further development in details of 
what had been more or less standard for some time in sub- 
way and elevated work. 

The system used for heavy transportation work up to the 
beginning of steam railway electrification had been the 600- 
volt, direct-current third-rail system. This system has been 
used so extensively that it has become standard in many of 
its details and could be made wholly so in all essential pur- 
poses, if proper means were used. But study of the electrifi- 
cation problem showed that there were some disadvantages 
in this system which would prevent it answering all require- 
ments. Men began to look to other systems which perhaps 
would be more advantageous. As a result of this study and 
development, the railway engineer in taking up this problem 
is confronted with no less than five different systems, any 
one of which would probably do the work reliably, and with 
more or less economy and would be financially practicable. 
These systems are: 

(1) The GOO-volt direct-current third- 
rail system. 

(2) The 1,200-volt (or higher) direct- 
current third-rail, or trolley system. 

(3) The high voltage alternating cur- 
rent three-phase system. 

(4) The high voltage alternating cur- 
rent three-phase system. 

(5) Various gasoline electric cars, and 
gasoline car systems. 

A careful study of all these systems 
from both the technical and the financial 
standpoints will show that each has its 
own advantages under certain particular 
conditions Congestion of traffic, limita- 
tions of space, number and kinds of 
grade, physical characteristics of the 
country, danger to public, etc., all bring 
about this singularity of advantage. For 
this reason, it may be stated very posi- 
tively that no electrical engineer who 
comes to the matter with an unbiased 

mind is willing to advocate any one sys- 

Zanzibar R 



tern as the only system to be used. Even 
those men who have greatest faith in one 
system find themselves compelled to 
counsel the use of other systems when 
warranted by circumstances of a prob- 
lem at hand. This difficulty of selection 
has been in evidence in every important. 
decision that has been made. The last 
important decision of this sort was made 
after the elaborate installations of the 
New York Central and the New Haven 
roads were available for study in a prac- 
tical way, but in addition a large num- 
ber of special experiments were thought 
necessary, all of which proved that the 
decision was far from easy. 

There are a number of engineers who 
suggest disposing of all difficulties by 
simply deciding each specific case, wheth- 
er large or small, according to its own conditions. If it be a 
:erminal, a tunnel, a heavy grade, or what not — simply put 
in the system which is best adapted at the time. This would 
seem to be a short-sighted policy, and only justified if other 
action is found impracticable. Electrification does start in 
spots, but it will not end with these, and the question of ex- 
tension is likely to arise very quickly. We know now that 
electrification is not a luxury which will be used under favor- 
able circumstances, but is a system of transportation which 
is gradually bound to do a large amount of work now done 
by steam. 

The fact is, we are not electrifying terminals, tunnels, 
grades, etc., but must electrify whole systems, and this point 
should be kept in the mind in all decisions. Electrification 
means investment of millions, partly in direct outlay, partly 
by losses due to interruption during installation, and partly 
due to amortization of apparatus. It is of the utmost im- 
portance therefore to get started right, even if the work is 
only for a very small portion of the whole road. There is 
no problem before engineers in the railway world to-day 
which requires more broad-minded attention and considera- 
tion than steam railway electrification. 

It is natural that the point of getting started right should 
appeal most strongly to the directors and other officials of 




R. Passenger Train, Private Car of Sultan in Rear. 



124 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



April, 1909. 



railways who must finally accept the responsibility for spend- 
ing the large amount of money necessary. These men think 
of whole roads and even systems. They see clearly not only 
the disadvantages of getting started wrong, but also the. 
great advantage of starting right. For example, the present 
standard gage in use to-day has as it chief advantage the 
fact that it is standard. AH engineers wish that a view far 
enough into the future had been possible in the early days so 
as to show the great advantages of a wider gage. It is not 
sufficient therefore to show that various systems can be in- 
stalled more or less satisfactorily. The whole matter will be 
counted as experimental by broad-minded men, and will not 
command real backing on its merits until there is a practical 
unanimity among technical men as to what simple or com- 
posite system is generally applicable to all work. 

A composite system would be undesirable, but it may be 
necessary. At one time the combination of apparatus for 
both direct and alternating current on one locomotive seemed 
formidable, but only a few days ago the speaker made sev- 
eral trips on a New Haven locomotive where this is done, 
and the change from one power to the other was simplicity 
itself — a push of a button or two on the controller. Never- 
theless, it is probable that it is a case of simplicity being a 
result of careful design and eternal vigilance in operation. 

Assuming, therefore, that it is desirable to settle at the 
earliest possible date just what electrical system will be most 
suitable for steam railway electrification in general, it be- 
comes necessary to determine what conditions such a system 
must satisfy in order to be acceptable, and then to attempt to 
find means by which the adoption of this system may be 
secured. 

It is evident, first of all, that if trunk line electrification 
is ever to be accomplished it will be done by means of a 
high voltage system. By this we mean a voltage of ten 
thousand or more. Arguments on this point have been pre- 
sented, so that it is useless to introduce them here. It may 
be stated, however, that this conclusion is based chiefly on 
cost. We are considering, of course, freight and passenger 
traffic, local and through service, branch and main lines; in 
other words, a whole system. It does not take a great deal 
of consideration to show how difficult it would be to handle 
the whole traffic of the Pennsylvania Railroad between New 
York and Pittsburgh with anything but a high voltage sys- 
tem. 

The necessity for high voltage will be all the more obvious 
when it is recognized that a fundamental requirement for 
complete electrification will be the ability to transmit enor- 
mous amounts of power to shifting locations, depend upon 
accidental congestions of traffic. There may be times when 
a large part of the total generating capacity may be required 
at a place for a short time only. It is idle to lay out the 
transmission or contact system for any predetermined train 
service. The railway engineer can now mass his motive 
power to suit his convenience, and he will not be satisfied 
with less under electrification. It should be a fundamental 
maxim that no feature of electrification design should hamper 
or restrict railway operation proper. 

Secondly, the system must be adaptable to all sorts of con- 
ditions. High voltage requires a certain amount of space, 
and perhaps would not be available in places where the space 
was insufficient, such as tunnels, subways, etc. Moreover, 
as years go on railway trains, particularly local ones, will 
undoubtedly run more into the streets of cities, above or 
below them, instead of stopping at terminal stations. It 
will probably be a long time before permission could be ob- 
tained or 11,000 volts could be used safely in the streets of a 
city. Therefore, if the same equipment is to be used, it will 
be necessary to have a lower voltage. This, of course, can 
be raost easily and effectively done by means of alternating 



current, though the present working of the New Haven sys- 
tem in the Grand Central terminal shows that it is possible 
with direct current. The simplicity of the control apparatus, 
however, with the alternating system would make it more 
attractive than the use of both kinds of current. Moreover, 
in a long system there might be various tunnels, bridges and 
towns where the voltage would have to be lowered for a 
short distance and where the installation of direct current 
for that particular small portion of the road might be very 
expensive. 

The simplicity of the alternating current system under 
these circumstances is obvious, when it is remembered how 
easily high tension taps could be placed on the auto trans- 
former for varying trolley voltages. No changes would be 
necessary in low tension taps and group switches. The vari- 
ous sections of the line would be separated by section breaks 
of necessity. An automatic device could easily be arranged 
by which the transformer would always be set for the high- 
est line voltage whenever a section break was struck, after 
which the motorman could throw in the proper tap which 
also could be easily protected from a mistake on his part. 

An overhead trolley necessarily follows if a high voltage 
system is used, and, as noted above, a third rail or over- 
head trolley with direct or alternating current for low volt- 
age where necessary. 

We shall say nothing about cost here, because it is as- 
sumed that any system otherwise available will stand the- 
financial test both in first cost and in operation. 

The early standardization of details of electrification is 
almost equally important with the adoption of a general sys- 
tem. It must be acknowledged, however, that great care 
must be exercised in attempting anything along this line. 
If we standardize too soon we run the serious risk of adopt- 
ing inferior methods and faulty design. We also may com- 
mit the greater error of stifling progress for a time and re- 
stricting the normal development of the art. On the other 
hand, we have too many examples of methods and arrange- 
ments adapted carelessly at the beginning of an art through 
inattention allowed to grow into standards. We suddenly 
find a much-to-be-desired change practically impossible. 

To avoid this the whole matter should be placed in the 
hands of committees of the great national societies, just as 
all other matters requiring standardization. We have too 
many fine examples of proper action by these committees 
to need any discussion as to how conservative they should 
be. No one need fear that a committee from the American 
Institute of Electrical Engineers acting jointly with com- 
mittees from the Master Mechanics' and Maintenance of 
Way associations would give hasty or insufficiently consid- 
ered decisions. 

It will now be well to note those parts of electrification 
which are most fundamental and therefore most in need of 
standardization. By fundamental we mean those features 
which would involve great interruption of service and enor- 
mous expense if they had to be changed later, and also all 
features which are involved in the interchange of equipment 
by different divisions or roads. Some of the features men- 
tioned have become almost standard by usage. 

(1) Location and type of third rail and shoe. 

(2) Location of overhead contact conductor. 

(3) Side and top clearances. 

(4) Location of end couplings. 

This includes sockets for lighting and heating bus, power 
bus and train line. Hose couplings have standard location 
now. 

(5) Low voltage for direct and alternating current on 
third rail and overhead contact line. 

(6) High voltage for overhead contact line. 

(7) Frequency of alternating current. 



April.. 1909. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



125 



An Engineer Who is Also a Doctor 

One of the best engineers on the Boston & Albany Rail- 
road leads a dual life, as after his daily run the engineer be- 
comes a doctor. He is a graduate of Brown University and 
has a medical diploma. His name is H. F. Brackett, and he 
drives a locomotive because he loves the "iron steed." At 
certain times during the day he wends his way through the 
streets of Brighton with an air of dignified reserve and with 
medicine case in hand. His calls upon patients being over, 
his silk hat is placed in its bandbox, off comes his white 
necktie, fancy vest and other stylish clothing, and an hour 
later Dr. Brackett is speeding over the rails, eyes to front, 
and his hand firmly clutching the throttle. The clever physi- 
cian has become the skilled engineer. 

For twenty-seven years, and up to the present year, Dr. 
Brackett ran "No. 221," which pulled the New York express 
from Boston to Springfield. In his thirty-eight years of un- 
broken service as an engineer he has the rarely equaled 
record of never having been in a wreck. He has never killed 
a person nor destroyed a cent's worth of property through 
negligence or inefficiency. With "No. 221" he has broken 
records, has made a mile in 40 seconds, and has daily driven 
100 miles in two hours. 

As a physician, Dr. Brackett is a member of prominent 
medical societies. As an engineer, he is known to many 
railroad men in Boston. He is examining physician for the 
Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers and for the New 
England Order of Protection. He is the physician of the 
men of the Boston & Albany, and when Dr. Brackett is 
about the yards of that road he is sought by the injured 
and the distressed. In his grimy overalls, his face black- 
ened by smoke and ashes, he has dressed burns, performed 
surgical operations, bandaged bruises and cuts and questioned 
and advised. — By H. A. Packard, in Power and the Engineer. 



Improvised Boiler Tube Welding Hammer. 

The accompanying illustration, which is taken from the 
Compressed Air Magazine, shows how a pneumatic hammer 
may be rigged for welding boiler tubes with dispatch. As 
the stock of boiler tubes is thin, and therefore loses its heat 
quickly, success in welding depends greatly upon the rapid- 
ity of the hammer blows. In shops not equipped with ma- 
chines which are factory built for this purpose, an arrange- 
ment something like that shown should result in consider- 
able saving of time. 

The apparatus here shown is, of course, home-made, ex- 
cept that a standard pneumatic riveter is used. As will be 
seen, the mandrel, upon which the tube to be welded slips 
easily, is clamped upon the anvil exactly in line with the 
tube as it lies in the fire. The swage is held by a flat spring, 
clamped to the rear of mandrel, just high enough to clear 





Railway Refrigerating Plant, 
the tubes. The hammer is held in position by a standard 
which is clamped to the side of the anvil. When the tube is 
at the right welding heat it is shoved forward onto the man- 
drel, the operator manipulating the hammer valve to shower 
the blows upon the swage while a man at the other end keeps 
the tube turning. 



Homemade Boiler Tube Welding Apparatus. 



Experimental Railway Refrigerating Plant 

An experimental refrigerating plant has been installed by 
the U. S. government, Department of Agriculture, in a spe- 
cially constructed box car shown in the illustration herewith, 
which is taken from the Valve World. 

The plant is intended for government experimental work 
in pre-cooling perishable goods, such as fruits, etc., and, if 
the original schedule is being carried out, the car now is 
somewhere in California, making tests with oranges intended 
for transcontinental shipment. One-half of the car contains 
the machinery, while the other half is an insulated coil-room 
containing about 5,200 ft. of lj^-in. extra heavy continuous 
welded ammonia coils arranged in eight coils, each coil com- 
plete with separate ammonia expansion valves and separate 
ammonia stop valves. In the other half of the car the ma- 
chinery is located. There is a 35 h. p. kerosene oil engine 
for the source of power; this engine by various belts and 
countershafts drives a 12-ton ice machine, a 2 kw. generator 
for lighting and power, a 42-in. blower for blowing the air 
to be cooled over the coils, a centrifugal brine pump, and 
a motor-driven triple pump. 

This room also contains a 48-pipe double-pipe ammonia 
condenser, two large liquid ammonia receivers, an oil inter- 
cepter for the ammonia, water storage tanks, speed changing 
countershaft, and the complete piping and fittings for the 
kerosene, water, ammonia, and oil lines. 

The plant is installed in a space practically 20 ft. long 
by 7 ft. wide and 6 ft. 6 ins. high, so it can be readily under- 
stood the difficulties to be encountered in undertaking to 
place such a large amount of apparatus in such a small 
space. In the final test a temperature of 15 degrees below 
zero was obtained on the air which was circulated. 

The refrigerating car was designed, all the details worked 
out and its building and equipment supervised by Mr. S. J. 
Dennis, cold storage engineer of the Pomological Bureau, 
Department of Agriculture. It chief purpose is to secure 
refrigeration for the government experiments at such points 
in the South, and other fruit-growing districts, where ade- 
quate refrigeration cannot now be secured. The experi- 
ments already conducted by the department have demon- 
strated clearly that where a product needs refrigeration 
sufficient to make pre-cooling advisable, the question of 
promptness in pre-cooling is most important. 

As a means of obtaining data on the refrigerator supply 
of the car plant a large calibrated ammonia reservoir has 
been fitted up in the car for measuring the ammonia cir- 
culated in the car. Provision also is made for weighing- 
tanks to weigh the ammonia in case tests of that sort are 
considered necessary. 



126 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



April, 1909. 



New Firebox for Locomotives 

The accompanying illustrations show the aspect and con- 
struction of a locomotive firebox designed and patented by 
F. VV. Schupert and Henry W. Jacobs. The latter is an 
assistant superintendent of motive power of the Atchison, 
Topeka & Santa Fe Ry. and the firebox is being fitted to 
several engines at the Topeka shops of this road. 

Heretofore attempts at firebox improvement have included 
a decided increase in size, a slight alteration of the general 
form, the occasional introduction of water tubes or the com- 
bustion chamber, and the widening of the water leg. The 
demand for greater tractive power has caused the enlarge- 
ment of grate areas and the shape of firebox sheets and 
wrapper sheets has been modified. In the main, however, 
the principles long ago established have been adhered to 
until the present. Long experience and careful study of the 
prevailing design, however, has led to the decision that im- 
provements can be made in the arrangement and construc- 
tion along the following lines: A greater strength with a 
reduction in thickness and weight of material, an increase of 
circulation of the water inside, an increase in the circulation 
of the gases outside, an increase of transference of heat from 
the gases to the water per unit of surface, a reduction of 
weight in proportion to steaming power, a greater heating 
surface in proportion to weight, a reduction of fuel consumed 
per effective horsepower, a reduction of water delivered with 
the steam, and a reduction of heat delivered into the atmos- 
phere. 

This firebox is the result, and it is being applied to what 
is known as the "Santa Fe type" engine, which is the largest 
engine in the world of rigid wheel-base design. This same 
type of firebox is also to be applied to the new passenger 
Mallet type engines, which will be the largest locomotives 
in the world of any type. 

In this firebox the usual arrangement of flat sheets sup- 
ported by staybolts has been abandoned except in the front 
sheets and door sheets. Side sheets and wrapper sheet have 
been replaced by sets of channel-shaped sections riveted to- 
gether with their flanges away from the fire. Staybolts have 
been replaced by stay sheets, one at each joint of the chan- 
nels, which are interposed between the sections and secured 
by the same rivets that hold adjacent flanges. These sheets 
are partially cut away in the water leg, as shown below, 





Boiler Equipped with New Firebox, 
to permit horizontal circulation of water around the firebox 
and the edges of the sheets form calking strips for making 
tight joints between adjacent channel sections. All seams 
are submerged and no joints are exposed to the direct cur- 
rent of heat and gases. Due to the irregular outline thus 
formed for the firebox crown and sides, the available heating 
surface of the hottest section of the boiler is enlarged with- 
out increasing ihe size of the grate area. A mud-ring of 
either the ordinary type or a special design consisting of 
cast steel pockets may be used. 

In the fabrication of this firebox all the work is done by 
means of templets, jig and formers, so that each one of the 
component parts is exactly like every other one, and all are 
interchangeable. This is achieved independently of the skill 
of the operators. 



The American Blower Co., of Detroit, Mich., has recently 
issued a pamphlet describing and illustrating "Sirocco" fans. 
The book is of great assistance in determining sizes and 
capacities of ventilating and heating systems, as it includes 
tables of speeds, pressures, etc. 

* * * 

"Bement Hammers," a pamphlet recently issued by the 
Niles-Bement-Pond Co., New York, is a very comprehensive 
catalog of power hammers varying in capacity from 250 to 
24,000 lbs. The value of the booklet is enhanced by the in- 
formation as to erection, foundations, boiler capacities, etc., 
which it contains. 

"The Products of Kennicott" is the title of a booklet which 
very fully describes the boilers and water treating plants 
manufactured by the Kennicott Water Softener Co., of Chi- 
cago Heights, 111. Several interesting installations are very 
fully described, and the illustrations are clear and compre- 
hensive. 



Rear View of Inner Firebox. 



Consolidation Locomotive, Western 
Maryland R. R. 

The Baldwin Locomotive Works has recently built ten 
heavy consolidation type locomotives for the Western Mary- 
land R. R. This line has curves of 12 degrees on the main 
line and the maximum grade is 156 ft. per mile for a distance 
of 10 miles. The new engines exert a tractive force of 43,300 
lbs., and are examples of a type which is giving satisfactory 
results in heavy service. The total weight of the locomo- 
tive in working order, exclusive of the tender, is approxi- 
mately 100 tons. 

The cylinders are single expansion, and the steam distribu- 
tion is controlled by balanced slide valves actuated by Wal- 
schaert's gear. The valves are driven through rockers, whose 
bearings are bolted to a cross tie located immediately back 
of the cylinders. This cross tie is supported on lugs which 
arc cast in one piece with the front top rails. The link bear- 
ings are bolted to the guide yokes, and the links are built up, 
with cast steel side plates. The valves arc set with a maxi- 
mum travel of 6 ins. and a constant lead of ]4 ni - 



April, 1909. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



127 




Illustrating Old and New Styles of Fireboxes. 
The driving-wheel centers, driving boxes and main frames 
are of cast steel, and the engine truck wheels are of forged 
and rolled steel, manufacturd by the Standard Steel Works 
Co. The truck is equalized with the first and second pairs 
of driving wheels, and the frames are supported, at the rear 
end, on leaf springs. This arrangement should promote easy 
riding. Grease lubrication is provided on all driving and 
crank pin journals. 

The boiler is straight topped, with a sloping back head 
and vertical throat. The side water legs of the firebox 
slope outward from the mud ring; an arrangement which, 
according to recently advanced theories, should tend to pro- 
long the life of the sheets. The sides and crown of the in- 
side box are in three pieces. The crown is radially stayed, 
and is supported, at the front end, by one T bar hung on ex- 
pansion links. The barrel is built with three extra rings, 
and the longitudinal seams are welded at each end. 

The tender trucks are of the arch bar type, with chilled 
cast iron wheels weighing 715 lbs. each. The frame is built 
of 12-in. steel channels, and the tank is of the water bottom 
type, having a capacity for 7,000 gallons of water and 12 tons 
of coal. 

The design, while representative of modern practice, is 
conservative in that it embodies features which have been 
tried out in service. The photograph shows the general fea- 
tures, while the dimensions are given in the table following: 

Gauge 4 ft. %Vz ins. 

Cylinder '. 22x30 ins. 

Valve Balanced 

Boiler — 

Type Straight 

Material Steel 

Diameter : 80 ins. 

Thickness of sheets it in. 

Working pressure 200 lbs 



Fuel Soft coal 

Staying Radial 

Firebox — 

Material Steel 

Length 108 ins. 

Width 70 ins. 

Depth, front 75 ins. 

Depth, back 66 ins. 

Thickness of sheets, side ra in. 

Thickness of sheets, back ft in. 

Thickness of sheets, crown y^ in. 

Thickness of sheets, tube Vz in. 

Water Space — 

Front 4 ins. 

Sides 3'/2 ins. 

Back ZVz ins. 

Tubes- 
Material Steel 

Wire gauge . No. 1 1 

Number .'520 

Diameter - 2J4 i ns - 

Length 14 ft. 10 ins. 

Heating Surface — 

Firebox 159 sq. ft. 

Tubes 2,854 sq. ft. 

Total 3,013 sq. ft. 

Grate area 52.5 sq. ft. 

Driving Wheels — 

Outside diameter 57 ins. 

Inside diameter 50 in-. 

Journals, main 10xl2-ins. 

Journals, other 9x12 ins. 

Engine Truck Wheels — 

Front diameter 30 ins. 

Journals 6x10 in-. 

Wheel Base — 

Driving 15 ft. 4 ins. 

Rigid 15 ft. 4 ins. 

Total engine 24 ft. ins. 

Total engine and tender 57 ft. 9^ ins. 

Weight- 
On driving wheels 182,000 lbs. 

On trucks, front 18,000 lbs. 

Total engine 200.000 lbs. 

Total engine and tender, about 340.000 lbs. 

Tender — 

Number of wheels 8 

Wheels, diameter 33 ins. 

Journals 5 %x 10 ins. 

Tank capacity, water 7.000 gals. 

Tank capacity, coal 12 tons 

Service Freight 

r ML 




Consolidation for Western Maryland R. R. 



128 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



April, 1909. 



f^SIH^fccHMig 

Established 1878 

Published by THE RAILWAY LIST COMPANY 

WILLIAM E. MACRAW, Pres. and Treas. WARREN EDWARDS, Manager 
CHARLES S. MYERS, Vice-Pres. L. F. WILSON, Editor 

Office of Publication : 3 1 5 Dearborn Street, Chicago 

Telephone, Harrison 4948 

Eastern Office: 50 Church Street, New York 

A Monthly Railway Journal 

Devoted to the interests of railway power, car equipment, shops, 
machinery and supplies. 

Communications on any topic suitable to our columns are solicited. 

Subscription price, $2.00 a year; to foreign countries, $2.50, free of 
postage. Single copies, 20 cents. Advertising rates given on 
application to the office, by mail or in person. 

In remitting make all checks payable to The Railway List Company. 

Papers should reach subscribers by the first of the month at the 
latest. Kindly notify us at once of any delay or failure to 
receive any issue and another copy will be very gladly sent. 



Entered as Second-Class Matter June 18, 1895, at the Post Office 
at Chicago, Illinois, Under Act of March 3: 1879. 



Vol. XXXIII 



Chicago, April, 1 909 



No. 4 



The motive power department of the Chicago & North- 
western Ry. is completing a series of tests of locomotive 
valves and gears, making special note of the results of serv- 
ice records made by locomotives equipped with Walschaert, 
Stephenson and Baker-Pilliod gears, and with the Young 
valve and gear. We hope to publish the results of these tests 
in a later issue. 

It is encouraging to the inventors and manufacturers of 
motive power improvements to witness this expression of 
open mindedness on the part of the Northwestern officials. 
Whether or not one of the new gears finds favor in the eyes 
of the latter, the makers are given the satisfaction of a fair 
trial and figures to show the reason for acceptance or re- 
jection. Motive power men will watch for results of the 
trials with interest and once the ice of a high degree of 
conservatism is broken, the way will be easier even for those 
who, for one reason or another, are not able to make a first- 
class showing in this competitive test. 



Many authorities in the operating departments of Ameri- 
can railroads object to the employment of firemen who have 
been machinists. They state that these men never can be 
trained to handle engines in such a way as to get trains 
over the road efficiently. Their stand is based upon experi- 
ence, and their argument seems logical. A locomotive which 
has been in service for several years is rarely in perfect con- 
dition when brought out of the house for a trip. If the en- 
gineer has been trained as a machinist he inspects the run- 
ning gear with a more critical eye than does the man whose 
training has been confined to road service. The consequence 
is he finds the minor defects in numbers and his mind dwells 
upon them throughout the trip. The fact that he is more 
competent to repair breakages does little good when, in these 
ciays, a delay of ten minutes or less constitutes an engine 
failure. .Moreover, it is seldom defects of the class men- 
tioned which result in engine failures and, therefore, the 



man who is only intent upon getting his train over the di- 
vision regardless of the defects, so disconcerting to the ma- 
chinist, is the one who is most useful to the operating de- 
partment. We recognize the fact that there are differences 
in opinion among men dealing daily with this subject, and 
believe that there is an argument for the use of shop trained 
men as firemen and engineers. The subject seems an in- 
teresting one, and perhaps one which is worthy of discus- 
sion among mechanical officials. 



A patent was granted April 6 to F. W. Schupert, of San 
Bernardino, Cal., and Henry W. Jacobs, of Topeka, Kans., 
for a radically new design of locomotive firebox. Mr. Jacobs 
is an assistant superintendent of motive power on the Atchi- 
son, Topeka & Santa Fe Ry., and the firebox' will be tested 
out on this road at an early date. On another page of this 
issue we describe the principal points of interest in the new 
design, and it will be recognized as something original in 
the railroad field. Only a few weeks ago Mr. Vauclain was 
granted a patent on his flexible boiler with superheater, re- 
beater and feed-water heater, for articulated locomotives.. 
No attempted improvements in locomotive boilers within 
several years have presented such bright prospects as do 
these two inventions. It is an unfortunate fact that most 
of the inventions calculated to further railroad progress are 
the creation of impractical and untrained men. The reasons 
are hard to find, but the fact is none the less evident. It ap- 
pears that the more thorough a man's training in the me- 
chanical field, the more he realizes his own inefficiency as 
compared with some of those who, having gone before, have 
worked on the same problems. It is refreshing, therefore, 
to view the original brain work of trained mechanical men as 
evidenced in material and apparently radical improvement of 
the locomotive boiler, which for so many years has discon- 
certed all attempts at any improvement outside of adaptation 
to size alone. 



The Locomotive's Left Side 

It was discovered many years ago that the left sides of 
locomotives were giving more trouble than the right. The 
inference of a passing consideration was that the engineer 
more easily located noises and indications of trouble on his 
side than on that of the fireman. The matter has been given 
more thought in later years, however, and some experiment- 
ing has added its results. Pounding of the boxes and frame 
breakages undoubtedly occur more often on the left than 
the right side. The records prove this, but the cause seems 
to be still a matter of opinion. It would seem that a process 
of elimination applied to the differences between right and 
left sides would eventually bring about a satisfactory loca- 
tion of the cause or causes. 

The matter has been up for consideration before the master 
mechanics' conventions several times, and it was considered 
by the General Foremen's Association, at its convention in 
May, 1908. At this convention an unidentified voice covered 
the subject in point as follows: "We had trouble with the 
left frame breaking more than the right. On right lead 
engines we changed crank pin lead for experiment and I 
understand that the broken frame is transferred to the right 
side, showing that the lead has all to do with the pound 
It seems to me it is conclusive that whichever side has the 
lead, the opposite will have the pound, because we always 
keep up against the shoe or wedge on leading side." This 
man is not the first to place the blame upon the fact that it 
is customary to arrange the cranks so that the right pin leads 
the left by a quarter revolution. Changing the setting so that 



Ypril, 1909. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



129 



the left crank leads would not seem to be of any benefit other 
than to transfer the pounding and resultant frame breakages 
to the right side. It is true, however, that the wedges will 
be set up more carefully and be more closely watched on 
the right than on the left side because of the fact that lost 
motion will be discovered by the engineer more quickly on 
his side than on that of the fireman. For this reason it 
would seem a better plan to allow the left side to lead. A 
better cure, however, would result from a design of box 
which would, partially, at least, offset the twisting effect at 
the time when the left crank passes the center on the for- 
ward motion. Whether or not this is ppssible, we are not 
in a position to say, but the occasion for improvement is not 
mythical. 



The Atlantic City Conventions 

The Atlantic City conventions are only two months dis- 
tant. This will be the fourth time these important meetings 
have been held at this famous resort, and they promise to be 
much greater in point of attendance, interest and the num- 
ber and variety of exhibits than last year. The list of ex- 
hibitors who have applied for space shows a considerable 
number of new names. The return of more prosperous times 
and the promising outlook for improvement in railroad con- 
ditions with the looked for orders for rolling stock and 
equipment, give much encouragement to manufacturers of all 
kinds of railway supplies and material. The last eighteen 
months have been trying ones in the supply business; supply 
men and railway officials look forward to the mechanical con- 
ventions as the end of the depression. With July and the 
early fall months will come the orders that have been held 
up so long for rolling stock and equipment. For this reason 
the attendance of the convention will be unusually large. 
There is a better feeling everywhere than has been evident 
for a long time. Actual business by manufacturers of sup- 
plies in March was a disappointment, it is true, but the un- 
dercurrent of opinion concerning summer and fall business 
is strongly optimistic. There are two good reasons for this. 
The first is the increasing earnings of the railroads and the 
excellent reports that are expected from most of them with 
the end of their fiscal year in June. The other is the prom- 
ise of an early settlement of the tariff question with the 
Payne bill now in the hands of the Senate. 

There is only one unknown factor of size in the prosperity 
equation, and that is the crops for 1909. The government 
report on the condition of wheat is below last year, but the 
probable high price and consequent continued prosperity of 
the farmer will tend to equalize conditions, as well as the 
fact that we may get a bumper corn crop and other large 
yields. of the cereals sown this spring. Another good indica- 
tion of improvement in railroads' conditions were the re- 
sults of the convention of the American Railway Engineering 
and Maintenance of Way Association held in Chicago 
March. The expression of many of the engineers in attend- 
ance confirmed the belief that the railroads will shortly, re- 
sume the purchase of material on a generous scale. The at- 
tendance was unusually large, and the fact that the engineer 
is an official whose ear is close to the ground, catching the 
first rumble of approaching changes which mean improve- 
ment in construction and betterment or the reverse, is worthy 
of note. Every manufacturer, who exhibited at the conven- 
tion, arrived doubtful of results and departed happy over the 
outcome even though the expense was far more than it has 
been any year before. 

These conditions point with certainty to a successful con- 
vention at Atlantic City in June — the largest and most im- 
portant gathering of railway officials in the world. 



Gas Producer Tests 

A series of gas producer tests is now being conducted in 
the mechanical engineering laboratory of the University of 
Illinois. The object of these tests is to provide impartial 
data on the efficiency and operation of small producer plants 
of the general class, using different grades of anthracite coal. 
A rather elaborate line of investigation has been planned 
and the producer plant has been equipped accordingly. 

The plant, as installed by the Otto Gas "Engine Works, 
consists of a 60-h. p. .suction gas producer with one wet 
scrubber, gas receiver and a 22-h. p. gas engine. Tn order 
to facilitate testing, a Schutte-Koerting steam ejector of 12,000 
cu. ft. capacity per hour has been placed beyond the first 
scrubber and is used to produce the suction in the producer. 
Gas is drawn from the producer through the first scrubber 
and is ejected into the second scrubber in which the steam 
used by the ejector is condensed. From the second scrubber 
the gas passes to a dryer and from the dryer to two West- 
inghouse gas meters connected in parallel. From these 
meters the gas passes to waste. The steam injector provides 
an excellent means of operating suction gas producers with- 
out the use of the gas engine, thus simplifying the tests and 
promoting uniformity and accuracy. 

Means have been provided for obtaining the moisture in 
the gas and the temperature in the fuel bed. The amount 
of air used by the producer is determined from a calibrated 
orifice, and this quantity is later checked. from the analysis 
of the gas and of the coal. The Junkers calorimeter is used 
for determining the heating value of the gas and for checking 
the analysis. The Hempel Gas Analysis Apparatus is used 
for the analysis of the gas. Samples for the analysis of the 
gas and for the Junkers calorimeter are taken continuously. 

The work is proceeding under the general direction of Mr. 
C. M. Garland, instructor in the Mechanical Engineering 
Laboratory, in co-operation with Mr. A. P. Kratz, a gradu- 
ate student, for whom the work is to constitute a thesis in- 
vestigation. 



Largest Locomotives in the World 

Two large freight locomotives of the Mallet type (2-8-8-2), 
constructed for the Southern Pacific Company, were com- 
pleted April 14. These are the largest and heaviest loco- 
motives yet built, and they combine many new features of 
design. 

One of these locomotives was placed on a track of the 
Philadelphia & Reading Railway, Philadelphia, from April 
15th to April 17th, inclusive, where it was inspected by many 
railroad officials. 

The principal dimensions are as follows: 

Cylinders 26 in. and 40 in. x 30 in. 

Boiler, diam 84 in. 

Steam Pressure 200 lbs. 

Fire Box, length 126 in. 

Fire Box, width 78J4 in. 

Heating Surface, firebox 232 sq. ft. 

Heating Surface, tubes 6161 sq. ft. 

Heating Surface, total 6393 sq. ft. 

Grate Area 68.4 sq. ft. 

Driving Wheels, diameter 57 in. 

Wheelbase, driving 39 ft., 4 in. 

Wheelbase, total engine 56 ft., 7 in. 

Wheelbase, total engine and tender, 83 ft.. 6 in. 

Weight, on driving wheels, est 390,000 lbs. 

Weight, total engine, est 430,000 lbs. 

Weight, total engine and tender, est. . .600,000 lbs. 

Tank Capacity, water, 9,000 gals. 

Tank Capacity, oil 2,850 gals. 



130 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



April, 1909. 



Cylinder Boring Machine 

A new design of cylinder boring machine has been invented 
by W. J. Hagman, of Philadelphia, and the patent on same 
assigned to the Niles-Bement Pond Company. The descrip- 
tion, as given in the patent sheets, follows: 

This invention pertains to improvements in machines for 
boring steam engine cylinders, such as cylinders of locomo- 
tives having a cylindrical steam chest disposed parallel with 
the cylinder ayd having pipe connections presenting their 
ends at the ends of the cylinder and having their axes par- 
allel with the axis of the cylinder these pipe connections not 
extending through from one to the other. 

The improvements will be readily understood from the fol- 
lowing description taken in connection with the accompany- 
ing drawings in which: 

Figure 1 is a front elevation of a cylinder boring machine 
exemplifying my invention, the driving mechanism being 
omitted, and the main boring bar being broken away to show 
the secondary bar in its rear: Fig. 2 an end elevation of the 
same, showing the end appearing at the right of Fig. 1: and 
Fig. 3 a similar end elevation with the right-hand housing 
omitted and the main and secondary boring bars appearing 
in vertical transverse section in the plane of line a of Fig. 1. 

In the drawings: — I, indicates the bed-plate of the machine: 
2, one of the housings projecting upwardly therefrom: 3, the 
other housing, shown as arranged for adjustment longitudi- 
nally on the bed-plate: 4, a bearing mounted for adjustment 
on each housing in a horizontal path at right angles to the 
axes of the boring bars: 5, screws in the housings for adjust- 
ing these bearings: 6, the main boring bar, journaled in the 
bearings 4, this bar to have the construction and provision 
usual in the boring bars of cylinder boring machines: 6(a), a 
projection from one end of this main boring bar for the re- 
ception of the usual driving gear: 7, the secondary boring 
bar having its ends journaled in the two housings parallel 
with the main boring bar, this secondary boring bar having 
a diameter less than that of the main boring bar so as to 
adapt it to deal with the cylindrical steam-chest of such a 
cylinder as has been referred to: 8, the projecting end of the 
secondary boring bar 7 for the reception of the usual driving 
gear for driving this bar: 9, a super-housing provided with a 
vertical face and mounted for sliding motion horizontally on 
the upper portion of housing 2: 10, a screw for adjusting the 
super-housing 9 in a direction to and from the axis of the 
main boring bar 6: 11, a bearing-bracket mounted for vertical 
sliding motion on the vertical face of super-housing 9: 12, a 
screw for vertically adjusting this bearing-bracket 11: 14, the 
projecting outer end of this tool bar for the reception of a 
driving gear: 15, a super-housing mounted for horizontal ad- 
justment on the top of housing 3: 16, a screw for horizontally 





Fig. 1. 



Fig. 2. Fig. 3. 

adjusting this super-housing: 17, a bearing-bracket mounted 
for vertical adjustment on the super-housing 15 by means of 
a screw after the manner of bearing bracket 11: 18, a tool- 
bar journaled in bearing-bracket 17: 19, a gear fast on an end 
of secondary boring bar 7 projecting outwardly beyond hous- 
ing 3 in which that bar is journaled: 20, a gear fast on the 
outer end of tool-bar 18 and disposed in the vertical plane of 
gear 19: 21, an intermediate gear engaging gears 19 and 20: 22, 
an adjustable tumbler carrying gear 21 and serving in adjust- 
ing that gear for engagement with gear 20 in the varying 
vertical positions of the latter: 23, a table-base mounted for 
sliding motion longitudinally on' the bed-plate between the 
two housings and having its upper surface sloping down- 
wardly in opposite directions from the transverse center of 
the table-base: 24, super-tables having their bases resting on 
the sloping upper surfaces of the table-base, the upper sur- 
faces of these two super-tables being horizontal, and the 
super-tables being mounted for adjustment up and down the 
sloping surfaces on which they rest: 25, screws for adjusting 
the super-tables up and down the slopes of the table-base: 
and 26, facing cutter secured at the inner ends of tool-bars 13 
and 18. 

The cylinder to be bored is secured to the upper surfaces 
of the super-tables, those two tables having their levels ad- 
justed relative to the boring bars and relative to each other 
by being adjusted upon the slopes of the table-base, thus per- 
mitting the general work-holding table to adapt itself to the 
under side of a cylinder casting whose main body has one size 
and its steam-sheet a somewhat different size. Some of the 
adjustments of the cylinder-casting will be made by blocks or 
saddles upon the tables but the independent adjustment of 
the two tables provides for a nice adjustment of the axes of 
the cylinder and the steam-chest into coincidence with the 
horizontal plane of the two boring bars. 

The casting is to be so adjusted transversely of the ma- 
chine that the axis of the steam-chest will coincide with the 
axis of secondary boring bar 7, and the bearings of main bor- 
ing bar 6 are to be adjusted to or from the secondary boring 
bar so as to bring the main boring bar concentric with the 
cylinder. Under these conditions the two boring bars may 
act upon the casting, the main boring bar boring and facing 
the cylinder while the secondary bar bores and faces the 
steam-chest, it being understood that these two boring bars 
will be provided with the usual boring and facing accessories. 

The facing of the ends of the pipe-connections of the cast- 
ing cannot be done by means of a single bar, owing to the 
fact that there is no passage extending axially from one of 
these pipe connections to the other. Housings 9 and 15 are 
to be adjusted transversely of the machine to bring tool-bars 
13 and 18 into the vertical planes of the ends of the pipe-con- 
nections to be faced, and bearing-brackets 11 and 17 are to 



April.. 3309. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



131 



be adjusted vertically upon their housings to bring the tool- 
bars into the horizontal planes of the ends of the pipe con- 
nections which they are to face. The ends of the pipe- con- 
nections are then to be faced by means of the facing tools 
26. The gearing arrangement causes motion to be trans- 
mitted from the secondary boring-bar to tool-bar 18, and the 
gears 19, 20 and 21 in connection with the tumbler provide 
for the varying position of the axis of tool-bar 18. The gear- 
ing arrangement illustrated for getting motion to tool bar 18 
represents the best that has thus far come within my con- 
templation. 



Bearing Metals* 

Among the most important points to be considered in 
choosing an alloy for bearing purposes are the following: 
(1) Low coefficient of friction; (2) sufficient compressive 
strength; (3) durability; (4) ease in fixing and replacing; 
(5) minimum wear on journal; (6) low temperature of run- 
ning — J. e ., ability to quickly get rid of heat generated; (7) 
good behavior under irritating circumstances, chiefly with 
regard to safeguarding the shaft or axle from deterioration; 
and (8) cost. 

When well fitted, the bronzes run cooler and with less 
friction than any other bearing metals. They will also stand 
a higher pressure than their rivals, though this is of little 
importance, as, beyond a certain pressure, which the best of 
the white metals and plastic bronzes will easily stand, the 
lubrication is interfered with. On the other hand, the rigid 
bronzes wear the most of all, and it is this fact which has 
caused them to be largely replaced by either a white metal- 
lined bearing or by the plastic bronzes. 

The best alloys of this class are the true bronzes, and 
these are still regarded by some engineers as the best for 
heavy loads, though zinc is largely used as a cheapening 
diluent in practice. The hardness of the bronzes increases 
as the tin increases, and the rate of wear also increases. 
The practical limit for tin is about 20 per cent, as with a 
higher percentage the alloys are too brittle to be safe. The 
microstructure of the bronzes with over 6 per cent tin con- 
sists of a portion high in copper surrounded by a eutectic 
high in tin. As the tin increases, the proportion of the 
eutectic increases, and as this is a very hard constituent, the 
hardness of the alloy also increases. The constituent to 
solidify first is a solid solution of tin in copper; it is isomor- 
phous with pure copper, and may be regarded as simply 
hardened copper. The eutectic shows a more or less gran- 
ular structure — grains of the solid solution with a chemical 
compound of copper and tin with the composition CuSn. It 
is probable that this hard eutectic performs the principal bear- 
ing surface. When the eutectic assumes too large a pro- 
portion of the metal the alloy becomes too brittle for use. 

Bronzes are notoriously difficult to cast, and it is a gen- 
eral practice to alloy 1 to 2 per cent of zinc in them for the 
purpose of getting better castings. It probably acts as a 
mild deoxidizer. Zinc is often added as a cheapening addi- 
tion for common bearings. Anything from to 14 per cent 
zinc and from 8 to 18 per cent tin is used, but those bearings 
high in zinc cannot be' recommended for good work, as they 
wear very badly. 

The introduction of phosphorus as a deoxidizer in making 
these bronzes was a decided improvement, and closer grained, 
harder, and more homogenous castings were obtained. 
Silicon is also used for the same purpose. The zinc, al- 
though mildly deoxidizing, does not produce the same dras- 
tic effects as the more powerful reducing agents. It is essen- 



*Abstract of paper by A. Hague, read before the Stafford- 
shire Tron and Steel Institute. 



tial to have just enough phosphorus or silicon to deoxidize 
the metal and pass into the slag; all i ci retained by the 
metal is to be avoided. Arsenic i^ also sometimes used as 
a deoxidizer, but it possesses no sp<< :ial advantages, and i- 
a decidedly dangerous substance for foundry use, 'I he great 
disadvantage of the rigid bronzes i-, their want of plasticity. 
They do not mould themselves round the ^haft to make good 
any deficiency in the fitting. 

The term "anti-friction" is often applied to the white bear- 
ing metals. This is somewhat a misnomer, as because they 
are less hard the anti-friction alloys have a higher co-efficient 
of friction than the bronzes. The name has been applied 
because of the decrease in the number of cases of excessive 
heating in bearings when they were introduced. In the case 
of railway axle bearings it was thought that the lining would 
not stand the rough usage that this type of bearing is sub- 
jected to, but after very exhaustive tests the lined bearing-, 
were proved to be incontestably superior. The wear was 
proved to be less than half as much. The properties which are 
sought in a white bearing metal are plasticity and hardness. 
The plasticity should be sufficient to enable the metal to 
mold itself round the shaft, but it must be tough enough to 
stand a reasonable pressure without deformation. It should 
also possess sufficient hardness to give as low a frictional 
resistance as possible. These apparently contradictory prop- 
erties are given by alloys consisting of hard grains embedded 
in a plastic matrix. This, then, is the characteristic consti- 
tution of all the best anti-friction alloys. The hard grains 
in service are slightly in relief, and perform most of the 
bearing duty with a minimum of frictional resistance, while 
the plastic matrix allows of a certain amount of play under 
abnormal pressure. This peculiar relief is often very appar- 
ent on the surface of a bearing that has been in use, and is 
said to aid greatly in spreading the oil evenly over the bear- 
ing surface. 

Lead-antimony alloys are the cheapest white-lining metals 
in use, and are considered by some to be quite good enough 
for rough purposes, as in the case of railway axle bearings. 
Their compressive strengths are the lowest of all, and the 
only point in which they may be said to excel is in their 
cheapness. Lead and antimony alloy in all proportions, the 
eutectic alloy containing 13 per cent antimony. With 
less than 13 per cent antimony the excess lead crystal- 
lizes out first in peculiar leaf-like crystallities, and these 
are surrounded by the eutectic. With more than 13 
per cent antimony the excess antimony crystallizes out first 
in well-defined cubes. To produce an alloy of the required 
constitution it will be necessary to have the antimony in ex- 
cess of 13 per cent. As'the antimony increases, the alloys 
get harder till a limit of about 25 per cent antimony is 
reached, where the alloy becomes too brittle for safe use. 
The range of the useful alloys is then from 13 to 25 per cent 
antimony. 

The alloys of tin and antimony are very similar in con- 
stitution to the previous class. Here the cubes consist prob- 
ably of the compound SnSb, and are not nearly so brittle 
as the cubes of pure antimony, though slightly less hard. 
The compound also enters into the eutectic matrix, and gives 
an alloy of remarkably high compressive strength. These 
alloys are probably the most expensive of the white metals. 
and although their properties are distinctly good, they can 
be equalled, if not excelled, by a slighth- cheaper group of 
ternary alloys, which are considered next. The binary alloys 
of tin and antimony are rarely used in practice. 

Alloys of tin, antimony and copper include the original 
"Babbitt" metal — Sn 88 per cent. Sb S per cent, and Cu 4 
per cent.- They are the highest priced of the alloys in com- 



132 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



April, 1909. 



mon use, on account of their high content of tin, and they 
may generally be relied upon to give the best results. They 
have the highest compressive strengths (if we except the 
zinc alloys, which have many inherent disadvantages), and 
they get rid of heat produced most rapidly — i. e., they run at 
the lowest temperature. These alloys may be considered to 
be built up of three constituents: (1) A copper-tin com- 
pound, approximating to composition CuSn; (2) an antimony- 
tin compound, before referred to in the tin-antimony alloys, 
probably being SbSn; and (3) tin containing a small propor- 
tion of above compounds. The copper-tin compound crystal- 
lizes in hexagonal needles, which have a characteristic ten- 
dency to group themselves into stars. It is the hardest con- 
stituent, but is also very brittle. The tin-antimony com- 
pound crystallizes in cubes as before mentioned, while the 
matrix consists mainly of tin toughened by about 3 to 5 per 
cent of Cu and Sb present at their compounds with tin. It is 
the cubes, and not the stars, which perform the major part 
of the bearing duty. With less than 4 per cent of antimony 
no large primary cubical crystals of SbSn are obtained; the 
antimony is then completely taken up by matrix, and 
also at least 2 per cent Sn is required to give any primary 
bronze needles. In practice the limiting range in composi- 
tion of these alloys is probably very near the following: Z to 
10 per cent Cu, and 8 to 15 per cent Sb. With more than 
10 per cent Cu, or 15 per cent Sb, the alloys get too brittle. 
It will be noticed that the copper is more active in producing 
brittleness than the antimony. Consumers have a big ob- 
jection to having their high-priced tin alloys diluted with 
the comparatively cheap metal lead. According to one au- 
thority, however, this is a case where cheapening is actually 
beneficial, as he states that the lead both hardens and tough- 
ens the metal, besides making it more readily melted. 

By the introduction of tin to lead-antimony alloys the 
brittleness of the hard antimony grains is modified by the 
presence in solid solution of a greater or less amount of the 
compound SbSn. This compound also enters into the anti- 
mony of the eutectic matrix, increasing its compressive 
strength. The wear of these alloys is said to be considerably 
less than that of the tin-copper-antimony alloys, probably 
due to the large percentage of lead in the alloys. Their 
heat-dissipating capacity, which is determined by the com- 
bined effects of (1) specific heat, (2) thermal conductivity, 
and (3) radiative capacity, is inferior to the tinny alloys, 
and they are not therefore to be recommended for high 
speeds. The compressive strength of the series is compara- 
tively low, and they are therefore unsuitable for high pres- 
sures. They may be regarded as giving intermediate prop- 
erties between those of the lead-antimony alloys and the gen- 
uine Babbitt metals. The character of the metal is improved 
as the proportion of tin increases, right up to the point where 
the lead is absent, and we have the binary alloy of tin and 
antimony; but as the high tin alloys are no cheaper, and 
do not give as good results as the genuine Babbitts, it fol- 
lows that there is a financial limit to the increase of tin. 

Although lead and copper do not alloy, by the introduction 
of antimony a homogeneous alloy free from segregation may 
be obtained, providing the copper does not exceed 10 per 
cent. With more than 10 per cent Cu, rich coppery portions 
tend to segregate out. The copper forms with the antimony 
the compound SbCu-, which has a beautiful violet color, is 
probably identical with the well-known "Regulus of Venus." 
It crystallizes in needles, and is also a toughening constituent 
of the matrix. The cubes of antimony probably do the 
greater part of the bearing duty, and at least 15 per cent 
antimony is required to produce any cubes. The range of 
composition then is probably somewhere near the following: 
15 to 25 per cent antimony, and 4 to 10 per cent copper. 



The constituents of the alloys of zinc, tin and antimony 
are zinc, tin, and antimonide of zinc. Here the antimonide 
of zinc is the hard constituent which should crystallize out 
first in primary crystals to do the bearing service. Free 
zinc, crystallizing out as primary crystals, is to be avoided, 
as it is a very bad metal in bearings, owing to the ease with 
which it grips, or cuts, and results in what is known a's gal- 
vanizing of the journal. The alloys which have the anti- 
monide crystallizing out first are the important ones, and are 
roughly to be found within the following limits: 10 to 15 
per cent Sb, and 10 to 15 per cent Sn. The remarkable point 
about these alloys is their high compressive strengths. They 
are comparatively cheap with regard to the price of con- 
stituent metals, but are difficult to cast, as the volatilization 
of zinc is aggravated in the presence of antimony. 

According to one authority the casting temperature of 
white-metal bearings should be near the melting-point of 
zinc. It should not be higher, as it is apt to oxidize, and 
hard grains of oxide cause irritation in the bearing. By cast- 
ing round a cold core the metal is chilled, and too great a 
proportion of the hardening constituents is held in the mat- 
rix; the hard grains are much fewer and smaller in size. 
Chill casting is not to be recommended, though it is often 
resorted to by manufacturers to give a fine-grained ingot. 
It brings the matrix, which, though stiffer, is still compara- 
tively soft, too much into play as the actual bearing con- 
stituent. A common practice among engineers is to cast 
round a core heated to about 100° C, when a moderate rate 
of cooling is obtained, and moderate-sized cubes result. 
Metals which have been chilled in casting have been proved 
to be very troublesome in practice, as have also metals which 
have been allowed to cool too slowly, either from casting at 
too high a temperature or from the core being too warm. 
In this last case the cubes are abnormally big, and owing to 
the slow rate of cooling, a sort of segregation of the lighter 
cubes from the heavier matrix takes place. 

The want of plasticity of the rigid bronzes was recognized 
as a decided disadvantage, and attempts were made, originally 
by Dr. Dudley, of the Pennsylvania Railway Co., to obtain 
a certain degree of plasticity by the introduction of lead. 
This was successfully accomplished up to the extent of 15 
per cent of lead, and after exhaustive tests these alloys re- 
placed the old rigid bronzes. The lead does not appear to 
alloy to any extent with the bronze, but to be mechanically 
held by it, and "forms trails of a plastic substance through- 
out the metal." These plastic bronze bearings are claimed 
to be superior to Babbitted bearings, because it is said that 
the wear on the journal is much less. The soft lining is sup- 
posed to embed the grit and steel particles worn from the 
journal, and consequently produce an abrading action. The 
harder bronzes allow this grit, etc., to work itself out. It is 
found necessary to have a certain proportion of tin in order 
to retain the lead without segregation, and also to give the 
alloy the required strength. The standard bronze is said to 
be of about the following composition: Copper, 78 per 
cent; tin, 7 per cent; lead, 15 per cent. To get more lead into 
the alloy it would be thought that the tin would have to be 
increased, but the exact opposite is the case. By reducing 
the tin to a minimum of 5 per cent, lead to the extent of 30 
per cent could be included in an alloy without segregation. 
This is probably due to the amount of the tin eutectic present. 
At 5 per cent Sn the eutectic is practically absent, and the 
meals set completely soon after entering the mold, thus trap- 
ping the lead. When the eutectic is present in any propor- 
tion, and as it is liquid long after the main bulk has solidified, 
it gives the molten lead plenty of opportunity to segregate 
to the bottom of the casting, owing to its high specific 
gravity. 



April. 1909. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



133 



The American Railway Association's Bu- 
reau for the Safe Transportation 
of Explosives* 

While a small business, and even a small country may be 
dominated by an individual, expansion and combination of 
units demand corresponding expansion in methods of gov- 
ernment. 

Our national legislature would long since have degenerated 
into a useless mob if means had not been devised to curtail 
the influence of individuals bent upon rowing their tiny crafts 
against the current of events. It is of no consequence to 
the nation, as a whole, that this is not a current toward 
progress for the individual; that his craft must go up stream 
or sink. The wise pilot will accept the inevitable, abandon 
the craft, and expend all available energy upon salvage rather 
than on useless opposition. 

Y\ hether we approve or not, as individuals, combinations 
of large interests into so-called Trusts, of the working classes 
into Labor Unions, of legislative agents into Commissioners, 
of railway interests into Associations and Bureaus, have come 
to stay. The existence of these organizations, far from being 
the result of individual action, is based upon the operation of 
natural laws as broad and deep as those that cause the evolu- 
tion of species and the survival of the fittest. 

Is the Bureau of Explosives one of the abortions in this 
great scheme of natural development, or does it represent 
the sprouting of a seed fallen upon fruitful soil? Time alone 
•can furnish the answer. We are not called upon to furnish 
it. and, furthermore, our answer could not materially affect 
the final result; but an approval of the bureau, followed by 
active support of its work by the members of this and of 
other railway organizations, will materially hasten the availa- 
bility to railway interests of any benefits promised by it. On 
the other hand, and if the organization and conduct of the 
bureau have been upon wrong lines, a verdict of disapproval 
from you will help to hasten a desirable and general appre- 
ciation of these facts. 

I propose to sketch the origin of the bureau, the general 
nature of its work to date, and its possible lines of develop- 
ment. 

Origin of Bureau. 
In April. 1905. Mr. James McCrea. now president of the 
Pennsylvania Railroad Company, and then vice president of 
the lines west of Pittsburg, advocated before the American 
Railway Association the appointment of a committee to 
prepare a set -of regulations to promote the safe transporta- 
tion of explosives. For more than fifteen years the Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad, whose traffic in dangerous articles exceeded 
many times that of any other road, had struggled by indi- 
vidual effort to decrease the chances in favor of the occur- 
rence of fires and explosions on its property. These efforts 
had not prevented serious disasters, including explosions at 
King's Mills, Forest, Crestline, Redstone Junction and Green- 
wood, the net results of which were 13 people killed 25 in- 
jured and a financial loss to the company that exceeded 
$300,000.00. The necessity for some concerted action by all 
roads was apparent. Xo amount of care can prevent the 
occasional destruction, always promised, by explosives not 
in proper condition for transportation. Of what avail, if a 
road by individual action secures at junction points shipments 
prepared and forwarded with a reckless disregard of precau- 
tions? It is also true that no matter how friendly their per- 
sonal and official relations, the traffic representatives of rail- 
roads are, and should be, constantly influenced by healthy 
competition. Regulations to promote safety necessarily cause 

*From paper by Col. B. W. Dunn before the New York Railroac 
Club. 



restrictions on the practice of a shipper, restrictions that are 
generally unwelcome to him and sufficient to bring his cus- 
tom to the soliciting freight agent who is able and willing to 
cancel them. To secure the shipper's consent to restrictions, 
it is primarily necessary to convince him that they will apply 
with equal force to his competitor situated on another trans- 
portation line. The enforcement of proper regulations also 
means the expenditure of large aggregate amounts of money 
by carriers and shippers, a burden which cannot be placed 
readily where it belongs, — on the consumer. 

We have here broad and sound reasons for a radical change 
in the old methods of individual railway administration in 
this particular. The interests of all roads require the safe 
transportation of dangerous articles and independent efforts 
have proved powerless to bring it about. Combined action 
in some form was as inevitable as is the ultimate escape by 
a running stream from obstructions to its flow. 

The appointment of a Committee on Transportation of Ex- 
plosives to prepare and present to the American Railway 
Association at its meeting in October, 1905, a set of Regula- 
tions for the Transportation of Explosives in order that after 
approval by the association, these regulations might be 
recommended to its members for individual adoption and en- 
forcement, was approved. While the personnel of this com- 
mittee was still under consideration, one of the most dis- 
astrous explosions in the history of transportation by rail in 
the United States occurred at Harrisburg, Pa., May 11, 1905. 
Its net results eclipsed the aggregates already mentioned 
since 20 lives were sacrificed and the financial loss exceeded 
$500,000.00. In the reverberating influences of such disasters 
we recognize the voice and the power of those natural forces 
that have driven railroads into combinations for mutual pro- 
tection. As individuals, we yield to these forces, much as a 
flock seeks shelter from a storm. Only a supernatural wis- 
dom could have directed us to the shortest route to the de- 
sired haven. To anticipate somewhat, we have drifted by 
intelligent experiment into the trial of a Bureau of Explosives 
in our search for further protection. We may keep and ex- 
pand this bureau; and we may disorganize it to continue our 
search. 

During the summer of 1905 the Committee on Transporta- 
tion of Explosives, under the chairmanship of Mr. McCrea. 
worked diligently and effectively in the preparation of regu- 
lations. It had the use of the exceptional knowledge and 
experience of Dr. Chas. B. Dudley, chemist, Penns3'lvania 
Railroad, member of the comittee, and now president of the 
bureau; it employed additional civilian experts on explosives 
and consulted experts from the Army and Navy Bureaus of 
Ordnance. 

Immediately after the Harrisburg accident, the Pennsylva- 
nia Railroad put a competent man on duty as inspector to 
promote the education of railway- employes and shippers in 
the requirements of the regulations of that line for the trans- 
portation of explosives and to check their violations of them. 
The official who decided to put this inspector on duty planted 
the seed of the Bureau of Explosives. The inspector's re- 
ports soon demonstrated the necessity for his services and 
emphasized the self-evident fact that regulations do not en- 
force themselves. 

The regulations proposed by the committee were approved 
by the association in October, 1905, and adopted promptly 
thereafter by practically all of the members. This uniform 
adoption and publication of regulations, essential as it was. 
did not produce any marked change in the handling of ship- 
ments of explosives. This is illustrated by an extreme case 
in the experience of our inspectors some two years later. 
An agent who had received, in due course, a copy of the cir- 
cular of his road prescribing the regulations, was subjected 



134 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



April, 1909. 



to his first inspection. Did he have a copy of the regula- 
tions? The agent was not quite sure. It depended somewhat 
on whether this particular circular was printed on paper soft 
enough to use in cleaning lamp chimneys. If so, it had prob- 
ably been expended for this purpose; and if not, it might be 
in a box where he kept a lot of circulars that he had never 
found time to read. 

In October, 1906, a year after adoption and publication of 
the regulations by its members, the association decided that 
some common agent of all the roads was necessary for the 
uniform enforcement of these regulations; and it approved a 
constitution and by-laws for a Bureau for the Safe Trans- 
portation of Explosives and Other Dangerous Articles, the 
preparation of which had been authorized in April, 1906. 

Membership in the bureau was optional and it was not 
until over seven months later that practical work was started 
by opening the office of the chief inspector in New York 
city. At this time the membership comprised 78 companies 
operating 130,026 miles of railroad, while the membership of 
the association comprised 274 companies operating 236,581 
miles. There is reason to believe that some of the 78 com- 
panies had joined the bureau perfunctorily and without due 
appreciation of the obligations assumed; also that many of 
the remaining 196 members of the association had neglected 
to join through a failure to consider duly the general forces 
back of the movement. It is known that some of the compa- 
nies held aloof to await the outcome of the experiment. At 
the present time the bureau membership comprises 158 com- 
panies operating 202,186 miles. It is significant that this rapid 
growth of the bureau occurred during a period of marked 
financial depression which necessitated a strict scrutiny of 
every dollar spent for railway operation. Of the 155 mem- 
bers of the association not yet enrolled as voluntary members 
of the bureau, only 9 operate more than 1,000 miles of road, 
4 of which are located in Canada and 2 in Mexico. 

It is now believed that it would have been better for all 
concerned if some way had been found at the beginning to 
make membership in the bureau compulsory. Complete ex- 
periments, presenting all conditions needed to demonstrate 
conslusively success or failure, are the most satisfactory. If 
the failure of the bureau is to be the outcome, the sooner it 
is known the better, that we may try other experiments and 
thus arrive more promptly at a satisfactory solution of our 
difficulties. 

Development of Bureau Work. 
Initial Difficulties. 
Due allowance will be made by a just critic for difficulties 
that retard progress. The committee had provided in the 
constitution and by-laws an excellent general scheme for di- 
viding the work of the bureau among: (l) a force of travel- 
ing local inspectors; (2) a chemical laboratory with the 
necessary personnel and testing and analytic apparatus; and 
(3) the directing headquarters of the bureau, the office of the 
chief inspector. 

It requires time to acquire momentum. A satisfactory local 
inspector possesses a combination of qualities that cannot be 
found in the open market; a special building had to be con- 
structed and special apparatus devised for the laboratory; a 
complete system for administration had to be provided, in- 
cluding numerous blank forms to facilitate reports, instruc 
tions to govern the delicate relations of inspectors to railway 
officials in the exercise by the inspectors, in cases of emer- 
gency, of authority vested in them by the constitution and 
by-laws of the bureau, pamphlets for the information and in- 
struction of shippers, inspectors and railway employes. These 
are samples only of the work that had to be performed in 
the office of the chief inspector. Each of these tasks, suc- 
cessfully accomplished, meant an addition to the momentum 
of the bureau. A chief inspector succeeding hereafter to the 
control of this work may not appreciate all the initial diffi- 



culties. Any one of you, now in control of a large depart- 
ment of railway work in good running order, will appreciate 
them if you imagine all your experience, and all the details 
of your system for operation, out of existence and the neces- 
sity present for starting anew. 

In addition to other tasks requiring attention, the regula- 
tions for explosives needed revision and an entirely new set 
of regulations for inflammable ariclets and acids had to be 
prepared. An idea of the methods adopted and of the possi- 
bilities for expension of the usefulness of the bureau may 
be conveyed by brief discussions of representative tasks al- 
ready accomplishel or in progress. 

Co-operation of Manufacturers. 
The manufacturers of explosives had not complied will- 
ingly with the regulations of individual roads and the prin- 
cipal cause for their opposition was a fear that their com- 
petitors on other lines might avoid the expense of a more 
careful preparation of their shipments and thus secure a trade 
advantage. A general conference, invited by the bureau in 
November, 1907, was attended by a majority of the manu- 
facturers. The situation was thooughly and frankly dis- 
cussed to indicate the reforms needed in the interests of 
safety. It was pointed out, among other things, that the 
cans used for shipping black powder were weak and the 
loose powder, the first step toward disaster, was being found 
too frequently on the floors of cars in transit; dynamite 
was being produced with unsatisfactory absorbents that al- 
lowed liquid nitroglycerin to escape from cartridges and 
packing' cases; packages of explosives were not being proper- 
ly loaded and stayed in cars. Among the reforms acknowl- 
edged as due from the railroads were: more careful and in- 
telligent inspection of packages to detect their defects when 
offred for shipment; more careful loading and staying of 
less than carload shipments; better selection and preparation 
of cars for carrying dangerous explosives; more careful 
handling and more frequent inspection of these cars en route. 

The co-operation promised by the manufacturers at this 
conference has been realized. At the suggestion of the chief 
inspector, they appointed a committee to consult with him 
from time to time on matters of mutual interest as they might 
arise. No obligation to follow the advice of this committee 
was assumed by the bureau; but it was promised by the 
chief inspector that no radical changes in regulations would 
be made without hearing and considering the opinions of 
manufacturers. One important by-product of this conference 
was the establishment of better relations between some of the 
competing manufacturers who united for the first time in 
striving for a common ,end. 

A little consideration is necessary to appreciate fully the 
value of this co-operation to the work of the bureau. With- 
out it, we should have to depend upon forcing, through our 
inspections and a resort to embargoes, a compliance with reg- 
ulations at large shipping points; and we could not expect, 
without great additional expense, to inspect these points 
oftener than three or four times per annum. A co-operating 
manufacturer is more valuable to us than would be half a doz- 
en additional inspectors. He not only keeps his factory em- 
ployes in line, but he controls, or dominates, the work at 
many other large shipping points where distributing maga- 
zines and customers reship his products. 

It is evident that the most direct way to avoid a difficulty 
is to remove the cause. The wording of new regulations 
must necessarily be more or less indefinite. For example, we 
may prescribe that a shipping package for explosives must be 
strong and tight and that it must stand certain drop tests. 
Many types are in use that stand the tests but there is rea- 
son to assume that great differences exist in the numbers of in- 
dividually defective packages furnished by the different types. 



April. 1909. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



135 



It would not be wise to select arbitrarily what appears to be the 
best package and prescribe its exclusive use at once. In the 
spirit of true co-operation, the plan followed by the Bureau 
ers of serious violations. All railway employes should be 
made to understand that the regulations are issued to be 
enforced; that to invite, or condone violations, for traffic 
or other reasons, is unfair to a company's connections; and 
that proper efforts of the bureau will be supported by dis- 
ciplinary action whenever necessary. 

Perfection of Regulations. 
Nothing will conduce more to ultimate success than a 
thorough appreciation of our partnership interest in this 
work. Frequent changes in rules are to be avoided for 
many reasons; but efforts to inject into them the whole- 
some lessons of experience must never be relaxed. They 
represent a compromise between naturally antagonistic in- 
fluences, safety and convenience. Instead of condemning all 
rules for defects thought to exist in one or more, a critic 
should describe the defect and submit to the Bureau his 
suggestions for remedial changes. So little interest was 
taken a year ago, by the parties most interested, that a dis- 
tribution by the chief inspector of galley proofs of the pro- 
posed rules, for criticism and suggestion, bore little fruit. 
"Nothing to suggest," "Rules satisfactory," "Rules too vo- 
luminous" are samples of some of the comments. It is 
known that this was due principally to the fact that railroad 
officials did not have the time required then to study the 
subject effectively. With the advance now made in educa- 
tion and interest in this matter, less time is necessary and 
our united experience will be more suggestive of ideas. Our 
next revision of these rules should show, therefore, a great 
advance toward perfection if each party in interest will, after 
mature consideration of both safety and convenience, submit 
his suggestions to the chief inspector. In several instances 
a railwa} r official has referred to the rules in the presence 
of his subordinates as "nonsense" or "tommy rot," thus 
striking at the very root of all discipline, and all because 
one of the rules did not meet with his approval. These offi- 
cials had not utilized their opportunity to criticize the rule 
before its promulgation and were, therefore, partly respon- 
sible for any defect in it; they may also have been unim- 
formed as to the reasons for the rule. Their plain duty was 
to enforce the rule first and then to submit their criticisms 
and arguments against it. The bureau's availability to re- 
ceive, collate, digest and utilize such suggestions is, alone, 
a sufficient reason for its existence. 

It probably did not occur to the above mentioned critics 
that they had a proprietary interest in the Bureau and a 
share in its responsibilities; that the Bureau is not a repre- 
sentative of foreign and hostile authority, but a member of 
their family striving honestly to further their interests in 
every proper way. 

That the bureau has apparently won the confidence and ap- 
proval of the Interstate Commerce Commission, and thereby 
demonstrated its ability to represent all transportation inter- 
ests in any discussions of proposed changes in federal laws, 
should be a source of gratification and pride to its proprie- 
tary members. 

Legality of the Rules 
The legality of the rules and the penalties that can be en- 
forced for wilful violations of them should be understood by 
all concerned. The Federal Law of May 30, 1908, is unusual 
and it illustrates a modern tendency to delegate legislative 
authority to commissions. The promulgation by Congress 
in 1866 of a rule for the packing of explosives for transpor- 
tation had proved a failure; and this act of 1908 transfers 
to the Interstate Commerce Commission legislative author- 
ity to prescribe details. This Commission confines its di- 
rect action to explosives, but finds it necessary to give gen- 
eral directions to the common carrier which require him to 



go still further and add rules of his own for handling both 
explosives and inflammables. The rules thus added, until 
pronounced inefficient, unreasonable or unnecessary, by a 
court of competent jurisdiction, are also the law of the land, 
and wilful violators of them are subject to the penalties pre- 
scribed in the Act. We thus find a graded exercise of K di- 
lative authority by Congress, the Commission and the Com- 
mon Carrier, each having the power, under general limita- 
tions and subject to judicial approval, to change its own 
rules. An official who, for any improper purpose, such as di- 
version of traffic, directs his subordinates to violate, or per- 
mits the wilful violation of, any one of these properly pro- 
mulgated rules, is an enemy of the public welfare and is 9ub 
ject to prosecution and punishment. Imagine the predica- 
ment of such an official if loss of life could be shown to 
result directly from his action. For much less reaso 
prominent official has had to answer at the bar of justice to 
a charge of homicide. 

As an example, let us assume that one official considers it 
"nonsense" to label a package of whiskey and sees, incident- 
ally, a chance to divert traffic from a competitor by ordering 
this rule disregarded. As a result the package is loaded into 
a car with dynamite and during transit on a hot summer day 
it is injured by coupling shocks; the whiskey escapes and 
its vapors mix with the air. In anyone of a dozen probable 
ways, a spark or a flame ignites this mixture, explodes the dy- 
namite and kills a numbero f people, who have been deprived 
of the protection against this catastrophe afforded by the 
regulations. Who should be held morally and legally re- 
sponsible for their deaths? Would any of you like to change 
places with our critic who has pronounced the regulations 
"nonsense"? 

On the other hand, let us assume for the sake of argu- 
ment, that by focusing its attention too accurately on safety, 
the bureau has overlooked, or been uniformed of, necessi- 
ties; and has caused the labeling of so many packages that 
their separation from dynamite requires not only a special 
car for the latter, but empty cars on each side of it to sep- 
arate it from cars placarded "inflammable." This condition, 
or anything approximating it, would be "practical nonsense" 
and should be corrected as soon as possible. Hasty action, 
on insufficient information, or information applying only 
to limited and special conditions, should not be taken; but 
the facts should be reported for thorough investigation and 
for such remedial action as will be subserve all interests af- 
fected. 

Possible Development. 
For years, railway employes and officials have been organ- 
izing with great benefit to their varied interests. I doubt 
whether any of you could prepare, without some research, a 
list of all of these associations. Unfortunately, some of them 
exercise independently very important functions, and their 
field of influence overlap, with resulting confusion, if not 
actual conflict of rules. Traffic officials find it necessary to 
prescribe rules for packing certain articles in fixing their 
freight classification; the Bureau of Explosives considers 
different rules necessary to secure safety and the shipper's 
confusion is excusable. 

Absence of useful combinations means a waste of energy. 
Our railway lines are traversed by scores of inspectors 
whose general usefulness could be vastly increased by proper 
co-ordination of their education and duties. We have seen 
in the growing importance and usefulness of the Committee 
on Car Efficiency how to combination of interests can in- 
crease the efficiency of equipment; and it is predicted that a 
combination to increase the efficiency of our educational in 
inspection service will be effected eventually by the organi- 
zation of what may be called a "Bureau of Enforcement" or 
a "General Inspection Bureau" whose agents will act as 
scouts for all operating officials to keep them informed 



136 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



April, 1909. 



of the actual conditions on their lines and to assist them U 
perfecting and enforcing all of their rules. 
Conclusion. 
A railway official is not overburdened with leisure and is 
naturally averse to giving much serious attention to the de- 
vising of remedies for the troubles of others. From this has 
arisen a tendency to let the bureau work out its own salva- 
tion. I shall feel more than repaid if this paper causes some 
of you to take a more kindly interest in the honest, if weak, 
efforts to serve you, of the infant member of your family, 
of railway organizations. When we are wrong, correct us; 
when we are right, defend us; until our failure is demon- 
strated, support us. 



Systems of Governing Shop Laborers* 

The modern bonus system is one of the latest develop- 
ments of shop operation and consists in making time-studies 
of the various operations and determining accurately, or 
more properly inaccurately, in many instances, the length of 
time a man should take to perform certain work, and then 
giving him a bonus in proportion to the amount of saving in 
time or money he can make. It guarantees day's wages, and 
a man by unusual effort can make 20 per cent in addition to 
his wages. If he should make over this amount it is gen- 
erally considered that the time allowance should be adjusted. 
This system is kept up by elaborate office records and a 
small army of clerks, and the foremen or assistant foremen 
have practically little to say about it in any way, and in 
many instances these men, who have been interested and 
satisfactory foremen, lose all interest in their work, and in- 
fluence on those under them. The men themselves, as a rule, 
have little confidence in the system, and simply tolerate it 
until they can get something else to do, or if times get good 
and men scarce, labor trouble ensues. All sentiment and 
esprit de corps has been wiped out, the company or shop 
has a bad name among mechanics, and only those who can- 
not find employment elsewhere will work for it. 

The piece-work system, with guaranteed day wages, with 
a careful study of prices, which the accounting officers or 
their subordinates work together with the foremen, and prac- 
tical men who are especially skilled themselves, or have 
knowledge gained by years of experience, is in my opinion 
the simplest and most promising. I do not mean the old 
piece-work system such as I worked under 25 years ago, 
where prices were guessed at in a great measure, some very 
much too high; other equally too low, with the usual pre- 
determined earnings which the man was going to be allowed 
to make and the cutting of prices every time he ran over the 
amount; better day work than any such system. As an ex- 
ample of such a system worked in regular practice, I once 
worked alongside of a very fair man who was running a brass 
lathe. This man had decided to leave the shop, and the 
month before leaving, speeded up to the highest limit for 
quantity (not quality), as we afterwards discovered. The re- 
sult was that he made $147 for the month against his usual 
pay of from $65 to $70. He had about ruined his machine, 
and a large part of the work that he had turned out had 
afterward to be scrapped. The master mechanic, when he 
scrutinized the pay-roll, arbitrarily cut the price on this work 
about 70 per cent, simply saying, "We don't want these fel- 
lows to make over $75 or $80 per month." . Those of us who 
were working in the shop soon "got wise" to the fact that the 
"old man" had set a limit and we were particular not to give 
him any cause to complain of our making too much. The 
shop afterwards was put on a day-work basis, with proper 
supervision and turned out more work at less cost than it 
had been doing piece work. 



*From an address by H. A. Gillis before the Richmond 
Railroad Club, Dec. 14, 1908. 



The Taylor system is another system which has its good 
points and bad ones. It is very elaborate, and practically 
consists of a "Planing Bureau" where every detail of opera- 
tion is worked out from the ordering of materials to the 
shipping of the finished products. The speed and feeds of 
machines, the time of transporting materials from one ma- 
chine to another, and the sequence of operation and assem- 
bling is all systematically worked over in advance. All this 
is good, but it has a tendency, if not watched, to be carried 
to extremes, and take away all initiative on the part of fore- 
men and workmen. The principle seems to be that the brains 
are in the office or "Planning Bureau" and the muscle in the 
shop. As originally carried out by Mr. Taylor, there is no 
place for compromise or judgment to be used by foremen or 
men. The Bureau is absolute. The system has certainly 
improved the output of a number of manufacturing establish- 
ments, has much in it of merit, but also has the serious 
fault of killing sympathy and mutual confidence and respect 
between the shop proper and the office, the employer and the 
employes. No system which does not take in these funda- 
mental factors can, in the long run, stand and be successful. 

The trouble with nearly all these systems is that they 
widen the breach between employers and employes, instead 
of bringing them closer and closer together in a relationship 
of mutual confidence and respect; yes, and in my opinion, a 
still closer union of brotherly love and sympathy. This is 
ideal, I will admit, but it is only by striving after ideals that 
the permanent and really good things are accomplished. We 
often hear that there should be no sentiment in business, 
but this is not so; there is more or less sentiment in every- 
thing. If you want to lead a lot of men in a fight, you have 
got to have these men with you, you have got to hold them 
with sentiment. 

Now to you men who may be employing other men, I 
want to give you a word of counsel. Knowing your men; 
get close to them; take an interest in them, and encourage 
them. Let every man and boy feel that he has some hope 
of a better job; let him see that you are interested in him, 
and if he is a clerk or office boy, let him feel that some day 
he will be chief clerk. An occasional kind word, or word of 
encouragement, will often make a man who is only a fair 
man, an excellent one. Every man likes encouragement, and 
needs it. I once worked for a man who for 18 months never 
spoke a kind word to me. I would have to tell him every 
once in a while how well I was doing, and finally he said to 
me one day, "You make me tired. You are all the time pat- 
ting yourself on the back," and I said, "I do not know what 
I would do if I did not pat myself on the back. I have been 
here 18 months and you have never given me any encourage- 
ment or patted me on the back, and I need it, and therefore 
have to encourage myself." 

Now, another thing: When you see a man going wrong 
or displeased with his work, don't let him continue a moment 
longer after you discover it, but stop him then and there, 
before he goes too far, and give him a chance to right him- 
self. I don't believe there is a single man in this room who 
can honestly say that he ever did, day after day, a full day's 
work. I know that I can't say it. And even now, when I am 
practically working for myself, and have no one over me to 
find fault or to administer rebuke, I have a hard time treat- 
ing myself right. My tendency is to get out doors and have 
a good time, and my inclination is frequently to cut my busi- 
ness and enjoy myself, and I do not think that I am very 
different from other men. 

Now let me say once more, it does not matter what kind 
of a system you may have for your shops and offices, you 
must appreciate and realize that the old fundamental principle 
of sentiment and consideration between man and man, and 
as I have said before, even brotherly love and affection at 
times, cannot be ignored. 



April, 1909. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



137 



Shop Time Keeping and Labor Distribution* 

By the latest report to hand of the Interstate Commerce 
Commission, it is shown that in the year 1906 railways paid 
out in wages the sum of nine hundred and fifty million dol- 
lars, and of this amount the shop pay rolls represented the 
magnificent sum of two hundred and twenty millions, or 
about twenty-three per cent. These figures will, no doubt, 
impress you with the necessity for extreme accuracy in the 
matter of shop timekeeping, whether the work be paid for 
by the hour, day, month, or piece. Any carelessness or in- 
accuracy in the method of compilation will, necessarily, re- 
sult in injustice, either to the employee or to the company, 
and it might be noted, involves also something far beyond 
the amount a company may lose through particular errors 
or omissions. 

It means dissatisfaction with the company if an employee 
loses the just return for his labor. It means the building 
up of an improper spirit if he gains something that does not 
belong to him, and the question of method by which the re- 
cording of time may be kept is of secondary importance to 
the knowledge that accuracy and truthfulness are enforced 
and a fair and just return is made to the employees for 
services performed, coupled with a correct distribution to 
the company for the money expended. There can be no 
chance hazards in this matter any more than in the matter 
of a company's traffic or the care of its moneys. It must 
be known that the men have worked as represented and 
that the rate paid is correct, also that the amount of money 
shown on the pay-roll is charged to the accounts upon 
w r hich the labor has been expended. 

These are the vital features of shop timekeeping, and 
whether a company shall have an efficient or an inefficient 
shop management, whether there shall be economy or ex- 
travagance, responsibility or irresponsibility, largely de- 
pends upon these features properly appreciated. 

It can be stated as a general proposition that shop time- 
keeping should be taken care of under the direction of an 
officer acting independently of the person who hires or the 
official who directs. The officer to whom is assigned the 
charge of the timekeeping and labor accounts should, by per- 
forming his duty faithfully, protect the interests of the em- 
ployer and employee by preventing the introduction or 
growth of irregular or improper practices, and by affording 
the management accurate information of the extent and pur- 
pose of expenditures for labor and the measure of economy 
that has characterized such expenditures, and by formulat- 
ing such a system as will insure the payment to employees 
every cent earned. 

In days gone by, when shops were small, men reported 
directly to their leader or boss, and there was neither roll- 
call nor checking in or out, but as time progressed and shops 
grew, and the number of employees outstripped the imme- 
diate supervision of the boss, the necessity of some system of 
checking the employees on and off duty became evident. 

The systems devised varied considerably, each, no doubt, 
having its redeeming features, and one cannot overlook the 
fact that it is necessary to study the physical conditions of 
the immediate surroundings before the most suitable, efficient, 
and economical method can be decided upon. 

My first experience was with the metal check system, a 
system which, to-day, boasts many advocates. Each em- 
ployee is designated by a number upon the staff record of 
the time office, and upon passing in to work through the 
check office is given a metal check number to correspond 
with his number upon the staff record. This check he retains 
until passing out from work, when it is deposited with the 
check clerk, and so on. 



This method, however, proved to have its weak spots. 
For instance, it was virtually impossible to detect an em- 
ployee depositing more than one check, thereby leaving a 
loophole by which he might assist a co-employee residing 
in the opposite direction to the check office or defraud the 
company by depositing the check of an employee who had 
decamped. 

But the most serious objection arises from the fact that, 
in the case of a dispute regarding the allowance or disallow- 
ance of certain time, which disputes, as a rule, come up some 
little time after the occurrence, the evidence available, when 
boiled down, resolves itself into a deadlock of one man's 
word against another's. 

As the shop buildings or repair yards became more dis- 
persed and grew, the distance from the check office to the 

Korrn 8. ft M. A. 
CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY CO 190 



nel 
e / 



Clock No . 



Com- 
menced 
Work 



Toul 

Hl'.rt 

Day 



Note — When employee's full time is on 
Day Work. Foreman signs here 



Piece Work 



CHARGE TO 


Com- 
mcocert 
Work 


Fore- 
man's 

Jul Male 


FlnUrrad 
Wort 


Total 

Hours 

Day 

Work 


VALUE 

















*From a paper read before the Canadian Railway Club. 



Piece work hours checked in time office by .,,, 

Columns headed " Value " to be filled in by Timekeeper. 
Fig. 1. 
immediate location of the work also became greater, and, as 
a consequence, resulted in the loss of valuable time to both 
the employer and employee. Some measures were, therefore, 
necessary to overcome these weak spots. To establish a 
record of evidence by which to satisfactorily dispose of the 
question of disputes, and to overcome the lost time between 
check office and work, or, vice versa, by inaugurating some 
system of time registration right at the job. Hence the 
adoption of mechanical time registers or time clocks. 

These registers or clocks are of various capacities, i. e., 50, 
100, 150, 200, and 250 numbers, but for big shops and large 
staffs the most convenient register is one of 150 capacity. 
Each register is designated by a number, although in some 
plants the registration numbers of the clocks run in sequence 
from one up. 

The system of registering, assembling, and accounting for 
the time recorded on the registers is as follows: 

A successful applicant for work is given an order by the 
shop superintendent upon the timekeeper for a number upon 
the register. This order is made out giving the man's name 



138 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



April, 1909. 



in full, his occupation, and the name of the foreman under 
whose immediate jurisdiction he is to work. Upon presenting 
this order at the time office he is called upon to endorse it, 
so that there shall be no question as to the correct manner of 
spelling his name, and as a means of subsequent identification, 
if necessary. The order is taken up by the timekeeper and 
entered on the staff record and in the timebook of the regis- 
ter to which he is assigned. The timekeeper then gives the 
man a slip, carrying reference to the register number, and 
his number upon such register, and instructs him as to the 
correct methods of recording his time. 

The registration or punching of the clock on and off duty 
by the men at the regular starting and quitting hours is 
supervised by a clock watcher, an employee who is selected 
for integrity and satisfactory service, and his ability to 
identify each and every man recording upon his particular 
register. 

As each employee registers himself on duty at one of the 
regular starting hours, he is handed a day time card (Fig. 1) 
by the clock watcher upon which to record a statement of the 
various jobs upon which he is engaged. The clock watcher 
checks up the clock record, commonly known as a clock 
slip, with the list of employees assigned to his register im- 
mediately after starting time, morning and noon, and makes 
a list of the absentees or possible late arrivals for the fore- 
man's information, thus enabling the foreman to lay out 
his work to meet such conditions. 

Immediately before the men punch off duty finally at the 
regular shop closing hour, they deposit their day time cards, 
carrying a full distribution of their time, into locked metal 
boxes placed immediately adjacent to each register and in the 
commanding view of the clock watcher. 

A late arrival wishing to start at an irregular hour, must 
first report to his foreman, at whose discretion he will be 
allowed, to start or otherwise. If allowed to start he punches 
the clock and receives from his foreman a time-card, upon 
which the foreman has entered the starting hour. 

Should an employee desire to quit work at an irregular 
hour, he must first obtain the permission of his foreman, who, 
in giving him permission, takes up the time-card and enters 
upon it the hour at which the man quits and instructs him 
to punch the clock, after which he gives him a pass-out order 
carrying reference to the permitted quitting hour, which 
order is delivered up to the gate watchman, who again re- 
cords the time of delivery and turns the order into the time 
office. 

By these methods the possibilities of an employee omitting 
to register himself on or off duty, at the regular shop hours 
or at an irregular hour, are practically eliminated. Should 
an omission occur, however, it is promptly detected in the 
time office, where the clock slips and the time-cards are 
compared, and any inconsistencies are immediately reported 
to the shop superintendent on a form specially provided for 
the purpose. The matter of the omission is then taken up by 
the shop superintendent with the foreman, and he in turn 
with the employee, for an explanation as to his violation of 
the regulations. If satisfactory, the foreman is then re- 
quired to make a declaration. Fig. 2. that to his personal 
knowledge the said employee was on duty between stated 
hours. The allowance of the unrecorded time is allowed or 
disallowed at the discretion of the shop superintendent, 
based upon the facts of the case. Should, however, a man 
become a frequent offender, he is dismissed. 

Every employee becomes his own timekeeper: you have 
his registration upon the clock borne out by his signed decla- 
ration on his time card, and the check of the clock watcher, 
which is verified by the timekeeper. 



Labor Distribution. 
As in the case of time registration, there are various 
methods in vogue of taking up and distributing shop labor 
to the accounts upon which it is expended. The first method 
that I experienced was that of time distribution clerks mak- 
ing the rounds of the shops with the time distribution books 
once per day and taking up the distribution of the time 
worked the previous day; a page was assigned to each man, 
the description of the work performed and number of hours, 
etc., recorded in the column headed up for the purpose. By 
this method a competent distribution clerk could take up the 
distribution of, on an average, 250 men. Barring clerica! 
errors and lapses of memory on the part of employees, this 
method should give a correct distribution of the pay roll, 
but to draw off the distribution and assemble it to the indi- 
vidual jobs entailed a great deal of clerical work at the close 
of the month or at any time when it might be required to 
know the cost of any specific job to date. By a reversal in 
the headings of the time distribution book, that of assigning 
a page or pages to the job instead of the man, the distribution 
clerk's capacity was increased about 100 per cent, and the 

Form S. & M. A. 7 
CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY COMPANY. 

Certificate of Unrecorded Shop Time. 



To 



MASTER MECHANIC. 
SUPT. LOCOMOTIVE SHOPS. 
SUPT. CAR SHOPS. 
ASST. MASTER CAR BUILDER. 
DIVISIONAL CAR FOREMAN. 



Station 

Date 190 



I hereby certify that Clock No 

Check No reported to have omitted to register him- 
self at was to my own. personal knowledge 

on duty from to 



Foreman Shop 



To. 



Dept. of the Aud. of Stores and Mech'l Acct's. 

I recommend that time be allowed to the above employee 

from to .on 190. . . in 

compliance with the Dey Register Regulations now effective. 
190 



Head of Department. 



Note.— This Certificate must in all cases be signed personally 
by Head of Department and Foreman, otherwise time will 
not be allowed. 

Fig. 2. 

assembling operation decreased 50 per cent, and the afore- 
mentioned difficulty regarding cost of any job to date was 
largely obviated. Still, these methods were not altogether 
satisfactory; whenever the question of apparent excessive 
shop costs came up, the opportunity to excuse the shop man- 
agement at the expense of the distribution clerks was always 
open, and in some instances the excuse was probably well 
founded. 

By the time card system the responsibility cannot be con- 
scientiously shifted. The approval by the foreman of the 
distribution given by the men upon their time-cards must be 



April. 1909. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



139 



considered binding, also the capacity of the distribution 
cierks is increased so that they can handle the distribution 
cards of from 1,200 to 1,500 men. I have explained the 
method of collecting the time cards from the boxes, how the 
hours and rates are checked, and how the verification as to 
the accuracy of the distribution is obtained. Upon the cards 
being returned to the time office, after receiving the signature 
of the foreman, they are handed over to the distribution 
clerks who compute the value of the distributed hours by the 
wage rate on the card, transferring the distribution in dollars 
and cents into distribution sheets to the various jobs. This 
method removes the necessity of drawing off and assembling 
the distribution; as a matter of fact, a weekly progress report, 
or. in other words, a daily or weekly distribution of the pay 
roll, can be reported inside of twenty-four hours after the 
completion of the period, providing, of course, that there are 
no delays in the handling of the cards to and from the shops. 
Further, by following out the system in all its details, an 
absolute distribution can be obtained barring the possible 
value of cards delayed under investigation or the changing 
of an employee's rate during -a broken period, and of which 
change the time office has not received the necessary ap- 
proval. Periodical checks are made upon the distribution 
clerk's work by tabulating the value of the cards against the 
sum total of the entries upon the distribution sheet for any 
given period. 

At the large plants a check of the men at their work is 
taken care of by shop constables or watchmen, whilst at the 
smaller plants where the distribution clerk's time is not en- 
tirely occupied with the cards, he makes the rounds of the 
shops. It is argued that the system of the workman writing 
up his own card is more costly than that of the distribution 
clerk making the rounds of the shops. 

That too much time is lost, still if time is never lost to a 
better advantage than in giving a company an accurate ac- 
counting for the wages paid, there might be grounds for the 
contention. From my own personal experience I question 
very much if any more time is taken up by the men in mak- 
ing up their cards than in giving their time verbally to a 
timekeeper, and the incidental delays therein. For instance, 
in the machine shop it very often necessitates the stopping 
of a machine; in the blacksmith shop the smith will let his 
heat cool or fire die down, whilst in the boiler shop it often 
happens that a whole gang has to be silenced before a time- 
keeper can get a hearing, and so on . This, coupled with the 
discussion of various matters of mutual interest, causes a loss 
of time over which the shop management has little or no 
control. 

Contract Work. 
I wish to state briefly that the method by which employees 
doing contract work record themselves on and off duty, and 
that of reporting the distribution of their time, is the same as 
if working day work with the additional check of the con- 
tract timekeeper. And, further, that whilst it is very unde- 
sirable that an employee should work both day and contract 
work, it cannot always be avoided, and to meet this contin- 
gency the foreman is required to initial the time card at the 
time the change is made from contract to day work, or vice 
versa. I will not dilate further upon the question of methods 
of taking care of contract time, checking the output, and the 
general merits of the various systems and schemes which 
afford sufficient material for a paper in themselves, and with 
which it is hoped a member of our club will some day favor 
us. 



Evolution of the Brake Shoe* 

As a chain is no stronger than its weakest part, so also 



*By Tom Hamilton in the Santa Fe Employees' Magazine. 



is the air brake mechanism no stronger than its eak< 
integral part. At one time this point of failure was the brake- 
shoe, but, thanks to the intelligent efforts of progressive 
manufacturers, such is no longer the case. From the wooden 
shoes used in the early days of railroading to the present 
standard shoe of cast hard iron and expanded mild -i 
steel is a long jump, bridged by successive betterments in 
the form and ingredients of this most useful article of train 
equipment. 

No doubt a brief history of the brakeshoe will }><■. inter- 
esting. Prior to 1850' wooden shoes were universally used, 
the low speed and slight tonnage of the trains permitting 
the satisfactory use of brake blocks of oak, hickory or any 
other hard, tough wood. But the steady development of th< 
arteries of commerce necessitated changes in the brakeshoe - 
as in other equipment. The heavier trains, greater speeds 
and steeper grades confronted as the railroads reached forth 
over the mountains to the fruitful valleys proved too much 
for the wooden shoes, which were constantly igniting from 
the friction of the harder applications. 

So, from 1850 to 1860, most of the railroads, as the wooden 
shoes became worn out, replaced them with shoes partly of 
wood and partly of wrought or cast iron. It is also recorded 
that stone brake blocks were tried out on at least one rail- 
road. For several years, on the principal roads in this coun- 
try, wrought iron strips riveted to cast iron blocks were 
used as brake shoes. During this period the cast iron wheel 
was in universal use. These composite brake blocks, on ac- 
count of the expense of maintaining them, were superseded 
by cast iron ones. The action of the wrought iron faces 
of the composite brake blocks on the wheel tread was very 
severe. 

The first case iron shoe was patented by Stephen Morse 
in 1853 and shows a combined head and shoe of cast iron. 
One of the elementary requirements of brakeshoe practice 
is to keep the shoe as cool as possible, that it may stand 
up to the work required, because, after all, heat is the enemy 
of the. brakeshoe as well as of the wheel, and it is of vital 
importance, for the success of both, that the temperature 
be maintained as nearly normal as possible. To this end 
Morse designed his shoe with a large, thin web at the back, 
having openings for air circulation and for cooling the broad 
surface at the back of the shoe by exposing it to the air. 

About 1870 the question of power brakes began to be seri- 
ously consideied, and this added impetus to the interest in 
braking mechanism, and the brakeshoe secured a due amount 
of consideration. But of the many patents taken out very 
few of the types have been adopted, the majority covering 
shoes which were impracticable or commercially impossible 
to manufacture. 

Since the introduction of the all-metal shoe and head vari- 
ous improvements have followed in distinct lines: 

First, in the development of the wearing portion of the 
brakeshoe to secure long life or durability. 

Second, in the composition of the wearing face of the 
brakeshoe to secure retarding effect, without injury to the 
wheel. 

Third, in the reinforcement of the body metal of the 
brakeshoe to secure the continuance of the shoe in service, 
by preventing the falling away of the parts of the shoe in 
case the body metal cracks. 

Cast iron succeeded wrought iron in 1870. Experience 
with all kinds of material in brakeshoes ever since has only 
served to emphasize more and more strongly the good quali- 
ties of cast iron for the major portion of the brakeshoe. The 
first objection raised concerning the cast iron shoe was the 
short life or rapid wear, resulting in frequent renewals. To 



140 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



April, 1909. 



secure greater durability inserts of wrought iron were dis- 
posed transversely at intervals along the wearing face. By 
this means the life of the brakeshoe was increased several 
times over that of the cast metal alone. But when steel tired 
wheels were put into service it was found that the action of 
the wrought iron inserts in scoring the softer steel tire was 
most severe, and these shoes were abandoned in favor of 
plain cast iron for use with such wheels. 

In 1884, the rapid wear of the cast iron shoe having created 
dissatisfaction, another shoe was put into usage. This con- 
sisted of forming the brakeshoe of a hard iron cast against 
chill blocks, forming chilled areas at intervals in the wear- 
ing face. However, durability of the brakeshoe when ob- 
tained by chilled areas must necessarily be obtained at the 
sacrifice of some of the frictional qualities of the unchilled 
shoe, so, in 1896, what is known as the Corning shoe was 
put out, consisting of hard chilling cast iron with chilled 
ends, soft machinery iron being disposed in the wearing 
ends. 

As another step forward in the development of the brake- 
shoe for the purpose of obtaining the maximum durability 
with the least sacrifice of frictional effect and strength to 
stand up in service, the Diamond "S" construction was 
brought out in 1897. This consists in casting hard iron about 
a bundle of expanded mild sheet steel. This produces a 
brakeshoe with composite wearing face of strong iron in- 
terlaced with strands of mild steel which interrupt the rapid 
grinding away of the cast iron, securing a high degree of 
durability with the least sacrifice of frictional effect. Also, 
by reason of the minute distribution of mild steel in the 
shoe face, there is no continued action of steel in any one 
part of the shoe and no injury whatever done to the steel 
tire. 

As a brakeshoe having a body of hard iron chilled in places 
is structurally weak, the Streeter shoe was brought out in 
1899 as an improvement on previous practice. The body is 
of soft nonchilling iron surrounding a continuous spiral in- 
sert of very hard white iron disposed in the wearing face. 
By this means a stronger shoe is obtained than where the 
hardness is integral with the body of the shoe. 

An even better design, known as the "U" shoe, was intro- 
duced during the year 1900. It is an improvement on the 
other types of shoes_ using chilled areas for durability, in 
that those shoes having face chills are liable to crack across 
the face in a hard application of the brakes or when the shoe 
is struck a heavy blow, and, these hard sections being located 
along the face of the shoe, when a crack occurs the shoe is 
practically disabled, whereas in the "U" shoe the chill is ap- 
plied on the inclined end from the back and the hardest part 
of the shoe does not come into direct contact with the wheel 
or receive the heat directly. Cracks are much less liable to 
occur in these chilled ends, and if they do occur, the shoe 
of the maximum durability as well as of high frictional quali- 
ties, owing to the large extent of unchilled metal in contact 
with the wheel. 

The peculiar structure of cast iron, whereby granular par- 
ticles are supplied to roll between the wheel and shoe and 
produce high friction, together with the non-flowing and even 
welding qualities of this metal by reason of which it will not 
injure the steel tire, and the fact that cast iron is plentiful 
and cheap, easily machined or cast into the desired shape, 
all combine to commend this metal for the brakeshoe. And, 
as before stated, the experience up to date and the efforts 
to provide better metal for the' purpose than cast iron have 
not produced anything more satisfactory. The comparatively 
low durability of unchilled cast iron, its low tensile strength 
and weakness to resist shocks are the principal objections 
that can be raised against it for use in the brakeshoe. 

The modern brakeshoe has a body of strong cast iron, a 



wearing face of cast iron — or a composite face of cast iron 
and harder or tougher metal in which the cast iron largely 
predominates— a back of tough, mild steel to which the body 
metal is firmly attached, and lugs or supporting points for 
the attachment of the brake head of tough steel and prac- 
tically integral with the steel back. This construction pro- 
vides a brakeshoe which retains all of the braking efficiency 
of the cast iron shoe, and the weakness of the cast metal and 
its liability to fracture under blows or rapid heating is cor- 
rected by the steel back, which holds the parts of the shoe 
together in the event of cracks occurring and permits the 
shoe to be worn to the limit before removal. To make the 
reinforcement complete and eliminate all possibility of fail- 
ure either through the body of the shoe or at the connecting 
point or lug, the steel back and wrought lug were intro- 
duced in 1904. This completes the development of the cast 
iron brakeshoe to meet the demands of modern service. 
This type of brakeshoe is the logical result of the develop- 
ment of this particular part of the brake mechanism to meet 
the demands of modern railroad practice with its heavy loads 
and high speeds. 

In addition to carrying a much heavier load than the car 
wheels, the driving wheels of the locomotive are forced 
along the rail by the steam pressure. The driving wheel 
must pull the train, and, to avoid slipping in starting, sand 
is spread on the rail, and this sand, in connection with the 
slippage on the rail, which is at times unavoidable, wears a 
groove into the steel tire which sooner or later must be 
turned true again in the lathe to be safe to run. The brake- 
shoe, rubbing along the wheel tread, must necessarily ruff 
off some of the wheel metal, and this fact has been recog- 
nized in the construction of the driver brakeshoe. Recog- 
nizing the fact that the shoe, which in the early days was 
of wrought metal, was assisting in the grooving of the wheel 
tread by the rail, the shoe was recessed over the limits of 
the rail wear and the bearing at the throat of the flange 
cut away. This permitted the shoe to move out of place on 
the wheel tread, and an improvement was patented by Ross 
in 1884 which recessed the shoe over the limits of rail wear 
on the wheel tread but left a lip on either side of the wheel 
flange as a guide to hold the shoe in place. This type of shoe 
came into general use, as it assisted in maintaining the proper 
profile of the tire. 

The cast steel inner flange of the Ross shoe assisted the 
rail in wearing into the wheel flange at the throat, and as 
an improvement a skeleton shoe was designed in 1904, where- 
in the greater part of the flange throat wear by the shoe 
was avoided, the shoe metal being cut away and leaving 
only enough bearing to keep the shoe in position. This 
design permits a shoe of less weight and increased efficiency. 

For locomotive driving wheels the shoe is of strong cast 
iron reinforced in its wearing face by cutting inserts of 
extremely hard steel, which are not annealed by the heat. 
These inserts are located so as to cover the tire beyond 
the limits of ^rail wear. The ends of the shoe are tapered 
and cast against a chill block in the mold, which leaves a 
hard, smooth surface to resist wear as well as to radiate the 
heat and prevent undue wear at the ends of the shoe. The 
back consists of a plate of mild steel, to which the body 
metal is firmly anchored. The attachments for the brake 
head are of mild steel made practically integral with the 
back, while the bolt holes are punched through the steel 
back. This construction provides a brakeshoe of high 
efficiency, durability and beneficial action on the wheel tread 
and one which can be safely worn to the steel back before 
removal is necessary. 

For steel-tired wheels under engine trucks, tenders and 
coaches the best usage is a flange brakeshoe having a cast 
iron body with inserts for increasing the durability of the ' 



April, 1909. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



141 



wearing face disposed along the outer tread and flange 
groove in the shoe face, supported by a steel back to which 
the body metal is securely anchored, and having wrought 
metal attaching lugs for the brake head. For cast iron 
wheels under freight equipment: An unflanged cast iron 
shoe supported by a steel back and having a wrought lug 
made practically integral with the back. 

Many tests have been made, extending over several years, 
which have demonstrated the value of the steel back, as it 
practically doubles the life of the ordinary cast iron shoe and 
permits the brakeshoe to be made of hard cast iron with 
heavier inserts than it is possible to use in the unreinforced 
cast iron body. The shoe is not disabled by reason of cracks 
in the body metal and can be worn down to the steel back 
before the necessity of removal. It is a recognized standard 
on many of the trunk lines in this country on all equip- 
ment and" is almost an absolute necessity where the high 
speed brake is used. 



British Patent Revocation 

The first revocation of a patent granted to a foreigner by 
Great Britain under the new patents act is announced. Con- 
sul Frank W. Mahin, of Nottingham, deeming the case of 
interest to Americans who hold or contemplate taking out 
British patents, as it points out a line of defense which is 
ineffective, reviews it as follows: 

The case involved two patents granted to a German upon 
the same invention, a process of manufacturing thin imitation 
stone slabs or tiles. An exclusive license in this country 
was held by a Belgian company. It was admitted that the 
process had been carried on exclusively outside of the United 
Kingdom, but in defense it was stated that the company's 
factory in Belgium was sufficient to deal with the whole of 
its trade in this country and elsewhere, and that the articles 
could not be produced as cheaply in Great Britain as abroad, 
owing to the higher cost of labor and materials. It was also 
stated that the company had advertised in British trade jour- 
nals that the owners were willing to dispose of the patents 
or to enter into a working arrangement with firms in Great 
Britain likely to be interested in the process, and had com- 
municated with various British firms for the purpose of grant- 
ing licenses under the patents or of selling the latter, but that 
no offer had been received in response. The decision of the 
comptroller-general is quoted, as follows: 

The comptroller-general, in his decision, stated that in de- 
termining the question at issue regard must be had not only 
to the interests of the patentees, but also to those of the 
public, and that the mere fact that it would be more profit- 
able or convenient to a patentee to manufacture abroad than 
in this country could not be regarded as a satisfactory rea- 
son for not taking the necessary steps for introducing the 
manufacture into this country. The patentees had taken ad- 
vantage of their monopoly of sale, but had not availed them- 
selves of their monopoly of manufacture, and, on the evi- 
dence, he could find no good ground for coming to the con- 
clusion that there was any inherent reason why the patented 
process should not be carried on commercially in this coun- 
try. It appeared that there was little, if any, difference in 
the prices at home and abroad of the materials used or in 
the facilities for obtaining them, and if the reason that wages 
were lower in other countries than in England was an in- 
superable bar to the introduction of the industry to this 
country it was difficult to understand how many industries 
which were carried on successfully in the United Kingdom 
continued to be carried on. As to the question of the ad- 
vertisements and offers to sell the patent rights, he could 
not regard the fact that no answers were received as a sat- 
isfactory reason for not manufacturing in this country. 



NO JUSTIFICATION FOB LENGTHENING TIME ALLOWANCE. 

It seemed impossible to hold that a patentee could relieve 
himself of the duty of manufacturing in this country by the 
mere insertion at any time of a few advertisements and the 
sending round to manufacturers of a few circulars to which 
no replies, were received. The advertisements and offers in 
this case were of the vaguest description, and gave no intima- 
tion of the terms on which the owners of the patents were 
prepared to treat beyond the statement that such terms would 
be reasonable. Dealing with a suggestion that patentees who 
had taken out their patents before the passing of the act 
should be treated with greater leniency than those who had 
since taken out patents, the comptroller-general pointed out 
that a year of grace had already been allowed under the act, 
and said that he could find nothing in the act which would 
justify him in, lengthening it. 

It had been contended by counsel for the patentees that 
the object of the section being merely to bring about the 
establishment of new industries in this country a patent 
might not be revoked under it unless it could be shown that 
the revocation would lead to the establishment of such new 
industries. In the present instance, if the patents were re- 
voked it seemed to him impossible to say that a new 
industry would not be established in this country, where no 
royalities would be payable in respect of the carrying on 
of the process, but even if no such industry was started here 
their revocation would undoubtedly have one beneficial re- 
sult, for it would free the trade in the patented article and 
enable French and German manufacturers to import it freely 
into this country, the effect of which might very possibly be 
to reduce its price and, whilst in no way preventing its im- 
portation from the Belgian factory, give purchasers an op- 
portunity of selecting for themselves between the articles 
manufactured there and at other factories. 

He had always regarded the object of the section as being 
to put a check on the practice, which was alleged to prevail 
very extensively, of taking out and maintaining patents in 
this country, not with any intention of working them here, 
but with the object of preventing the patented articles from 
being manufactured here and from being imported by any 
other parties than the patentees. If, on the evidence which 
had been submitted in this case, the two patents in ques- 
tion might not be revoked, he found it very difficult to 
imagine any case in which a patent could be revoked under 
the section. He could not see that any advantage w T ould 
result from postponing the revocation for a further inter- 
val. If he were to allow any further opportunity to the 
patentees to comply with the requirements of the law, he 
would be establishing a precedent the practical result of 
which would be to encourage patentees to defer compliance 
with the requirements of the section until applications were 
made to revoke their patents. 

Moreover, if it were true, as has been urged on behalf of 
the patentees, that they could not afford to work the patented 
process in this country, and that if they did they must raise 
the price to the consumer, it would be no real kindness either 
to them or to the public to delay the revocation of the 
patents. If the patents were revoked forthwith, as it ap- 
peared to him they should be, it was by no means improbable 
that some one else might undertake the working of the 
patented process in this country; but, whether or not such 
a person could be found, the trade would be freed and lib- 
erty given to import the patented article, not only from Bel- 
gium, but also from France and Germany and any other 
country in which it may be produced. He therefore ordered, 
subject to an appeal to the court, that both patents be re- 
voked forthwith and that the patentees pay to the applicant 
in respect of the costs of his applications the sum or 45 
guineas ($229.94).— Daily Consular and Trade Reports. 



*42 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



April, 1909. 



The Railroad Club— Its Worth* 

The best answer as to the value of this association is 
given by your presence here at this minute, and a real wise 
man would stop his paper here and let you guess the rest to 
suit your individual inclinations. But there is a little some- 
thing that can be said: Our association is made up, generally 
speaking, of practical railroad men from the operating, me- 
chanical, engineering and roadway departments, and railroad 
supply men handling everything from steam derricks, steel 
ties, water columns, crossing gates and angle bars to locomo- 
tives, lanterns and ball-bearing jacks. 

Now, these supply men are all good fellows, good mixers, 
but above all they are a mighty capable lot of men; each 
one thinks, or is paid to think, that his particular invention, 
or his particular car spring, window fastening, fusee, triple 
valve or monkey dung is the best and only real thing on the 
market, and where such men as Frank Barbey, Walter Leach 
and the worthy treasurer of the organization really settle 
down to selling goods, you can make up your minds they 
will change all your standards fourteen times in fourteen 
months. They will, for example, come to you with a first- 
class crossing-gate, which you can install for about $300, 
and as you have got only about 5,000 crossings it is a 
small matter, and you begin to put 'em in. After you have 
adopted this standard, some inventor who has the advantage 
of the previous man's experience improves on the improve- 
ment, and down comes the same Mr. Supplyman with such 
an innocent look on his face that you would think he never 
handled a crossing-gate before, and when he gets through 
with you another standard has been adopted, and so on to 
infinity. The persuasiveness on the part of the supply man 
is what enables him to join so many clubs and spend so much 
money in entertaining us; but, gentlemen, in this as in most 
everything else, the dear old public finally foots the bills. 
The supply man gets next to the road master, the bridge 
supervisor, the master mechanic and the superintendent, ex- 
ploits his wonderful utility device, warranted to cut down 
your expenses 50 per cent, and if you buy two devices to 
cut out all expense, and gets the friendly interest of the 
lower officers, not forgetting the the section foreman if he is 
anywhere in reach; and when the time is ripe he approaches 
the railroad manager with a view to a sale. The "big boss" 
sends down through the routine channels an order to investi- 
gate and report, and he is so surprised at the unanimity of 
opinion that the road will have to stop running if the de- 
vice is not put into use. that he immediately orders a supply 
and the trick is done. This illustrates the value of the asso- 
ciation to a part of us. 

There are advantages on the other hand: Some of the 
real railroad men know everything about the business, but 
most of us know but little about it; and when, through the 
necessities of the company or the grasping of some unex- 
pected opportunity, we are placed in some supervisory posi- 
tion, the job carries with it such an unending mass of detail 
that we can only apply the knowledge gained in the past, 
and have little time to get beyond the business of the day. 
This is a word of progress, however, and the methods of 
business and the appliances for doing it will vary and im- 
prove from year to year until the end of time. Here is 
where the supply man comes in and proves himself a friend 
in need. Tt is his business to know what the best thing is 
for accomplishing a certain result. He is not tied down to 
the distribution of a pay-roll as between the elimination of 
grade crossings or the addition of a few ties to John Smith's 
side track, to the determining of whether a cross-head bolt 
should have a square head or a round one, nor is he obliged 
to explain to a fireman why he allowed him a day and five- 



tenths instead of a day and a half. He keeps in touch with 
all the best things in the market: and after we get so we 
know and trust him, he is really a great help to us; he keeps 
us posted as to what is going on, what the other fellow is 
doing, how he does it, what economies he makes in opera- 
tion or maintenance, and thus enables us to get into the 
game and handle our business with greater efficiency and 
more economic results. The officials of one road rub elbows 
with the officials of another, they compare notes, they learn 
how one man does the same thing they are doing in a dif- 
ferent way, and does with less actual labor or less wear and 
tear on their gray matter or reasoning powers, and the result 
to the employe is a capacity for greater responsibility, and 
to the company a more competent officer. This illustrates 
the value of the association to another part of us. 

There is, however, something beyond and better than all 
of this, and that is the great humanitarian side of the ques- 
tion. Men are gregarious by nature, they are born with a 
desire for company, they want to be with some one they 
know and love and respect, with the mother who bore them, 
with the brothers, the sisters, the wife and their own chil- 
dren; in fact, men through all time and through all genera- 
tions have sought and still seek the great heavenly chord 
of human sympathy. Men through all the ages have fought 
for great causes, for God, for religion, for national inde- 
pendence, for personal liberty, for life itself, and in it all has 
been woven the thread of sympathy of man for his fellow 
man. Health cannot be bought, riches do not bring happi- 
ness, power does not command love, and I tell you, gentle- 
men, that loyal friendship under the grace of God is the one 
thing that makes life worth living. Whenever good men 
come together, here or elsewhere, and are welcomed with a 
hearty grasp of the hand, a laugh, a kindly look, or a merry 
twinkle of the eye, it broadens their usefulness in the world, 
it heightens their, stature of respectability, it increases their 
value as men of affairs, and it directly adds to the happiness 
of their homes, because whatever affects the men affects the 
steadfast affection of the mothers, the wives and children. 

Therefore, I believe this association has done you good; 
if I have been able to raise even a smile from you or to 
give you a mite of food for thought, the time has been well 
spent. Everything that tends to the uplift of man's char- 
acter tends to the uplift of the whole human race, and I am 
confident this thought illustrates the value of this association 
to all of us. 



*A paper by A. W. Martin, Supt. N. Y.. N. H. & H. R. R. 
read before the New England Railway Club, March 9. 1909. 



An Ounce of Rust Prevention 

Serious as is the problem of rust prevention in all branches 
of the iron and steel industries, and in all the ramifications 
of those which produce iron and steel commodities, com- 
paratively little seems to be known about the subject, and 
less written about it. Most of those who have been con- 
fronted with the problem feel that whatever the process 
may be by which oxidation of iron or steel occurs it is a 
dangerous foe to the metal which it attacks. Many efforts 
have been made to evolve a means for checking its vora- 
cious consumption of our steel and iron structures and the 
machinery of iron and steel by which their production is 
made possible. 

ft is known that under the influence of atmospheric oxygen, 
carbonic acid and other agencies, iron and steel acquire a 
superficial coating which results from a combination of the 
metal with the agent in question. Rust or oxidation will in- 
evitably appear on iron or steel, large or small, rough or 
smooth, unless the surface of the metal is protected by a 
suitable covering of some kind. Rust forms not only on 
iron exposed to the air and moisture, but on iron set in 
brick or concrete, or under water. Everything made of iron 
or steel is liable to oxidation, and therefore loss in appear- 
ance and strength. 



April, 1909. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



143 




Emergency Leak Stopper for Air Hose. 

Wherever rust has once formed, its further occurrence 
is a natural sequence, and its prevention becomes impossible 
unless the affected parts are perfectly freed from all traces 
of oxide. The ultimate safety ofa structure is not, as might 
be supposed, measured in the strength of large exposed mem- 
bers, but rather in the proper preservation of the smallest 
component parts, present in very large numbers in the larger 
members. An important function in all construction is dis- 
charged by the rivets, which unite plates, stays and girders. 
If rust is allowed to gain a foothold in the rivets and screws, 
the rigidity of the entire structure is imperilled. 

While efforts at rust prevention have been centered in the 
problem of preserving structures built of steel, many other 
interesting phases of the same problem have been claiming 
attention as well. One of these demands for a rust preven- 
tive came with the necessity of protecting machinery and 
miscellaneous shipments of iron, as finished product, during 
transportation to different parts of the country and in stor- 
age afterward when awaiting use. It was necessary to give 
the steel such a. coating of water shedding material as to 
form a rust preventing, impervious layer over the surface 
exposed. The substances used were those least susceptible 
to the influence of atmospheric oxygen, and consequently 
with the smallest tendency to form fatty acids, because these 
acids attack the metal and form with it a composition of a 



rusty brown color. Though tallow is a fat often used for 
greasing the surface of iron, it is one that very soon beco 
converted into a rusty brown mass, and allows the iron to 
rust. Mineral oils give better results than either vegetable 
or animal fats A preparation which has been successfully 
used for years in this particular field is known commercially 
as Anti-Rust, prepared for the market by F, L. Melville. 
New York City. This product is semi-liquid in form, easily 
applied and not affected by changes of temperature. It i- 
readily removed from the surface treated without resorting 
to the use of benzine or other cutting agent-,. Anti-Rust 
has given good results under all manner of severe tests, not- 
ably in the protection of iron from the corroding influence 
of salt water and in long continued open air test.-, . 



Emergency Leak Stopper for Air Hose 

A leak in an air hose, occuring between terminals, is a state 
of affairs requiring prompt attention. It i^ not, however, al- 
ways convenient to apply a new hose, and the appliance 
shown in the illustration is constructed to quickly stop the 
leakage of air from a burst hose with minimum delay to the 
train. 

The device consists of a plate, five inches long, furnished 
with ridges which are embedded around the hole or leak, 
thus making an air-tight chamber, and a yoke and set-screw. 
The object is to use the leak stopper only until the train 
reaches the terminal, when the air brake apparatus inspector 
will apply a new hose. The leak stopper is then turned in to 
the storekeeper. The device is made of steel and can be 
easily carried in the pockets of the trainmen. The appliance 
is manufactured by the Kitzmiller Leak Stopper Co., of Har- 
risburg, Pa. 

Car Mortising Machine for Heavy Work 

A machine built for heavy mortising work in the railroad 
shop is shown in the illustration. The frame is a single 
cored casting with wide base and solid support for the table 
and carries the large housing on its top in square gibbed 




Hamilton Vertical Automatic Hollow Chisel Car Mortiser No. 15!) 



144 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



April, 1909. 



slides, supporting same by four rollers which roll on top sur- 
face of gib with easy movement by means of rack and pinion 
feed controlled by ratchet lever from operator's position. 
The housing requires no counterbalance, working quickly 
and easily in either direction. 

The table consists of steel beam construction, very rigid, 
to carry the heaviest timbers, and mounted on large roller 
ways at every intervals. It will clamp material 20 ins. wide 
by 16 ins. thick, is provided with quick-acting eccentric 
clamps, and has both power and hand feed. Adjustable stops 
along the front, gauge accurately to length. The table is 
under full control of operator, through the power lever or 
hand wheel. It can be stopped or started instantly. 

The chisel ram, 29 ins. long, mounted on front of housing 
in dovetail slides, is counterbalanced to take all weight from 
the working mechanism. The long closed cap box holds the 
boring spindle rigid for running at high speed without vibra- 
tion, the driving pulley being carried between two boxes and 
sleeved in same full length. The spindle sliding in sleeve 
prevents wear of boxes and retains alignment against any 
heavy pull of belt which is controlled on pulley by two idlers, 
one being automatically adjustable to take up variation in 
belt length or position, owing to belt being crossed as it 
comes from the countershaft above. The chisel ram has a 
17-in. vertical movement and 16-in. movement across car- 
riage, mortising 6 ins. deep. The power is imparted by a 
train of gearing and reverse friction pulleys, all placed out- 
side for ready inspection, adjustment, etc. Cutting speed 
of chisel is 13 ft. per minute with return double this speed. 

The radial boring attachments can be used either on one 
side as shown, or on both sides, or may be omitted. They 
have 20-in. vertical adjustment, 16-in. transverse adjustment, 
and angular adjustment of 30 degs. either way. The machine 
is made by the Bentel-Margedant Co., Hamilton, O. 



Trade Notes 

Mr. Russel Dale, formerly sales manager of the Celfor 
Tool Company, is now the Chicago representative of the 
Carpenter Steel Company, of Reading, Pa., with offices in 
the Commercial National Bank building, Chicago. Mr. Dale 
is one of the well known and popular railway supply sales- 
men, having been sales manager for the Rich Manufacturing 
Company, which was later changed to the Celfor Tool Com- 
pany, for the last few years. He introduced the Rich drill 
chuck and Celfor high-speed flat drills in many shops, both 
in this country and abroad. The Carpenter Steel Company 
is one of the largest manufacturers of high grade steels and 
wire in the country. Among their products are "Zenith," 
high-speed tool steel, T. K. alloy steel, Air Hardening steel, 
Fast Finishing steel, "Extra," "Standard" and "Comet" tool 
steels. 

T. N. May, heretofore with the Brady Brass Co., New 
York, is now dealing in railway equipment and supplies, with 
office at 2 Rector street, New York. 

The H. W. Johns-Manville Co., New York, has given the 
contract for 1,100 tons of structural steel for its new ware- 
house at Milwaukee, Wis., to the American Bridge Co. 

The Automatic Car Coupler Co., Los Angeles, Cal., has 
been incorporated with $50,000 capital stock. The incorpor- 
ators are F. R. Bonney, F. H. Norwood, W. H. Soale, K. 
Elliott and C. H. Wills. 

The New York, Philadelphia & Norfolk has ordered a 
steel car float with a capacity of 30 cars, and also a sea- 
going steel hull tug boat. The present floating equipment 
of the N. Y., P. & N. consists of 11 car floats and 7 tugboats. 

The Union Draft Gear Co., Chicago, has been incorporated 
to manufacture and deal in railway specialties, equipment and 



appliances; capital stock, $2,000,000. The incorporators are 
Matthew J. O'Brien, Daniel L. Madden and Francis 
O'Shaughnessy. 

A. Munch, for the past eight years Sales Manager of the 
Northern Metallic Packing Co., St. Raul, Minn., has resigned. 
It is understood that Mr. Munch will take a vacation, after 
which he will become identified with a prominent supply 
concern. 

The New York offices of the Baldwin Locomotive Works, 
Philadelphia, Pa., and the Standard Steel Works Co., Phila- 
delphia, have been moved to 50 Church street. The New 
York representatives of both companies are Harry W. Shel- 
don and Frederick W. Weston. 

Gustav Baurmann, President of the Phoenix Car Spring 
Co., Chicago, died at his home in Chicago on March 31 as a 
result of a stroke of apoplexy which he suffered nearly a year 
ago. He was born in 1857, at Louisville, Ky., and located in 
Chicago about thirty years ago. 

A. R. Young, C. E., Western Agent of the Fort Pitt Bridge 
Works, Pittsburg, Pa., has resigned to become a member of 
the firm of W. R. Carter & Co., engineers and contractors, 
Lawrence, Kan. H. C. Breidert, C. E., of the. Pittsburg of- 
fice of the Fort Pitt company, succeeds Mr. Young, with of- 
fice at Chicago. 

The Rowe Perfection Sleeping Car Co., Seattle, Wash., has 
been incorporated with $20,000,000 capital to manufacture 
and sell a new type of sleeping car. It is intended to build 
a plant employing several thousand men. President, John 
Anthen; vice-president, Eugene E. Harold; secretary and 
manager, John L. Loughran, all of Seattle. 

James MacMartin, Chief Engineer of the Delaware & Hud- 
son, has resigned, effective about May 1, to become vice- 
president and general manager of the Elmore & Hamilton 
Contracting Co., Albany, N. Y. The contracting company 
has work under way on the Long Island Railroad, the West- 
ern Maryland and the New York city water supply system. 

An organization in a city of Latin America engaged in the 
import and export trade would like to receive propositions 
and prices from contractors for furnishing the following ma- 
terials: Locomotives, fuel, bridge material, rails, turn-tables, 
water tanks, telegraph and telephone supplies, trucks, con- 
crete and cement block machines, wire and building materials- 
of all kinds. (Inquiry No. 3250, Bureau of Manufactures,. 
Washington, D. C.) 

The General Railway Equipment Co., Chicago, has just 
been organized to do a general business in buying, selling 
and handling new and rebuilt railway and contractors' equip- 
ment, locomotives, cars, steam shovels, etc. I. J. Kusel, for- 
merly president of the American Car & Equipment Co., Chi- 
cago, is president, and Thomas C. McCalla is secretary 

The Cutler-Hammer Mfg. Co., of Milwaukee, makers of 
electric controlling devices, announce the opening of a dis- 
trict office in Cleveland, Ohio, 1108 Schofield building. The 
new office will be in charge of Mr. C. J. Kruse, who comes 
from the engineering department of the Cutler-Hammer 
company, and who is well qualified to advise regarding the 
proper device to use in any case involving the control of 
electric motors. 

Captain Boggs, of the engineering department of the 
Isthmian Canal Commission, reports on the spreaders which 
have been in service two years as follows: "The ten spread- 
ers furnished by the Mann-McCann Company surpass what 
was expected would be able to be obtained, as to strength 
and operating facilities, tending both to increase the volume 
of work accomplished with one movement of the spreader, 
and to obviate the delay by eliminating the breakages which 
occur more frequently in spreaders of lighter construction." 



April, 3 909. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



145 



The United States Geological Survey in co-operation with 
the State Geological Survey, has established at the College 
of Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, 111., a Mine 
Explosion and Mine Rescue Station. The purpose of the 
station is to interest mine operators and inspectors in the 
economic value of such modern appliances as the oxygen 
helmets and resuscitation apparatus as adjuncts to the normal 
equipment of mines. The station also will concern itself 
with the training of mine bosses and others in the use of 
such apparatus. Its service is to be rendered gratuitously, 
and so far as possible to all in Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, 
West Kentucky, Iowa and Missouri, who may desire the 
benefits thereof. 

The annual meeting of the stockholders of The Union 
Switch & Signal Company took place March 9, in the office 
of the company, Westinghouse building. Owing to the ab- 
sence of Mr. George Westinghouse in Europe, Col. H. G. 
Prout, vice president of the company, acted as chairman. 
The financial statement was read to the stockholders, and 
directors was elected as follows: George Westinghouse, Rob- 
ert Pitcairn, William McConway, George C. Smith, Thomas 
Rodd, H. G. Prout, James J. Donnell. After the meeting, a 
representative of the company stated that they have at the 
present time on hand at Swissvale orders for unfilled business 
amounting to $1,357,000. New contracts for block signaling 
and other railroad safety devices are now coming in more 
freely than at any time during the last twelve months. In- 
quiries for quotations on new business are increasing right 
along and are spread pretty widely over the entire country. 

The convenience of square holes and of square counter- 
sinks in certain classes of constructions has long since di- 
rected the attention of inventors to the problem of producing 
such holes in wood, metal, etc. at a single operation. We 
are now able to mention a device by means of which it is 
possible to bore such holes upon any ordinary lathe, milling 
machine, or drill press at a rate nearly equal to the speed at 
which ordinary round holes can be drilled with a flat or twist 
drill. A large number of these chucks have been sold in Ger- 
many to such firms as Freidrich Krupp, Siemens & Halske, 
etc., practically all of which are of the square hole type. 
The device is being introduced into this country by the Radi- 
cal Angular Drill Company, who have fitted up a show room 
on the second floor of the Engineering building, 114 Liberty 
street, New York city, where they have the device arranged 
for demonstration on a milling machine of the ordinary type. 

When a flood came and covered the floor of the machine 
shop of the Birmingham Iron Foundry, at Derby, Conn., 
those in charge were glad to note the practical working test 
that had been unwittingly given to a rust preventitive known 
as Anti-Rust, which had been used to protect the highly 
polished rolls of a 3-roll Calender, standing on the erecting 
floor. When the water, which had reached the height of the 
lower roll, had subsided, it was found on examination that 
the delicate surface protected by the Anti-rust was not 
harmed in any way. 

The Railway Business Association, 2 Rector street, New 
York, issued a pamphlet on "The Story of Four Months' Ac- 
complishment." 

The February issue of "Graphite," published by the Joseph 
Dixon Crucible Company, Jersey City, N. J., contains many 
interesting notes. 

Mr. B. J. Peasley, master mechanic of the St. Louis, Iron 
Mountain & Southern, at Ferriday, La., has been appointed 
master mechanic at De Soto, Mo., succeeding Mr. P. J. Con- 
rath, resigned. Mr. W. S. Kenyon succeeds Mr. Peasley. 

Mr. J. E. Irwin, master mechanic of the Marietta, Colum- 
bus & Cleveland, has resigned to become superintendent of 
equipment of the Indian Refining Co., Georgetown, Ky., and 
Lawrenceville, Ind., and the position of master mechanic 
has been abolished. 



The Buckeye Steel Castings Co., Columbus, ()., has opened 
an office in the offices formerly occupied by the Julian L. 
Yale & Co., in the Railway Exchange building, Chicago. 
Mr. C. B. Goodspeed will be in charge and Mr. F. J. Coolidge 
will be associated with him. They will handle the business 
formerly handled by the Julian L. Yale Co. 

The American Car & Equipment Co., 1538 Monadnock 
block, Chicago, has announced the following changes: H. 
H. Sessions, president; C. R. Powell, vice-president; W. H. 
Horine, secretary and treasurer; B. B. Barry, general sales 
manager. Mr. I. J. Kusel has resigned as vice-president and 
disposed of his holdings in the company to Mr. H. L. Wins- 
low, formerly of Julian L. Yale & Co. 

Mr. Frank Miller, formerly engineer of the Julian L. Yale 
& Co., in charge of the sale and installation of steam heat- 
ing appliances and the Miller locomotive hot water wash out 
and refilling system for roundhouses, has become associated 
with W. L. Miller Heating Co., Railway Exchange building, 
Chicago, as sales manager. 

Mr. A. Munch, for the past eight years sales manager of 
the Northern Metallic Packing Co., of St. Paul, Minn., has 
resigned from that company, same taking effect April 1, 
1909. It is understood that Mr. Munch will take a well-earned 
vacation, after which he will become identified with a promi- 
nent supply concern. 

Horace L. Winslow, for a number of years connected with 
Julian L. Yale & Co. in general railway supply business, 
pipe engineering, etc., has opened an office at 730 Old Colony 
Bldg., Chicago, for a continuance of business along the same 
lines as heretofore handled. A corporation with $25,000 capi- 
tal is being organized and Mr. Winslow will have some of 
the men formerly connected with Julian L. Yale & Co. asso- 
ciated with him. In addition to the old lines handled by 
Julian L. Yale, now deceased, Mr. Winslow will handle the 
Clark blow-off system for removing sludge from locomo- 
tive boilers and keeping them free from scale. 

Mr. Willis C. Squire has recently been appointed district 
manager of the Central Inspection Bureau with offices in 
the Western Union Bldg.. Chicago. This bureau is equipped 
to furnish competent engineers for all classes of railway, 
bridge and builders' equipment, and makes a specialty of 
designing cars, inspecting locomotives, passenger cars and 
freight cars. It has recently completed the inspection of 
some forty-four locomotives for the Argentine government 
and is now superintending the construction of a large 
amount of freight and passenger equipment for shipment to 
China. 

The General Railway Equipment Co. has recently been 
established. This company will do a general business in 
the matter of buying, selling and handling new and rebuilt 
railroad and contractors' equipment: locomotives, coaches, 
cars, steam shovels, etc. Mr. I. J. Kusel, formerly presi- 
dent of the American Car & Equipment Co.. has taken the 
position of president and general manager, and Mr. Thomas 
C. McCalla is secretary and treasurer of the company. Their 
general offices are located at 1535 Old Colony Bldg.. Chi- 
cago, where they will be very pleased to meet their old 
friends and patrons. 

Mr. W. P. Pressinger, who recently resigned as general 
manager of the compressor department of the Chicago Pneu- 
matic Tool Co., has organized the W. P. Pressinger Co.. to 
handle the vacuum cleaning machines, both portable and 
stationary, made by the Keller Manufacturing Co.. of Phila- 
delphia, Pa., and formerly sold by the Chicago Pneumatic 
Tool Co. The new company has opened offices and sales- 
rooms at No. 1 West 34th street. New York City, and will 
establish local agencies at all distributing points throughout 
the eastern territory. 



146 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



April, 1909. 



New Literature 

"WHO MAKES WHAT"— Published by Daniel T. Mal- 
lett, 253 Broadway, New York. 300 pages, 7x10 ins. Price 
$1.00. 

This book, as its title indicates, is a directory of manufac- 
turers. And is divided into five parts as follows: Part 1 — 
Directory of wholesale hardware houses and jobbers, United 
States and Canada, with the history of each establishment; 
Part II — Directory of more than 10,000 manufacturers, ar- 
ranged alphabetically and geographically; Part III — Direc- 
tory of products, arranged alphabetically, of more than 10,000 
manufacturers; Part IV— Directory of important foreign mer- 
chants in all parts of the world; Part V — Directory of export 
commission houses and buyers in New York City. 

* * * 

PRACTICAL LESSONS IN ELECTRICITY, selected from 
the textbooks in the electrical engineering course of the American 
School of Correspondence at Armour Institute of Technology. ■ 
cloth binding, 210 pages, 6x9 ins., illustrated. Published by the 
American School of Correspondence, Chicago. 

Elements of electricity and the electric current are covered by 
L. K. Sager; electric wiring, by H. C. dishing, Jr.; storage bat- 
teries, by E. B. Crocker 

"This volume consists of four of the fifty-five regular text- 
books in the electrical engineering course of the American 
School of Correspondence at Armour Institute of Technology, 
bound together in convenient form, but not in the order usually 
studied The purpose of the volume is to give the public an op- 
portunity to judge of both the standard and the scope of the 
instruction offered, the elementary instruction being illustrated 
by the first half, and the advanced instruction by the last half, 
of the book. Although published primarily to demonstrate the 
character of the text-books of the school and representing only a 
fragmentary part of the complete electrical engineering course, yet 
it is confidently believed that this volume has in itself enough 
practical information to make it a valuable addition to the library 
of the expert electrician as well as to that of the amateur." 

FORGING, by John Lord Bacon. Published by the American 
School of Correspondence, Chicago. Cloth binding, 106 pages, 
6x9 ins., illustrated. Price,, $1.00. 

The book is a manual of practical instruction in the hammer- 
ing, working, forming and tempering of wrought iron, machine 
steel and tool steel, including details of the modern process of 
electric welding. 

The first part covers materials and tools, the second deals with 
typical forging operations and the third treats of miscellaneous 
forging processes. 

The proceedings of the thirty-ninth annual convention of 
the Master Car and Locomotive Painters' Association were 
recently issued in book form and contain valuable papers and 
discussions on questions relative to car and locomotive paint- 
ing. The secretary of the Association is A. P. Dane, B. & 

M. R. R. 

* # * 

The American Well Works, Aurora, 111., has issued a folder 
illustrating samples of several types of machines which it 
manufacturers. Drilling machines and pumping engines are 
fully described and the pamphlet will be of interest to all 

concerned with deep well work. 

* * * 

The Jeffrey Mfg. Co., Columbus, O., has recently issued 
a pamphlet which describes and illustrates several of its new 
specialties, among them being the "Jeffrey Multi-Claw" bar 
and the "Lock-Jaw" wrench. The forge and foundries de- 
partment oi the Jeffrey company is a new department, organ- 
ized to manufacture specialties of this kind, each of which 
has features of practical economy of general interest to the 
trade. 



Instruction Pamphlet No. 5030, published by the Westing- 
house Air Brake Co., Pittsburg, Pa., deals with the type 
"K" triple valve. As this type of valve is much ahead of 
the old style freight triple valves it will soon be adopted for 
freight equipments, and master mechanics and engineers will 
do well to secure the book and make themselves acquainted 
with the valve's action. 

* * * 

A book which is very interesting to all iron and steel 
workers has been recently issued by the Carpenter Steel Co., 
Reading, Pa. Color tables for tempering and hardening, with 
instructions, are an interesting feature. There is a large 
amount of general information and a price list of iron and 
steel shapes is included. 

* * * 

A recent publication issued by the McKeen Motor Car 
Co., of Omaha, Neb., presents some interesting particulars 
of the increasing popularity of gasoline motor cars with 
mechanical transmission, as made by that company. This 
type is now in use on the LTnion Pacific R. R., Central Pacific 
R. R., San Diego, Cuyamaca & Eastern Ry., Illinois Central 
R. R., Galveston, Houston & San Diego Ry., Erie R. R., 
Chicago & Northwestern Ry., Los Angeles & San Diego 
Beach Ry. and the Silver Peak (Nevada) Ry. McKeen cars 
have been in practical daily service for four years, during 
which time 36 have been built and are in operation. Cali- 
fornia heads the list with 151 cars, and another will shortly 
be sent to the Los Angeles & San Diego Beach Ry. of that 
state. Sixty cars are now under way at the shops of the 
company. Five of these new cars are 70 ft. long, have a 
seating capacity of 105 passengers, and each is being built to 
take the place of a steam locomotive and two or three cars. 
The regular 55-ft. car, which seats 75 passengers, will gen- 
erally accommodate the traffic usually handled by a steam 
locomotive and one or two cars. 



Personals 

W. F. Ackerman has been appointed superintendent of the 
Haveleck shops of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy. 

W. E. Symons has been appointed superintendent of mo- 
tive power of the Chicago Great Western, with office in St. 
Paul, Minn. 

Geo. W. Robb has received the appointment of assistant 
master mechanic of the Grand Trunk Pacific. 

Herman Rhoda, master mechanic of the Delaware, & East- 
ern, has resigned. 

C. F. Buttress has been appointed master mechanic of the 
Hoton Interurban, the position being left vacant by the 
resignation of H. J. Kohlstedt. 

James Blair has been appointed mechanical foreman of 
the Intercolonial. 

H. L. Mackenzie has been promoted to the position of 
general locomotive foreman of the Intercolonial. 

A. B. McDonald has been appointed general car foreman 
of the Intercolonial. 

N. W. Maine has been appointed master mechanic of the 
Montana Railroad. 

J. P. Gannon, master mechanic of the New York, New 
Haven & Hartford, has retired. 

Samuel Smith has been appointed master mechanic of the 
Nevada Northern as successor to S. F. Deckelman, retired. 

O. K. Cameron and E. M. Sweetman have been appointed 
master mechanics of the Northern Alabama. 

A. Fortin has received the appointment of master mechanic 
of the Quebec Ry. Mr. Fortin succeeds Mr. W. Langford, 
who has resigned. 

C. B. Smyth, assistant mechanical engineer of the Union 
Pacific, has resigned to accept the position of superintend- 
ent of the McKeen Motor Car Co., Omaha, Neb. 



April, 1909. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



147 




W. E. Symons. 




W. F. Ackerman. 



T. A. Lawes has been appointed master mechanic of the 
Southern Indiana with office at Bedford, Ind. He succeds 
G. A. Gallagher. 

G. E. Johnson has been appointed master mechanic of the 
Wymore division of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy 
with office at Wymore, Neb. He succeeds A. B. Pirie, as- 
signed to other duties. 

W. B. Embury has been appointed master mechanic of 
the Oklahoma & Pan Handle division of the Chicago, Rock 
Island & Pacific, succeeding W. J. Monroe, resigned. 

A. B. Vaughan, mechanical foreman of the Lexington, 
Ky., shops of the Louisville & Nashville, has retired after 
50 years of continuous service with the company. He is the 
second oldest employee connected with the system. Mr. W. 
B. Blue, engine inspector, will succeed Mr. Vaughan. 

James Bleasdale, of Wilmerding, foreman of department 
D, of the Westinghouse Air Brake Co., has resigned to ac- 
cept a position with the motive power department of the 
Baltimore & Ohio. 




A. B. Pirie. 



The office of Superintendent of Motive Power, Second division, 
of the Atlantic Coast Line, has been moved from Savannah, Ga., 
to Waycross. Mr. N. E. Sprowl, master mechanic at Savannah, 
has been appointed shop superintendent at Waycross, and Mr 
W. J. Pamplin has been appointed master mechanic of the Sa- 
vannah and Waycross districts, with office at Waycross, and jur- 
isdiction over the forces at Savannah, Ga., Jesup, Brunswick 
Thomasville, Albany and Waycross, including enginemen and fire- 
men assigned to these districts. 

]\|r. Edgar B. Thompson, assistant superintendent motive power 
and machinery of the Chicago & North Western, has been ap- 
pointed superintendent of motive power and machinery of the 
Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha, succeeding Mr. John 
J. Ellis, retired on account of having reached the age limit pro- 
vided for in the pension system of the company. Mr. E. W 
Pratt, master mechanic of the lines west of the Missouri river, 
at Missouri Valley, Iowa, succeeds Mr. Thompson. Mr. S. C 
Graham, master mechanic of the Ashland division, at Kaukauna, 
Wis., succeeds Mr. Pratt. Mr. William Hutchinson, master me- 
chanic of the Iowa and Minnesota division, at Mason City, Iowa, 
succeeds Mr. Graham and Mr. F. C. Fosdick, assistant division 
master mechanic, at Chicago, succeeds Mr. Hutchinson. 

Mr. V. T Bartram of the Temiskaming & Northern Ontario 
Railway Commission, having resigned, position of purchasing 
agent is abolished. All matters pertaining to the purchasing 
department are now in charge of Mr. W. A. Graham, store- 
keeper. 

Mr. D. Gallaudet, master mechanic of the Chicago division of 
the Baltimore & Ohio, has been appointed master mechanic of 
the Grand Junction Terminal of the Denver & Rio Grande, with 
jurisdiction over the Second district, Second division; also that 
portion of the Second district of the Third divison between Grand 
Junction, Somerset and Montrose, with office at Grand Junc- 
tion, Colo. 

Mr. E. A. Walton, division superintendent of motive power of 
the New York Central at Albany, has retired, and his duties have 
been assumed temporarily by Mr. Daniel R. MacBain. assistant 
superintendent of motive power at that place. 

Mr. E. W. Pratt, master mechanic of the Chicago & North- 
western in charge of the lines west of the Missouri river, has 
been appointed assistant superintendent of motive power and ma- 
chinery with headquarters at Chicago, to succeed Mr. E. B. 
Thompson, who has been appointed superintendent of the Chicago, 
St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha, with headquarters at St. Paul, 
Minn. 



148 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



April, 1909. 



Railway Mechanical Patents Issued During March 



Lateral motion truck, 913,333 — Edwin C. Washburn, Minne- 
apolis, Minn. 
Dump car, 913,357 and 913,358— Argyle Campbell, Chicago, 

111. 
Railroad journal box, 913,360 — Edward G. Caughey, Sewick- 

ley, Pa. 
Car axle box lid, 913,371 — Harry C. Gamage, New York, 

N. Y. 
Locomotive pilot, 913,391 — Walter E. Justis and Alexander 

V. Littrell, Roanoke, Va. 
Car roof, 913,412 — -James Macker, Hammond, Ind. 
Waste supporting attachment for journal boxes, 913,458 — ■ 

Robert A. Billingham, St. Marys, Pa. 
Reinforced truck frame, 913,602 — Leonard G. Woods, Pitts- 
burg, Pa. 
Locomotive tender truck, 913,609 — William L. Austin, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 
Car door hanger, 914,411 — Joel E. Hill, Lexington, N. C. 
Track sander, 914,425— Charles W. G. King, Philadelphia, 

Pa. 
Engineer's alarm, 914,445 — Edward McClintock, St. Paul, 

Minn. 
Automatic coupling for air brakes, 914,512 — George Ripma, 

Grand Rapids, Mich. 
Train controlling mechanism, 914,521 — John G. Schlee, Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio. 
Lubricating device for journal boxes, 914,524 — James G 

Smith, Covington, Ky. 
Brake beam, 914,530 — Robert H. Thompson, Denver, Colo. 
Draft gear for railway cars, 914,665 — William R. Matthews, 

Pa. 
Wall pocket for sleeping car berths, 914,701 — Stewart W. 

Clark, Cincinnati, Ohio. * 

End construction for cars, 914,726 and 914,727 — Bartholomew 

Julien and William Point, Omaha, Neb. 
Convertible amusement and dining car, 914,748 — Chismore 

H. Packard, New York, N. Y. 
Passenger cas, 914,751 — Edward T. Robinson, St. Louis, Mo. 
Drop door structure for cars, 914,786 — Francis W. Bradley, 

McKees Rocks, Pa. 
Velocipede, 914,845 — Merrill L. Jenkins, Harvey, 111. 
Bogie for railway and the like vehicles, 914,889 — Alexander 

Spencer, London, Eng. 
Car coupling, 914,895 — Samuel Sznutchko and Ellerslie W. 

Stevenson, Oakdale, Pa. 
Car ventilator, 914,924 — Samuel C. Carroll, Dallas, Texas. 
Automatic car stop, 914,938 — John J. Fleming, Carrick, Pa. 
Fender, 914,985 — John W. Sprint, Boyce, Va. 
Draft gear for cars, 914,990 — Nicholas H. Surdenik, Chicago, 

111. 
Grain car door, 914,994 — Daniel W. Thomas, New Holland, 

111. 
Axle box for railway cars, 915,011 — John B. Arrington, 

Grove Hill, N. C. 
Means to prevent overturning of locomotive bells, 915,023 — 

Clarence H. Foster, Pittsburg, Pa. 
Braking device, 915,031 — Van Buren Lamb, New Haven, 

Conn. 
System of washing and filling locomotive boilers, 12,925 — 

Spencer Otis and William White, Chicago, 111. (Reissued.) 
Mail carrier support, 915,102 — Alvin A. Maurer, Dalton, Ohio. 
Brake shoe, 915,119— Charles S. Shallenberger, St. Louis, Mo. 
Air brake apparatus, 915,155 — Henry F. Bickel, New York 

City. 
Car dumping device, 915,179 — Alfred E. Hoermann, New 

York City. 
Outside car roof, 915,205— Peter H. Murphy, St. Louis, Mo. 



Means for closing the entrances to and exits from passenger 
cars, 915,207— Joseph W. McMillan, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Car lamp bracket, 915,216 — John Rausch, Huntington, Ind. 

Draft gear mechanism, 915,272 — David F. Crawford, Pitts- 
burg, Pa. 

Car coupling device, 915,341 — Richard D. Gallagher, Jr., New 
York City. 

Outside car roof, 915,350 and 915,352 — John J. Hoffman, St. 
Louis, Mo. 

Running board saddle, 915,351 — John J. Hoffman, St. Louis, 
Mo. 

Turn table, 915,360 — Fremont Kobler, Chihuahua, Mexico. 

Draw bar and coupling, etc., 915,403 — David A. York, 
Northgrove, Ind. 

Brake shoe, 915,408 — George M. Beard, Hanover, Pa. 

Dump car, 915,419 — Charles H. Doty and William L. Burner, 
Columbus, Ohio. 

Mail bag delivering apparatus, 915,439 — Frank H. Hougland, 
St. Louis, Mo. 

Door for grain cars, 915,566 — Lillie Dimick, South Whitley, 
Ind. 

Mail bag catcher, 915,652 — Oscar O. Ayres, Olathe, Kan. 

Air brake system, 915,654 — John S. Barner, Albany, N. Y. 

Railway draw bar, 915,722 — Harry L. Allen, Alliance, O. 

Air brake triple valve, 915,723 — Walter M. Austin, Swiss- 
vale, Pa. 

Fluid pressure air brake, 915,724 — Walter M. Austin, Swiss- 
vale, Pa. 

Folding grain door, 915,739 — Joseph E. Chantler, Lamar, 
Colo. 

Dump car, 915,800 — Frederick Seaberg, Chicago, 111. 

Car pipe line coupling, 915,894 — Peter A. Senecal, Winnipeg, 
Manitoba, Canada. 

Operating mechanism for train pipe valves, 915,907 — Joseph 
M. Towne, East Orange, and Elmer E. Allbee, Arlington, 
N. J. 

Train signal system, 916,038 — Horace H. Sharpe and Willis 
R. Vanaman, Atlantic City, N. J. 

Door for passenger cars, 916,045 — Soren R. Skov and Ter- 
ence Scullin, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Locomotive ash pan, 916,150 — Taylor W. Heintzelman, Sac- 
ramento, Cal. 

Car coupling, 916,246 — Daniel Alford, Cuba, 111. 

Nut and bolt lock, 916,285 — Robert L. Elwood, Sr., and Rob- 
ert L. Elwood, Jr., Monongahela, Pa. 

Device for preventing accidents on railways, 916,342 — Jacob 
M. Long, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Passenger registering apparatus for cars, 916,359 — James J. 
McDermott, Clifton Heights, Pa. 

Car axle clutch, 916,377 — Ernest C. Smith, Hinckley, 111. 

End gate for mine cars, 916,401 — Frank C. Greene, Cleve- 
land, O. 

Railway car control apparatus, 916,405 — John B. Atwood, 
Allegheny, Pa. 

Brake hanger, 916,453— Charles H. Knobbs, Elizabeth, N. J. 

Wick adjusting device for railroad lanterns, 916,534 — Pontus 
H. Conradson, Franklin, Pa. 

Location indicator for cars, 916,549 — Emanuel Hagstrom 
and Gustaf Hagstrom, Lindsborg, Kans. 

Locomotive engine track, 916,556— Clarence H. Howard, St. 
Louis, Mo. 

Car underframe, 916,586— Harry M. Pflanger, St. Louis, Mo. 

Dump car, 916,592 — Herman Pries, Michigan City, Ind. 

Brake for railway vehicles, 916,614— James E. Schumacher, 
York, England. 

Railway crossing, 916,645— Powell O. Adams, Cameron, Tex. 



Mav. 1909. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



149 



ESTABLISHED 1878. 

Entered as Second-Class Matter June 18, 1895, at the Post Office 
at Chicago, Illinois, Under Act of March 3, 1879. 



Vol. XXXIII 



Chicago, May, 1909 



No. 5 



CONTENTS. 

Special Train for Conventions 149 

Proposed Train for President 149 

The Idle Car Record 149 

Raising Wrecks at Panama 149 

General Foremen's Ass'n 149 

Mallet Articulated Locomotives, S. P. Co 150, 168 

Development of Mechanical Engineering Course at 

Wisconsin 153 

Standard Construction of Terminals, A., T. & S. F. 

Ry 155, 1G9 

Development of Air Brakes for Railroads 158, 168 

Editorial — 

Development of Air Brakes 168 

Heaviest Engines Built 168 

Illinois Central R. R. Boiler Shop 169 

Standard Construction of Terminals 169 

Danger of Contact with Electricity 169 

Experiences of a Worker at Panama 169 

Ingenious Rod Packing Machine 171 

Piece or Premium System of Organization 171 

Consolidation and Pacific Type Locomotives, C. & A. R. R.173 
Influence of Ash on Value of Coal in Locomotive Service. 176 

Developments in Bituminous Gas Producers 177 

New Metallic Rod Packing 178 

Repairing Steel Car Plates in Position 178 

Government Specifications for Coal 178 

A Handy Vise 179 

Severe Test of Motive Power on Raton Mountain 179 

New Reversed Cylinder Press 181 

New Literature 181 

Trade Notes 182 

Personals 183 

Railway Mechanical Patents 184 

Special Train for the Conventions 

In accordance with its usual custom, the Pennsylvania 
Lines will furnish an electric-lighted train, to be known as 
the "M. M. Special," for accommodation of the members of 
the American Railway Master Mechanics' Association and 
the Master Car Builders' Association and their friends. The 
special will leave Chicago at 5:30 p. m., Monday, June 14th, 
and arrive at Atlantic City about 5:00 the following evening 
without change, and will be composed of modern Pullman 
sleepers, observation car, library smoker and two Pennsyl- 
vania dining cars. The fare for this occasion will be $26.00 
for the round trip, tickets being on sale from June 1st with 
thirty-day return limit, which will permit of stop over at 
Philadelphia, Washington, Baltimore and Pittsburg, return- 
ing, but should there be a desire to take advantage of stop- 
ping at Washington or Baltimore, it will be necessary to 
so state at time of purchasing tickets. 



Proposed Train for the President 

A railway train, consisting of a baggage car and a private 
car for the exclusive use of the president, will be provided by 
the government if congress enacts into a law a bill introduced 
by Representative Dwight, of New York. The measure pro- 
vides that the presidential train shall cost not to exceed $60,000, 
and in addition the sum of $25,000 is made available for the 
yearly traveling expenses of the president: "I believe this bill 



will he passed al the current session," said Mr Dwight. 
"Presidenl Taft has planned to take extensive 'rip- through- 
out, the country during the ix-xl few years. He want-, to see 
the people and the people ivanl to see him. Under present cir- 
cumstances the presidenl is forced to paj his own traveling 
expenses. It is my belief that this expense should be borne 
by the government. The president should not only he pro 
vided with a train, but funds should be allowed with which to 
operate it." 



The Idle Car Record 

The car efficiency committee of the American Railway As- 
sociation, in a bulletin giving a summary of surpluses and 
shortages from February 19 to April 11, 9tates that th< total 
number of idle cars on the date last named was 296,663, an in- 
crease of 63. There was an increase of 6,497. in box cars, and 
a decrease of 5,564 in coal and gondola cars. The decrease in 
flat cars is considerable, due to drafts on this class of equip- 
ment for construction purposes and in quarry trade. Th' 
subs by groups differ from the grand total. 



Raising Wrecks at Panama 

The hull of a Belgian type ladder dredge, which was aban- 
doned by the French in the Chagres River at San Pablo. 
Panama, has been cut into four parts, loaded upon cars, and 
will be hauled to La Boca. There the hull will be put to- 
gether again and such repairs made as are necessary to put 
it in condition for service as the float of a marine derrick. 
A crane with machinery will be installed capable of lifting 
25 tons. The chief use to which it is intended to put this 
floating crane is in removing old wrecks from the Canal 
prism between Miraflores and La Boca. These wrecks are 
old French dredges and other shipping sunk in the channel 
of the French canal near the crossing of the Rio Grande, or 
that had been laid up on the banks of the Rio Grande ana had 
floated into the Canal at high water. Those that lie directly 
in the prism of the Canal will be blown up with dynamite and 
loaded upon barges to be towed out to the sea and sunk in 
deep water. — Canal Record. 



General Foremen's Association 

The International Railway General Foremen's Associa- 
tion will meet in Chicago, at the Lexington Hotel, June 1 to 
5 exclusive. The headquarters will be established in the 
"Red Parlor," immediately off the parlor rotunda on first 
floor above the office. Members and guests are requested 
to register immediately upon arrival and receive a badge 
and program. The headquarters and general arrangements 
of the convention will be in charge of the executive com- 
mittee of the railway supplymen. 

The executive committee consists of: Frank Raymond 
Spear, chairman; Frank Baskerfield, Charles P. Storrs, Clif- 
ford A. Nathan, J. Will Johnson, secretary-treasurer. 

Visiting members are requested to communicate with the 
hotel company direct for accommodations. Rates to mem- 
bers: Rooms without bath, $1.00 to $2.00 per day, single: 
$2.00 to $3.00 per day, double. Outside rooms with bath. 
$2.00 to $3.00 per day, single; $3.00 to $4.00 per day. double. 

The meetings will begin each day at 9 A. M. and 2 P. M. 
Topical discussions will be made special order of business 
the last forty-five minutes of the morning session each day. 
The meetings will adjourn at 2:30 P. M. on the second day 
of the convention and the members will visit the railway ap- 
pliance exhibition that will be on the parlor rotunda floor 
of the hotel. 

Committees will report on the following subjects: Air 
brake equipment. Coaling of engines with mechanical de- 
vices, How to obtain the greatest despatch in handling en- 



150 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



May, 1909. 



gines through terminals, Installation of hot water washout 
and filling system, Best method of getting work through 
shop with economy and dispatch, Most approved type of 
ash pan conforming with requirements of Interstate Com- 
merce Commission. 

Topical Discussion. 

1. Best method of arriving at cost of repairs, to be 
introduced by W. S. Cozad, Erie R. R., Meadville, Pa., fol- 
lowed by Mr. H. D. Kelly, C. & N. W., Chicago, 111. 

2. What class of repairs should be made at outside 
points where facilities are limited to be introduced by F. W. 
Rhuark, B. & O., Halloway, Ohio, followed by Mr. S. B. 
Clay, Frisco Ry., Ft. Smith, Ark. 

3. The use of commercial gas for heating purposes in 
modern shop plants in place of gasoline or crude oil to be 
introduced by J. N. Davis, C. & S., Denver, Colo., followed 
by T. L. Drew, B. & O., Connellsville, Pa. 



4. The use of oxy-actetylene process of welding fireboxes, 
boiler sheets, frames and other locomotive work. 

5. The advantage, if any, which is derived from the use 
of the wide firebox over its predecessor, the narrow firebox, 
whether the wide firebox should be designed with a wide 
or narrow water leg and what should be done to overcome 
the present tendency to crack sheets under short periods 
of service, to be introduced by Lee R. Laizure, Erie, Hor- 
nell, N. Y., followed by P. F. Flavin, vice-president Inter- 
national Railway Boilermakers' Ass'n, St. Louis, Mo. 

6. The location of the point of water delivery in the 
boiler, whether it would not be an advantage to deliver water 
at a point of six to eight inches above the mud ring just in 
the rear of the throat sheet than to deliver in the front 
end of the boiler near the flues, to be introduced by W. H. 
Kidneigh, Santa Fe, La Junta, Colo., followed by H. J. 
Carrier, Erie R. R., Huntington, Ind. 



Mallet Articulated Compound Locomotives for the 

Southern Pacific Co. 

The Heaviest Locomotives in the World 



The Baldwin Locomotive Works have recently completed 
for the Southern Pacific Company, two Mallet articulated 
compound locomotives, which are undoubtedly the heaviest 
engines thus far built for any railway. These locomotives 
have eight coupled wheels in each group, and in accordance 
with the previous practice of the builders, are equipped with 
two wheeled leading and trailing trucks. The constructive 
details embody various features of special interest. The 
calculated tractive force- of this design is 94,640 lbs. 

The boiler is straight topped, 84 ins. in diameter, and is 
equipped for oil burning. The fire tubes are 21 ft. long; 
they terminate in a combustion chamber, 54 ins. long, in 
front of which is a feed water heater 63 ins. in length. The 
tubes in the feed water heater are set in alinement with the 
fire tubes, and are equal to them in number and diameter. 
Two non-lifting injectors are provided, and they discharge, 
right and left, into the feed water heater chamber, which is 
kept constantly filled with water. The feed passes out 
through the top of the chamber, and is then delivered into 
the main barrel through two checks, placed right and left 
immediately back of the front tube sheet. A superheater, 
placed in the piping system between the high and low pres- 
sure cylinders, is located in the smokebox. The combustion 
chamber is provided with a man-hole, so that the tube ends 
are readily accessible. 

In order to facilitate repairs, the boiler is provided with a 
separable joint, which is placed at the rear end of the com- 
bustion chamber. The joint is effected by riveting a ring- 



to each boiler section, and uniting the rings by 42 bolts, 
1J4 ins. in diameter. The rings are butted with a V-shaped 
fit. The waist-bearer under the combustion chamber is 
bolted into place, while the front waist-bearer and the high- 
pressure cylinder saddle, are riveted to the shell. The longi- 
tudinal seams in the barrel are placed on the top center line, 
and have "diamond" welt strips inside. Flexible stay bolts 
are liberally used in the sides, back and throat of the fire- 
box, while the crown sheet is stayed with T irons hung on 
expansion links, in accordance with Associated Lines practice. 
The dome, which is of cast steel, is placed immediately 
above the high-pressure cylinders, and the arrangement of 
the throttle and live steam pipes is similar to that used on 
heavy articulated locomotives previously built at these works. 
The exhaust from the high-pressure cylinders passes into 
two pipes which lead to the superheater. These pipes are 
of steel, and each is fitted, at the back end, with a slip joint 
made tight with a packed gland. The steam enters the super- 
heater at the front end of the device and passes successively 
through six groups of tubes. It then enters a T-connection, 
from which it is conveyed to the low-pressure cylinders 
through a single pipe having a ball joint at each end and a 
slip joint in the middle. Each low pressure cylinder is cast 
separately, and is bolted to a large steel box casting, which 
is suitably cored out to convey the steam from the receiver 
pipe to a pair of short elbow pipes, making final connection 
with the low-pressure steam chests. The distribution is here 
controlled by 15-in. piston valves which are duplicates of 
those used on the high-pressure cylinders. The final exhaust 




Elevation of Articulated Compound Locomotive, Southern Pacific Co. 



May, 1000. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



151 



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New Articulated Locomotive, Southern Pacific Co. 



passes out through the front of each casting, into a T-con- 
nection, which communicates with a flexible pipe leading to 
the smoke-box. The slip joint in this pipe is made tight by 
means of snap rings and leakage grooves. At the smoke-box 
end, the ball joint is fitted with a coiled spring which holds 
the pipe against its seat. The valves for both the high and 
low-pressure engines are set with a travel of 5^4 ins. and a 
lead of 5-16 ins. The steam tap is 1 in. and the exhaust 
clearance 1-16 in. Reversing is effected by the Raggonet 
power gear, which is operated by compressed air and is self- 
locking. The gear is directly connected to the high-pressure 
reverse shaft. The reach rod connection to the low-pressure 
reverse shaft, is placed on the center line of the engine and 
is fitted with a universal joint located immediately above the 
articulated frame connection. The joint is guided between 
the inner walls of the high-pressure cylinder saddle. In this 
way the reversing connections are simplified, and when the 
engine is on a curve the angular position of the reach rod 
has practically no effect on the forward valve motion. This 
arrangement has been made the subject of a patent. 

One of the locomotives is equipped with vanadium steel 
frames and the other with frames of carbon steel. The con- 
nection between the frames is single, and is effected by a cast 
steel radius-bar which also constitutes a most substantial tie 
for the rear end of the front frames. The fulcrum pin is 7 
ins. in diameter; it is inserted from below, and held in place 
by a plate supported on a cast steel cross tie, which spans 
the bottom rails of the rear frames between the high-pressure 
cylinders. The weights on the two groups of wheels are 
equalized by contact between the front and rear frames, no 
equalizing bolts being used in this design. 

The front frames are stopped immediately ahead of the 
leading driving pedestals, where they are securely bolted to 
a large steel box casting, previously mentioned, which sup- 
ports the low-pressure cylinders. The cylinders are keyed 
at the front only. The bumper beam is of cast steel, 10 ft. 
long, while the maximum width over the low-pressure cylin- 
ders is approximately 11 ft. The boiler is supported on the 
front frames by two bearings, both of which have their sliding 



surfaces normally in contact. The front bearing carries the 
centering springs, and the wear is taken, in each case, by a 
cast iron shoe 2 ins. thick. Both bearings are fitted with 
clamps to keep the frames from falling away when the boiler 
is lifted. 

This locomotive naturally embodies in its design, many 
smaller details of interest. The cylinder and steam chest 
heads are of cast steel, the low-pressure heads being dished 
and strongly ribbed. The low-pressure pistons are also 
dished; they have cast steel bodies, and the snap rings are 
carried by a cast iron ring which is bolted to the body and 
widened on the bottom. The links for the low-pressure 
valve gear are placed outside the second pair of driving 
wheels, and are supported by cast steel bearers which span 
the distance between the guide yoke and the front waist 
bearer. The low-pressure valve stems are connected to long 
cross-heads, which slide in brackets bolted to the top guide 
bars. The locomotive is readily separable, as the joint in 
the boiler is but a short distance ahead of the articulated 
frame connection, and all pipes which pass the joint are 
provided with unions. The separable feature was tested by 
the builders, and proved entirely feasible. Sand is delivered 
to the rear group of driving wheels from a box placed on 
top of the boiler, and to the front group from two boxes 
placed right and left ahead of the leading drivers. 

The tender is designed in accordance with Associated Lines 
standards, and is fitted with a 9,000 gallon water-bottom 
tank. The capacity for oil is 2,850 gallons. 

The detail parts of this locomotive have, where possible, 
been designed in accordance with existing standards of the 
Associated Lines. The engine is practically equivalent, in 
weight and capacity, to two large Consolidation type locomo- 
tives, and in spite of its great size, presents a pleasing and 
symmetrical appearance. The engine and tender trucks are 
equipped with "Standard" forged and rolled steel wheels. 

The principal dimensions and weights are as follows: 

Gauge 4x8J4 in. 

Cylinders 26 and 40 x 30 in. 

Valves Balanced Piston. 




Cross Sections of the Articulated Locomotive. 



152 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



May, 1909. 



i\M§M 




Longitudinal Section of Fire Box. 

Boiler — 

Type Straight 

Material Steel 

Diameter 84 in. 

Thickness of sheets ii and §£ in. 

Working pressure 200 lbs. 

Fuel Oil 

Staying T-crown bars 

Fire Box- — 

Material Steel 

Length 126 in. 

Width 78I A in - 

Depth, front 75^ in. 

Depth, back 70J4 in. 

Thickness of sheets, sides H i n - 

Thickness of sheets, back Y% in. 

Thickness of sheets, crown Y% in. 

Thickness of tube ! J4 in. 

Water Space — 

Front, sides and back, each 5 in. 

Fire Tubes — 

Material Steel 

Thickness • ■ • 0.125 in. 

Number 401 

Diameter 2*4 in. 

Length 21 ft. in. 

Feed Water Heater Tubes — 

Number 401 

Diameter 2J4 in. 

Length 5 ft. 3 in. 





Section of Boiler Showing Combustion Chamber. 

Heating Surface — 

Fire box 232 sq. ft. 

Fire tubes ' 4941 sq. ft. 

Feed-water Heater-tubes 1,220 sq. ft. 

Smoke-box — Superheater 655 sq. ft. 

Total '." 6,393 sq. ft. 

Grate area 68.4 sq. ft. 

Driving Wheels — 

Outside diameter 57 in- 
Inside diameter 50 m. 

Journals, main 11x12 in. 

Journals, others 10x12 in. 

Engine Truck Wheels — 

Front diameter 30^ in. 

Journals : 6x10 in. 

Back diameter 30^ in. 

Journals 6x10 in. 

Wheel Base- 
Driving 39 ft. 4 in. 

Rigid , 15 ft- in. 

Total engine 56 ft. 7 in. 

Total engine and tender 83 ft. 6 in. 

Weight- 
On driving wheels 394,150 lbs. 

On truck, front 14,500 lbs. 

On truck, back 17,250 lbs. 



7- Iron 3910s per ir 




Jointed Exhaust Pipe. 



Fire Box Cross Section. 



May, 1909. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



153 



Section AB 



Cylinder ripoa 
Sruas 




I" Pipe tsp 



High Pressure Cylinder. 

Total engine 425,900 lbs. 

Total engine and tender about 600,000 lbs. 

Tender — 

Wheels No. 8 

Wheels, diameter 33 Y 2 ins. 

Journals 6 ins. x 11 ins. 

Tank capacity, water 9,000 gals. 

Tank capacity oil 2,850 gals. 

Service Freight 



Developement of the Mechanical Engineer- 
ing Course at Wisconsin 

By H. J. Thorkelson 

The history of the development of the present system of 
courses given in modern engineering schools is very closely 
identified with the industrial growth of the country. It is 
not a great many years since all engineering works of any 
considerable magnitude required government support, and 
the engineers in charge were usually men who had been edu- 
cated at the expense of the government. As civilization 
progressed, such undertakings were gradually assumed in 
part at least by private individuals, and the engineers in 
charge of these private enterprises were called Civil Engi- 
neers to distinguish them from the government engineers. 
As the duties and responsibilities assumed by Civil Engineers 
became more and more diverse, the necessity for different 
lines of study became evident, and special courses were 
given to those preparing to enter engineering fields in which 
comparatively little attention was paid to the construction 
of highways, bridges and aqueducts, and more was given to 
the development and application of the so-called mechanical 
powers. 

Engineers engaged in this line of work were called Me- 
chanical Engineers and still later, as this field of usefulness 
was further developed, Electrical, Chemical, Electro-Chemi- 
cal and General Engineering courses have been established 
in many of our Engineering Colleges. 




Low Pressure Cylinder. 

Many educators have felt that this division has been car- 
ried to an extreme, and some colleges have recently reduced 
the number of kinds of degrees given, and are paying more 
attention to those studies which are fundamental to all engi- 
neering activities, realizing that at best they are equipping 
not engineers but men who will later, it is hoped, develop 
into engineers of the highest type. 

In technical education, as in other industrial activities, 
Germany leads, and the first schools in existence were 
opened there by the government for educating engineers. 
These were in reality at the beginning only elementary in- 
dustrial or building schools. This type of school, however, 
formed the basis for the present high grade Technische 
Hochschule, the first being one founded at Berlin in 1799 
and followed in Europe by many similar schools in Ger- 
many, Austria, Switzerland and other European countries. 
The wisdom of the adoption of this system of technical edu- 
cation has been demonstrated by the remarkable activity of 
these countries in industrial fields. 

In the United States the first technical engineering school 
was founded in 1824 at Troy, New York. This, the Renn- 
selaer Polytechnic Institute, was followed in 1846 and 1847 




Radius Bar Cross Tie. 



154 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



May, 1909. 



by the Lawrence and Sheffield scientific schools. Later, 
schools were founded at other eastern points, the most im- 
portant one being the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 
which was founded in 1861. 

The passage of the Morrill land grant in 1862 resulted in 
the formation of agricultural and engineering schools in 
almost every state of the Union. 

In Wisconsin, an examination of the alumni and faculty 
directory shows the first appointment of an engineering in- 
structor in 1857, Mr. Thomas B. Coryell, serving for a year 
as Instructor in Surveying and Civil Engineering. In 1875 
Mr. Allan D. Conover, who is now Chairman of the State 
Board of Control, was appointed assistant in civil engineer- 
ing, and his promotion in 1879 to the position of Professor 
of Civil and Mechanical Engineering may well be consid- 
ered the beginning of our present Mechanical Engineering 
course. The appointment of Mr. Conover was followed in 
1877 by the appointment of the late C. I. King as Superin- 
tendent of machine shops and Instructor in practical me- 
chanics, and in 1879, the late Storm Bull was appointed In- 
structor in Engineering. He was promoted in 1885 to the 




New Round House at Richmond, Cal. 

increased, and the present enrollment indicates that the fu- 
ture growth of the Mechanical Course will be even more 
rapid than the past. 

During this period of gradual development many changes 
have been made from time to time in the studies required 
for graduation. It is interesting to note that the important 
expositions of the world have been largely responsible for 
the early changes in the courses offered in the various engi- 
neering colleges. This is particularly true of such expo- 
sitions as the one at London, 1851, that at Philadelphia in 
1876, and still later the Chicago exposition in 1893. 




Longitudinal Section of Boiler. 



position of Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering, 
and from that time until his death in 1907 he was the prac- 
tical head of the Mechanical Engineering Department. 

In 1899 Professor J. B. Johnson was appointed as the first 
Dean of the College, and since that time the growth of the 
College has been remarkable. The first alumni to be credited 
as graduating from the engineering department were of the 
class of 1871, but strictly speaking were in reality graduates 
of the College of Letters and Science. The first graduate to 
receive the degree of Bachelor of Science, Mechanical Eng- 
neering Course, is the late Mr. Frank Challoner, who grad- 
uated in 1876. This degree was not conferred again until 
1881, when Mr. J. N. Sanborn, now master mechanic of the 
Texas Southern Railway, received his degree. From that 
time on the number of graduates has srowly but gradually 




New Round House at San Bernardino, Cal. 



At Madison many new courses have been added year by 
year, and the standards required for entrance and for gradua- 
tion have gradually been raised. The grade of instruction 
has also been improved, this improvement being brought 
about by the general policy of the University in endeavoring 
to secure strong men of national reputation as the heads of 
departments. 

Among comparatively recent changes in the faculty may 
be mentioned the appointment of D. W. Mead, of Chicago, 
as head of the Department of Hydraulics. This change has 
resulted in considerable improvement in the method of pre- 
senting this subject to the students of the mechanical and 
other courses, and in the construction of a hydraulic labora- 
tory, with an equipment that is unexcelled. Mr. J. C. Steen, 
who was for many years identified with the General Electric 
Company, has come from their Lynn, Mass., factory to 
take charge of the University shops, whose control is now 
in the Department of Machine Design. 

The most recent change has been the appointment of 
Professor C. C. Thomas, of Cornell, to fill the position ren- 
dered vacant by the death of the late Professor Storm Bull. 
Professor Thomas is an authority on the subject of Steam 
Turbines and has invented and perfected the steam calorim- 
eter which bears his name. His investigations on the sub- 
ject of the specific heat of superheated steam have been im- 
mensely valuable to the engineering profession, and com- 
ing as he does with years of experience as a teacher and in- 
vestigator, his appointment will add a great deal to the 
strength of our Faculty. 

A number of very important changes have recently been 
made in the requirements for graduation. In the last three 
years the work given in the shop has been greatly modified, 
and students are now working under conditions that more 
nearly approach actual commercial requirements. For ex- 



Mav. 1909. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



155 



ample., in lathe practice students are required to turn out 
work which must be up to standard, limit gauges being used 
in checking. The shop equipment has been greatly increased 
by turret lathes and milling machines of the latest type. 

Perhaps the most important recent change has been the 
reduction of the number of fifths given. It has been felt 
that the requirements of the sophomore year were more se- 
vere than those of other years, and all courses in engineering 
for the second year have been reduced by the elimination of 
sophomore language. 

In the junior year the course of valve gears, which has 
been required for a number of years, will be dropped this 
year for the first time. Some work will be given in valve 
gears, but this will only serve as part of a larger course 
covering boilers, engines, heaters and all the essentials of a 
steam power plant. In the senior year the course in steam 
engine design is no longer a required course. Last year a 
course called commercial mechanical engineering was started 
for the first time, and the results seem to warrant more 
stress being laid on the commercial point of view. In this 
course, which is given throughout the year, lectures are 
given on the subjects of patents, shop organization and 
power plant, design and operation, these lectures being given 
bj r several different members of the University Faculty. This 
work is accompanied by problems and drafting room work 
together with considerable computation in estimating costs 
of manufacture and in appraising the value of plants in exis- 
tence. A new course in computing the more important parts 
of steam engines, steam turbines, gas engines and producers 
is given this year to the senior engineers for the first time 
by Professor C. C. Thomas. 

The character of the work given in the drafting rooms 
throughout the four years has been greatly improved, the 
standards and requirements being much higher than in 
years past. Similar standards and requirements are held for 
all four years in the different drafting courses, and the re- 
sults have been most satisfactory. 

In addition to the changes outlined above, new courses are 
now offered in the college covering five years. The princi- 
pal difference between the new five year course and the pres- 
ent four year course lies in the addition of about one semes- 
ter of work in the College of Letters and Science and one 
semester in the College of Engineering. The requirements 
for graduation being higher, the Faculty has decided to give 
the M.E. degree to graduates of this course. 

Plans are under consideration for the formation of a third 
course which will permit students to spend part of their 
time in actual shop practice probably in some of the larger 
Milwaukee shops before graduation. These plans, however, 
have not yet matured, but they show the spirit of the Fac- 
ulty in their endeavor to turn out men with the best prepa- 
ration possible, and men trained to meet present day con- 
ditions. 

It has been felt by the members of the mechanical engi- 
neering faculty in considering these changes that consider- 
able effort should be directed to the training of the judg- 
ment, and the studies are so planned and conducted as to 
encourage and develop original study and research on the 
part of the student before graduation. The work of the mod- 
ern mechanical engineer is one involving considerable use of 
judgment, as many of the problems met are not capable of as 
exact mathematical analysis as problems confronted by engi- 
neers in other fields. The commercial point of view is one 
which is being emphasized more in the later years than 
formerly, and it is hoped that the results will prove bene- 
ficial. More stress in the earlier years is laid on the fun- 
damental subjects of physics, mechanics and mathematics, 
and with the increased standards the character of the grad- 



.<*-■ - 1 




Half of Standard Round House. 

uates who leave the University should be such as to equal 
the high standard set by our older alumni. 



Standard Construction of Terminals — A. T. 
& S. F. Ry. 

The mechanical officials of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa 
Fe Ry., have for some time past been making a study of 
division terminals with a view to standardizing the equip- 
ment and thus reducing the first and operating costs. The 
accompanying illustrations show how this work has pro- 
gressed. 

The mechanical difficulties incident to the operation of 
trains through the Southwest are well known and the con- 
ditions are practically the same for hundreds of miles. The 
opportunities for standardization are more frequent than 
those offered on most railroads. Of these difficulties it might 
be stated that along a very large part of the whole line the 
water is bad, along much of it the quantity is scanty, and for 
considerable distances there is none. For a thousand miles, 
from Gallup westward, there is no coal. For some hundred 
miles, including the sites of necessary and important division 
points, the climate is unfriendly, living is difficult, and labor 
is hard to get and harder to retain. 

The roundhouse at San Bernardino, California, shown in 
one of the illustrations, is typical of the Santa Fe construc- 
tion. The drawings show many of the dimensions used in the 
layout of this plant. It is the latest built and is regarded by 
many as one of the best engine houses in the country. The 
building contains thirty-five stalls, three drop pits for engine 
drivers and two for engine trucks; is ampb r equipped for 
boiler washing and filling facilities, with pipes for untreated 
water and for treated water; also with a steam line for firing 
up and a blow-off line which extends around the entire build- 
ing. Metal lockers have been installed for the men, and the 
building is arranged for the installing of a traveling crane 
around the entire length of building. The building is pro- 



156 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



May, 1909. 




Ring Pit 
Longitudinal Sect /on of Standard Stall # P - Section C-Lr 



Section of Standard Roundhouse Stall. 





Oil Room, Chanute Storehouse. 



View in Round House at San Bernardino, Cal. 



DeJon of Trussed 
Rail 8 Ft Jpan 

At crossing of engine 

and drive, wheel drop 

pits 



Detail Trussed Rail 
S- Ft Span. 

lit crossing of engine 
and truck wheel drop 

D'fs 




Ring Pit s, N 



Detail of Strut. T? j Stirrup tnd 

Forqed 0- Bellu f?od 



Cylinder Pit. 
Boiler plate cover over nit outside of engine raits 
j" thick 4"x 3"* 3 /a" Angles. Chases for same. Bearing 
for plates and angles to be in dll cases 2£" . « 




Iruck Wheel Drop Pit 

Boiler plate pit cover si" thick 
and removable 5m sections 
in distance between ?odjacenl 
Engine pit 5 



Drive Wheel Drop Pit 

Fach section of all rovers to pits to be pro 
vided with 1/2" k J" suitable iron rings fJ5t 
ened at ends Ctioses for T and angic 
bars. Five sections in distance, fti-lweei? 
F adjacent engine pits 4"x 3'/y'x %" 
Angle at ends 3j~x4"x£" T-Baralbu" 
joints 






Standard rail 
nvefed on top 
flange of 15" 
4Z* I beam 




Details of Standard Wheel Pits. 



May, 1909. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



157 




V'l^^-'-wf 2i" Water blow off line 
^^------=-^J^-==---2\\ I oid inside 4"5ewei- pip&. 

Conzrete basir?^\ i 



Standard Round House Piping. 



?i" Water bio* off 
I Cast Iron oasm p&e 



158 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



May, 1909. 




Interior of New Store House at Chanute. 

vided with two in and out tracks, about 1,500 feet long, and 
one track extends from the roundhouse, through the tank 
shop and onto the transfer table, affording a convenient 
method of handling engines into the back shop. In connec- 
tion with the roundhouse, the company has a water treating 
plant with a daily capacity of 300,000 gallons, and two oil 
storage tanks, each of 35,000 barrels. 

An unusual illustration of older and newer designs is 
evidenced in the roundhouse at Richmond, Cal. As shown 
in the photograph, the old building has been extended by 
the addition of a section built along the modern standards, 



the left hand portion being the old building. The stacks of 
the power house appear over the roof. 

In another illustration is shown an interior view of the 
concrete roundhouse at San Bernardino. The arrangement 
of piping is standard and the drops for washing and filling 
consist of three pipes, as shown. The center pipe is for 
steam, one of the outer pipes is for treated water for filling 
boilers and the third pipe carries raw water for washing. 
The temperature is nicely regulated in the mixer at the 
bottom. Arrangement for hot water washing with heat con- 
servation is being installed in the newer houses. The design 
of the National Boiler Washing Co., is used in the Newton, 
Kans., roundhouse. 

Standardization of terminal buildings has been extended to 
cover the construction of storehouses. The one at Newton, 
Kans., an exterior view of which is shown herewith, is a 
typical representation of present practice. An inner view of 
the storehouse at Chanute, Kans., shows the arrangement of 
shelving generally adopted. 

Crane service adopted as standard for this class of termi- 
nal and as installed at Bakersfield, Cal., consists of a Whit- 
ing Foundry Equip. Co., 7% ton crane, 44 foot span, to run 
on 65 lb. standard T rails. The traveling power is furnished 
by electric motors for 440-volt, 3-phase, 60 cycle, alternating 
current. The greatest load with the trolley at the end of 
the bridge is 16,100 lbs. The shipping weight is 27,600 lbs. 
The main hoist has a 7^ h. p. motor with a speed of 10 and 
13 feet per minute. The bridge travel motor is 10 h. p. with 
a speed of 200 feet per minute and the trolley travel motor 
is of 5 h. p. with a speed of 80 feet per minute. The over-all 
height from the top of the crane runway rails to the highest 
point of trolley is 5 feet 4 in. 



Developement in Air Brakes for Railroads 



In commencing this subject, we should like to state that 
the art of braking, or the application of brakes for the pur- 
pose of controlling trains, has received very little considera- 
tion outside of George Westinghouse himself and compar- 
atively few scientific men throughout the world, and is 
therefore generally looked upon as the mere building of a 
piece of mechanical apparatus which can be applied in any 
haphazard fashion to the vehicle which it is intended to con- 
trol. This, however, instead of indicating that the subject is 
a simple one, should be taken as evidence that the problems 
to be solved are exceedingly great, and we may say that 
there are comparatively few men in the world who compre- 
hend what is involved. 

One reason why the magnitude of this problem is not ap- 
preciated as it should be is the fact that the great majority of 
the men who have to do with the air brake are practical men 
— men coming from the ranks, with little or no technical edu- 
cation, and therefore working out the problems largely by the 
"rule of thumb" and "cut and try" methods and principles 
of the days before colleges were so numerous and education 
so easily obtained. 

Now, however, the problems of deceleration, retardation 
and the flexible control of trains are receiving more and 
more attention from a scientific and technical standpoint, 
with the result that today theory and practice are being com- 
bined to produce the best results in the shortest time. This 
is necessary if the brake is to efficiently and satisfactorily 
meet the wonderfully changed conditions which have devel- 
oped since the invention of the quick action, automatic brake. 

Starting and stopping of trains are complementary factors 



♦From a paper by W. V. Turner and S. W. Dudley, read be- 
fore the New York Railroad Club, April 16, 1900. 



in the problem of making time between stations, therefore it 
is evident that the best results can only be obtained where 
both factors are given due consideration. Generally, the 
starting factor is the only one fully considered, or, at least, 
the one more fully provided for, and this not withstanding 
that better results can be obtained if both are considered 
and the more efficient brake system installed. 

In another sense, the question of stopping is the most im- 
portant, as the safety of the service and the freedom of de- 
lays to a great degree depend upon it. The measure of the 
value of the brake is two-fold — 1st, the ability to stop in the 
shortest possible distance when necessary; and 2nd, to per- 
mit short, smooth and accurate stops being made in regular 
operation, therefore both these factors should be considered 
when design- is underway. 

Unfortunately, the brake is usually looked upon as a safety 
device only, and we believe it is because of the prevalence of 
this idea that its installation and maintenance does not re- 
ceive the consideration it merits. Considering the invest- 
ment, there is no part of the railway equipment that will give 
greater material returns than the brake when properly in- 
stalled, operated and maintained. 

"Few people have stopped to think that it takes a locomo- 
tive a distance of at least five miles to attain a speed of 60 
miles per hour and what the consequences would be if it took 
as long to stop the train is illustrated in Figure 1. This 
curve was taken from the records of tests at Absecon, N. J., 
the train consisting of a locomotive and ten cars, the speed 
and momentum attained by the train in about six minutes, in 
a distance of about three and one half miles was overcome by 
the brakes in twenty seconds and in a distance of less than 
one thousand feet. The broken line represents what the 
stop would have been had no brakes been used. To build a 



Mav. 1909. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



1 59 



steam locomotive that would accelerate a train in the time 
that the brake stops it would be impossible. 

As an example, however, of how little this is appreciated, 
we are often called upon to answer such a question as this, 
"In what distance should a train be stopped from a speed of 
fifty miles per hour?" Perfectly simple, isn't it? Here we 
have one known factor, from which we are expected, appar- 
ently, to derive all the other factors which are of equal im- 
portance and must be known before an answer of any value 
can be given to such a question. A few of these factors are: 
the light weights and loads of the vehicles composing the 
train; the percentage of braking power used with engine and 
cars; whether or not all wheels, including truck and trailer, 
(if any), of the locomotive were braked; what type of brake 
equipment was used; what pressures were carried; whether 
the train was accelerating or decelerating; on a curved or 
straight track; on an ascending or descending grade, or level; 
the condition of the rail; whether the brakes were applied in 
service or emergency, or ordinary service and then emer- 
gency; the piston travel on each vehicle; the losses due to 
friction of parts, brak beam release springs, etc.; wind re- 
sistance; quality and thickness of brake shoes. Furthermore, 
we do not mean to say that the precise effect of each of these 
could be accurately calculated, even though full information 
were at hand, and a little thought will make it evident that 
each of the factors mentioned above may have a considerable 
influence on the length of the stop. 

The Application of the Problem. 

The application of a straight air brake is comparatively a 
very simple proposition, although it has had to meet many 
varied conditions. But with the application of automatic 
brakes the problem becomes altogether different; many very 
valuable features possessed by the straight air brake had to 
be sacrificed to obtain the one prime factor in the braking 
of cars that is certainly nearest the heart of every manager 
of railway property in this country, that is, safety. 

We may say here that with the automatic brake on con- 
nected cars a p"ipe runs through the train which is charged 
with air and is in communication with a triple valve under the 
car and that in turn with an auxiliary storage reservoir which 
is charged with compressed air for the braking of the vehicle 
on which it is carried, which in its turn is connected to the 
brake cylinder whenever the brake is applied. Consequently, 
if anything ruptures the pipe, thereby permitting the air to 
escape from the brake pipe side, but not from the auxiliary 
reservoir side, of the piston of the triple valve, the auxiliary 
reservoir pressure then acts upon the piston of the triple 
valve, moves it toward the lower pressure, carrying with it 
the slide valve, which in turn registers ports communicating 
with the brake cylinder, and the compressed air in the auxil- 
iary reservoir then applies the brake. That is all there is to 
the automatic brake so far as its automatic feature is con- 
cerned. 

When, however, the action of the brake on a rapidly mov- 
ing train is carefully analyzed the factors affecting the final 
result are found to be most varied and complex in character. 
If the question were asked: "What stops a train?" no doubt 
most of you would say that it is the frictioual force between 
the shoes and the wheels. No doubt that is the primary 
cause, but you can easily see that there must be some other 
factor in the case, because, if the rails were made of ice, for 
instance, it is obvious that the applications of the brake shoes 
to the wheels would not stop the train within a very long 
distance; it would simply lock the wheels so that they would 
slide, but not overcome the momentum of the train. If it 
were possible, when moving at a speed of, say, sixty miles 
per hour to lift the train from the tracks and then apply the 
brakes, you can readily see that the application would not 
stop the train. There must, therefore, be some other factor 
besides the friction of the shoes on the wheels, and that fac- 
tor is the adhesion between the wheels and rail. Therefore, 



the highest possible retarding friction;. I force that can be 
obtained with a brake is such as would almost equal the ad- 
hesion of the wheels to the rail. If it is increased beyond 
this point, the wheels will slide, and, as you know, sliding 
friction is far less effective as a retarding force than rolling 
(static) friction, consequently, the stop would not be made in 
as short a distance as when the wheels are revolving, but 
being retarded by the friction between wheel and shoe. We 
have endeavored to produce with our brakes a means for ob- 
taining the highest average braking power possible that will 
not slide the wheels under average conditions. That is all 
that can be done as far as brakes are concerned. You have 
heard, no doubt, of brake schemes whereby the apparatus 
would lock the wheels immediately in an emergency, and 
the train was thereby to be stopped in a shorter distance 
than by any other brake in existence. This is absurd, even 
if we neglect the flattening of the wheels that would result by 
such operation. The wheels must revolve; and in order to 
stop in the shortest possible distance the maximum braking 
power that will still permit this is required. 

Not only must the brake dissipate energy due to momen- 
tum when bringing a train to a stop, but it must prevent the 
accumulation of energy, and this, at times, is its chief duty, 
as, for instance, when descending a grade. A train of 3,000 
tons commencing the descent of a two per cent grade at a 
speed of ten miles per hour would, in three minutes, due to 
the acceleration of gravity alone, be moving at a speed of 
6iy 2 miles per hour and the kinetic or "wrecking" energy 
stored up in the train would be 417,500 foot tons, sufficient to 
raise the train to a height of 139.1 feet. Thus you see that 
the brakes must dissipate in three minutes 417,500 foot tons 
if the speed at the end of this time is not to be higher than 
at the beginning. 

But the braking power at hand must be available not only 
for. one application but for any number of them. With the 
automatic brake, the ability to recharge the auxiliary reser- 
voirs has been the limit to the number of full applications 
obtainable. Therefore, in order to obtain the maximum pos- 
sible safety with an automatic brake, two things are neces- 
sary. In the first place, the highest possible braking power; 
and in the second place, means of obtaining that power at any 
time, no matter how thoughtless or foolish the operator may 
be in wasting the air. 

What has been said cannot fail to impress all of us with the 
importance of this problem of railroad operation, not only 
as affecting the safety of the passengers, the preservation of 
the freight, the protection of the rolling stock, but as also 
affecting economy of operation with respect to time and 
the earning power of both men and equipment, which is the 
important factor in determining whether the investment i- 
profitable or otherwise. Obviously, the more congested the 
traffic the greater the loss in all these things if the brake, its 
maintenance and operation, is not what it should be. It is 
true that the returns of the brake are largely indirect, as are 
those of the road-bed or from the coal that goes through 
the fire box, but they are none the less sure and of greater 
per cent. On the other hand, if neglected, the effect is much 
the same as indirect taxes, by means of which, as you know, 
one may be taxed into bankruptcy without knowing it. 
The Requirements of a Brake. 

Where so much gain or loss depends upon the control of 
trains, it must therefore be remembered that although stop- 
ping power is the first, it is not the only consideration. In 
order to most efficiently meet the demands of modern service 
conditions and provide for those of the immediate future, the 
brake must combine with flexibility and simplicity, safety, be- 
sides being perfectly interchangeable with existing apparatus 
and as far as human foresight and ingenuity can make it. 
fool-proof. A brief consideration of these requirements of a 
perfect brake will make manifest their fundamental bearing 
on the problem. 



160 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



May, 1909. 




Fig. 1. — Curves of Acceleration and Deceleration. 

A practically perfect brake must be automatic, durable, 
simple, always ready, responsive and flexible, the latter of 
which involves the elements of power, time and amount of 
reduction, and in addition it is imperative that in case of an 
emergency the maximum braking power covered in the design 
be obtained with the time and reduction elements reduced to 
a minimum, to the end that the stop be made in the shortest 
time possible; for service or regular operation, however, all 
these elements should be extended, to the end that trains can 
be handled without shock and accurate stops made, and these 
factors vary in importance and degree according to the ser- 
vice, — where the speed is generally high, the power element 
should have chief consideration, while where the speeds are 
generally low, the other elements should have predominance 
in the design, but it is where the speed varies from very high 
to very low (and this is often the case) that all elements must 
have equal consideration and each be developed along lines 
that will mean the least sacrifice to the others, keeping in 
mind at all times that, in time of danger, to stop is the chief 
consideration. These requirements are only fulfilled in the 
air brake, therefore, this will be the one considered. In order 
that the necessity for the progressive development of the air 
brake may be in mind, a brief review of operating conditions 
is pertinent. 

In making ordinary service stops in passenger service there 
are always three things to be considered; accuracy, smooth- 
ness and the question of time. The shortest possible stop 
that can be made, is to apply the brake in full and allow the 
train to come to a standstill, 
but in so doing, two things 
are sacrificed — accuracy and 
smoothness, for it certainly 
would not be a smooth stop, 
and the accuracy would de- 
pend entirely upon the judg- 
ment of the operator when 
making that particular brake 
application. The smoothest 
possible stop is to shut off and 
drift to a standstill. In this 
case, a great amount of time 
is sacrificed, and the point 
where the stop would be com- 
pleted would be altogether in- 
definite. As a result, neither 
of these methods can be used 
in practical operation. 

To obtain all three points 
mentioned, we must have 
means of applying the brake 
with the maximum cylinder 
pressure that the speed will 
warrant, and when approach- 
ing the place at which the 
stop is to be made by this 
means, to feel our way to 
the proper point of stop and 
have comparatively little pres- 
sure left in the cylinder 
when the stop is completed. 



Thus we make the shortest stop, smoothness and accuracy 
considered, that is possible; and having very little, if any, 
pressure in the cylinder to get rid of, when the signal to start 
is given, the start may be made immediately. The brake 
which possesses all these features is certainly a flexible one. 
The brake which originally possessed them to a maximum 
degree was the straight air brake. But this perfection is now 
also possessed to the same degree by the new passenger brake 
equipments to be described, and has been secured through 
means which insure a higher degree of safety than ever ob- 
tained before in the art of braking. 

Coming now to the point of simplicity, straight air also pos- 
sessed that feature to a marked degree so far as operation is 
concerned. The degree of simplicity possessed by the 
straight air brake will, perhaps never be obtained in a purely 
automatic system because, as you are aware, certain compli- 
cations arise in the operation of an automatic brake which are 
not present with straight air, as, for instance, when a number 
of cars are coupled together. The fact that we have compli- 
cation is not necessarily detrimental, and it does not follow 
that a more complex system should not be adopted; we would 
not consider going back to the old wood-burning locomotive 
in place of the splendid, but vastly more complex, locomotives 
of today, simply because the latter are much more compli- 
cated. It is a question of results. If the results obtained 
justify the means employed, that is sufficient. 

We feel that in the recent development of automatic 
brakes, especially those for passenger service, we have, all 
things considered, increased the simplicity, greatly over that 
of the old standard. With the latter, proper operation de- 
pended largely upon the kind of man who handled it — his ex- 
perience, knowledge of the brake, judgment and intuition; be- 
ing unable to graduate his release, he required a far greater 
perception of distance and speed and better judgment in mak- 
ing the stop, also knowledge of the road, condition of the rail, 
and other factors that necessarily enter into automatic brake 
operation. These affected the operation of the old brake in 
a much greater degree than the new. 




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J Chart showing relation between size of 
brake cylinder, brake cylinder pressure, total 
leverage ratio, braking power, and weight 
of car. 



Fig. 2. 



May, 1909. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



161 



Coming now to the feature of "fool-proofness." By this 
we mean reducing the human element to the lowesl possible 
factor. With the old standard type of passenger equipment, 
it was possible to so use the air supply as to seriously reduce 
the braking power. With the new equipment it is impossible 
to do this, as maximum braking power is at all times avail- 
able. Also, the auxiliary reservoirs being constantly re- 
charged, there is always the same stored pressure to draw 
from. Moreover, the brake will always respond and for a 
given reduction the same cylinder pressure will result. As a 
consequence, the engineer, knowing just what, results he is to 
obtain, will have more confidence in the brake and his own 
ability, and the results will be apparent both in the schedule 
and power consumed. 

The problems of installation, operation and manipulation, 
however, are infinite and the human equation is perhaps more 
of a factor than in any other mechanical science. Yet, I 
venture to say, that many railroad officials give more consid- 
eration to the color of the paint used on the rolling stock 
than to the problems enumerated above; paint is looked upon 
as attractive, the brake often as a necessary evil, all of which 
proves that a man cannot know anything about that of which 
he has no conception, for, aside, from any consideration of 
the safety feature, there are probably few investments that a 
railroad manager can make that will return as large a divi- 
dend as a good brake, properly installed and operated. 
Fundamental Principles in Brake Design. 
In the establishment of a logical basis of brake design, ap- 
plicable to the conditions under which brakes in general must 
operate and involving a determination of the essential ele- 
ments of an elementary brake system for any given car, 
we find that the starting point must be the light weight of 
the car and fortunately, as we shall see later, this can usually 
be determined in advance to any desired degree of accuracy. 
In order to fix our ideas, suppose for an instant that the 
car was fully equipped with a complete brake equipment and 
by an analysis of the factors involved in stopping the car, 
determine how these factors may best be provided for in 
the design. 

The actual braking force acting on a car when the brakes 
are applied is the force of the friction between the brake shoes 
and the wheels, tending to retard the rotation of the wheels 
and thus stop the car. The relation which this bears to the 
energy stored up in the moving car, provided the "adhesion" 
of the wheel to the rail is not exceeded, determines the effect- 
iveness of the brake and the length and time of stop. The 
energy of the moving car consists of two parts — that of the 
car as a whole due to the velocity of translation and that of 
the revolving wheels, due to their rotation, and varies as the 
weight of the car and as the square of its velocity. The fric- 
tional force between the brake shoes and wheels depends 
on the pressure acting on the shoes and the coefficient of fric- 
tion btween the shoes and the wheels. In making a stop, 
therefore, the factors involved, so far as retarding the rotation 
of the wheels is concerned, are: 

1st — The brake shoe pressure, commonly called the "brak- 
ing power." 

2nd — Coefficient of friction between the shoes and the 
wheels, by which the brake shoe pressure must be multiplied 
in order to determine the actual "braking" power. 
3rd — The weight resting on the wheels. 
4th — The velocity of the car. 

5th — The rotative energy of the wheels, it being assumed 
throughout that the wheels do not skid. 

The only one of these factors which we can even partially 
control in service, or fix arbitrarily in designing the brake sys- 
tem, is the pressure on the brake shoes, and inasmuch as the 
wheels must not skid when the weight resting on the wheels 
is least — that is, when the car is not loaded — the light weight 



of the car must be taken as the basis of Calculation regard- 
ing brake shoe pressure, except in tin ca i oi 01 form of 
"empty and load" brake. Inasmuch as "braking power" is, 
by custom, measured by a scale of percentages therein 100 
per cent, represents a shoe pressure on each wheel equal to 
that wheel's pressure on the rail, the problem i -. then to de 
terminc and insure the obtaining of the proper relation be- 
tween the brake shoe pressure and the light weight of the 
car. 

As pointed out above, the factor- involved, factional CO 
efficients, speed, weights, etc., are so subject to variation in 
service that no theoretical conditions can determine the prop- 
er nominal percentage braking power, (i. e., the ratio of brake 
shoe pressure to light weight of car; which shall best meet 
average road conditions. This can be fixed only by experi- 
ment and experience and is subject to modifications as condi- 
tions change or become more thoroughly understood. For 
example, many years' experience has proven that 90 per cent 
braking power for passenger cars gives satisfactory braking 
effects with a reasonable margin against wheel sliding and 
sufficient power for service stops. 

From a consideration of conditions it is evident that it is 
practically impossible to provide for even an approximate 
uniformity of brake action on different cars in service by 
any method of design. The best that can be done is to es- 
tablish assumed standards upon which such designs are 
based. These are as follows: 

1st — The percentage of braking power in terms of light 
weight of the car. 

2nd — The brake cylinder pressure upon which this is based. 
The former, as has already been stated, must be determined 
from experiment and experience. The latter must be chosen 
arbitrarily, but it should have the same value for all brake 
calculations, in order to insure a common base being univer- 
sally used and understood. Fig. 2 graphically illustrates the 
relations existing between these two factors for different 
weights of cars and total leverage ratios. The question now 
is, therefore, "What brake cylinder pressure should be used 
as a basis in designing the brake systems of all types and 
classes of cars??" 

With a given auxiliary reservoir charged to a standard 
pressure, and with a given brake cylinder having standard 
piston travel, a certain definite pressure of equalization is ob- 
tained, which is constant so long as the other factors in- 
volved are kept constant. 

When an emergency application is made, since a portion of 
the air in the brake pipe or other source of supply is used 
in addition to that in the auxiliary reservoir, the resulting 
brake cylinder pressure is augmented in proportion, and a 
higher maximum pressure therefore obtained. Evidently its 
value must depend upon the relation which the supplementary 
volume bears to that of the auxiliary reservoir and brake 
cylinder combined. With equipments now in general use this 
ratio must necessarily decrease as the size of the car in- 
creases because the brake pipe volume remains practically 
constant for all sizes of cars, while the brake cylinder and 
auxiliary reservoir volumes increase as the size of the car 
increases. It then follows that where air from the brake pipe 
alone is used to augment the brake cylinder pressure in emer- 
gency applications, the emergency pressure thus obtained 
must vary with the different combinations of auxiliary reser- 
voir and brake cylinder necessary for different sizes of cars 
— the gain in pressure from this source over that obtained in 
full service equalization being greatest with the smallest 
sizes of auxiliary reservoirs and brake cylinders. 

Hence in choosing a brake cylinder pressure on which to 
base brake calculations, that obtained in emergenc}". which 
was satisfactory where the brake cylinders were of such size 
that a uniform pressure was obtained in both service and 



162 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



May, 1909. 



emergency, is now excluded at the outset — from the stand- 
point of uniformity — since in the nature of the case it is not 
uniform for all weights of cars, as we now have brake cylin- 
ders varying from 6 in. to 18 in. in diameter with widely vary- 
ing pressures in emergency. And if the braking power de- 
sired is based on a brake cylinder pressure higher than can 
actually be obtained, then for lower cylinder pressures the 
brake is not so effective as it might be made, were the brak- 
ing power based on the pressure actually obtained. The 
smaller cars which do obtain this pressure, give the calcu- 
lated braking power in emergency, but the heavier cars can- 
not, and there is a loss, both in uniformity of emergency ac- 
tion and possible efficiency. 

On the other hand, for brake pipe reductions less than 
sufficient to produce equalization, the cylinder pressure ob- 
tained are uniform provided the other factors are uniform in 
value and the pressure at which the auxiliary reservoir and 
brake cylinder equalize is supposed to be the same for all 
combinations of reservoirs and cylinders, with the same in- 
itial pressure. To obtain this uniformity it is only necessary 
to properly proportion the reservoir volume to the brake 
cylinder volume for some standard piston travel. We then 
have a pressure base which will be constant when the other 
factors involved have their proper or standard values. It 




Fig. 3. — Straight Air Brake. 

would then seem that this is the basis to which all braking 
power calculations should be referred, for the reason that it 
is the nearest approach to a- uniform and constant pressure 
obtainable under the wide range of conditions governing this 
choice. This adds to the standards enumerated, the follow- 
ing: 

3rd — This brake cylinder pressure must be the equalized 
pressure of the auxiliary reservoir and brake cylinder. 

4th — A predetermined ratio between auxiliary reservoir 
volume and brake cylinder volume to produce this equaliza- 
tion must be adhered to. 

The fundamental steps in designing a brake system for 
any given car may now be outlined as follows: 

Given the light weight of the car — from results of experi- 
ment and experience, the proper braking power, per cent, has 
been established and this enables the total brake shoe pres- 
sure to be calculated. 

Mechanical considerations fix the total leverage ratio be- 
tween certain limits, the maximum and minimum values of 
which enable a maximum and minimum total brake piston 
pressure to be calculated from the preceding. 

This total brake piston pressure depends upon the size 
cylinder and pressure per square inch used as a basis. The 
pressure basis to be used should be that agreed upon as a 
universal standard, for such calculations as this, and, as has 
already been pointed out, uniformity requires that the equal- 
ization pressure (50 lbs. per square inch) from the lowest 
standard pressure carried, should be the base chosen. 

Having determined the unit pressure, the size of cylinder 
can be chosen from the standard sizes manufactured to give 
the desired braking power with a total leverage within the 
maximum and minimum limits as defined above. 

To obtain the desired 50 lbs. equalization pressure from the 
standard 70 lbs. brake pipe pressure with a standard piston 



travel, is simply a matter of correctly proportioning the aux- 
iliary reservoir volume to that of the brake cylinder at the 
piston travel employed as standard. 

We then have an auxiliary reservoir which, at 70 lbs. initial 
pressure, will equalize with its brake cylinder, when this has 
eight inches piston travel, at 50 lbs., and the brake cylinder 
piston is of such an area that the total pressure thus obtained, 
when multiplied by the total leverage, will give a total brake 
shoe pressure equal to the desired percentage of the light 
weight of the car. 

To be sure, in an emergency application, the braking power 
on all cars will be greater than that used in the design and 
the lighter the car the greater the variation between service 
and emergency braking powers. But such non-uniformity in 
actual service is bound to obtain, and always has) since an 
increase to 90 lbs. or 110 lbs. brake pipe pressure, or a varia- 
tion in piston travel produces similar results, to say nothing 
of losses due to leakage, resistances and variations in fric- 
tional coefficients. The advantage gained, however, by the 
method of design outlined, is therefore, in the fixing of a 
uniform and actually obtainable brake cylinder pressure, 
which is necessary for service operations and is one of the 
most important factors in the calculation to be made. 

It may be said in passing that with the more recent types 
of brake equipments for passenger service, using a supple- 
mentary reservoir volume, in addition to that of a brake pipe 
to produce high emergency brake cylinder pressure, the size 
of supplementary reservoir used is calculated to give prac- 
tically uniform brake cylinder pressures in emergency appli- 
cations with all sizes of brake cylinders, thus taking advan- 
tage of the principle of high pressures for emergency stops 
and at the same time conforming to the principles of uniform- 
ity laid down above, it being a fundamental principle of mod- 
ern brake design to keep the service equalization brake cylin- 
der pressure comparatively low, for reasons fully explained 
elsewhere, and use as high an emergency equalization pres- 
sure (as large a supplementary reservoir) as may be desir- 
able. 

In the attempt to secure a high emergency brake cylinder 
pressure without the aid of the supplementary reservoirs re- 
ferred to above, the relationship between brake cylinder and 
auxiliary reservoir volumes existing in the original brake de- 
sign was gradually lost; the auxiliary reservoir volume being 
increased slightly, from time to time, as heavier cars, requir- 
ing larger brake cylinders, were equipped. On the lighter 
equipment the variations thus introduced were relatively un- 
important, but in the case of heavy cars, requiring the 16 in. 
and 18 in. cylinder, it was impossible to increase the auxiliary 
reservoir volume sufficiently to obtain the desired emergency 
pressure, without at the same time interfering to a marked 
degree with the proper operation of the equipment in service. 
Consequently, a compromise was made, so as to obtain as 
high an emergency cylinder pressure as possible without in- 
creasing the service equalization pressure to an extent in- 
consistent with the proper normal functions of the brake. 

By the aid of a supplementary reservoir volume, however, 
reserved during service operation, but available in emergency 
applications of the brake, it is now possible to obtain the 
required increase in stopping power for emergencies and at 
the same time return to the original volume relationships, the 
correctness of which had been established by long experience. 

These relationships are determined by the following prin- 
ciples, which will be recognized at once as having been fol- 
lowed, perhaps more or less unconsciously, in even the ear- 
liest automatic brake designs: 
1st — For any given arrangement of leverage between the 

brake cylinder piston and the brake shoes, the "braking 

power" is directly proportionate to the gage pressure of air 

produced in the brake cylinder. (A) 
2nd — The limitation of the maximum allowable pressure of 



May, 1909. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



163 



air in the brake pipe limits thereto the available pressure in 
the auxiliary reservoirs. (B) 

3rd — With this fixed maximum charge in the auxiliary reser- 
voir, the highest pressure obtainable in the brake cylinder 
from this single source is that at which the air pressure 
equalizes between the two. This (absolute) pressure, there- 
fore, equals the product of the initial absolute pressure in 
and the volume of the auxiliary reservoir divided by the 
sum of the volumes of the auxiliary reservoir and of the 
brake cylinder (neglecting all clearance volume), and the 
'"braking power" is as the corresponding gage pressure. 
(Q 

4th — This pressure of equalization should be limited because 
its height determines the range of those differences between 
final auxiliary reservoir pressure and initial brake pipe 
pressure, which range affords the control of "braking 
power" applied. (D) 

5th — That while low pressure of equalization limits "full ser- 
vice" pressure, yet small range precludes nicety of control, 
especially as from the range there must be deducted such 
initial difference of pressures as are necessary to overcome 
the inertia and friction of the triple valve parts. (E) 

6th — That to afford heightened brake cylinder pressure for 
use in emergency another quantity of air is necessary, and 
if this be, as in all past practice, that contained in the 
brake pipe, the resulting absolute pressure will be equal, 
theoretically, to the maximum absolute brake pipe pres- 
sure multiplied by the volume of the auxiliary reservoir plus 
the amount of air, in cubic inch pounds, obtained from the 
brake pipe, this sum then divided by the volume of the 



cylinder should be made sufficient by a corresponding 
proportioning of the leverage. 
.ird — That the volume of each car's part of the brake pipe 
should be supplemented by proper means so as " 
ford the required braking pressure in emergency. 
Starting, therefore, with a brake cylinder of the size dictated 
by the vehicle to be equipped, as already explained, and by a 
proportioning of the leverage which shall accord with the 
service required, let us assume that. 

C = Volume of brake cylinder, in cubic inches. 
P = Service equalization pressure, in absolute units. 
R = Volume of auxiliary reservoir, in cubic inches, 
a = Absolute initial pressure in the auxiliary reservoir. 
r= Permissible range of brake pipe reductions. 
We have first, from the above definitions, that 
r = a— P 
and from (C), above, neglecting clearance volumes: 
aXR 



from which 



R+'C 
P 



-=P 



a— P 



XC 



P 

=— xC 
r 
which may be expressed in the following law: 

The proper auxiliary reservoir volume, according to the 




Fig. 4. — New Quick Action Automatic Brake for Frejght Cars. 



auxiliary reservoir plus that of the brake cylinder, so that 
the measure of the resulting braking pressure is the gage 
pressure corresponding to this resulting (absolute) pres- 
sure. (F) 

Now, it is the interdependence and re-active results of these 
simple and recognized principles in their combination, to- 
gether with a corresponding proportioning of leverages be- 
tween the brake cylinder piston and the brake shoes that de- 
termine the relative efficiency of a brake design. 

From (F) it is seen that if other parts be enlarged the 
volume of the brake pipe, which is practically the same on 
all cars, becomes relatively small and the emergency pressure 
sought is so insufficient that in the equipments for heavy 
rolling stock resort has been had to enlarged auxiliary reser- 
voirs with a corresponding heightening of the "full service" 
pressure (C) and a resulting lessening of the range of control 
(D). 

Again when (C) is heightened while (D) is lowered, the 
results of the lighter brake pipe reductions cause magnified 
effects in the service braking, so that, when it is realized that 
such range as is possible is lessened by the lack of sensi- 
tiveness of the triple valve (E), there is likelihood of rough- 
ness of service stops. 

Such being the case, it is apparent: 

1st — That there is a ratio of volume of auxiliary reservoir 

to that of brake cylinder that should not be exceeded. 
2nd — That such service pressures as result in the brake 



principles laid down above, is equal to the volume of the 
brake cylinder determined upon multiplied by the ratio of the 
service equalization pressure fixed upon as standard to the 
permissible range of brake pipe reductions. 

Assuming, as is current practice, that P =: 50 lbs. per sq. 

in. (gage) and a = 70 lbs. per sq. in. (gage), then we have 

r = a — P = 20lbs. 

and 

P 

R = — XC 



65 


=— xc 


20 


= 3^xc 



That is, the volume of the auxiliary reservoir should be 
times the volume of the brake cylinder. It is plain, how- 
ever, that the effect of the clearance volumes, leakages, tem- 
perature and other adverse influence will be such that to 
obtain the desired results in actual service a somewhat 
higher auxiliary reservoir volume must be used than that 
found by the above calculations, for example, with the 
standard S-in. equipment, an auxiliary reservoir volume of 



164 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



May, 1909. 



1,620 cubic inches is used, which is about 3]/ 2 times the brake 
cylinder volume. 

In determining the proper size of supplementary reservoir 
to be used — (F above) — a similar reasoning may be used. 
In addition to the symbols already defined, let 

S = Volume of supplementary reservoir in cubic inches. 

E = Absolute emergency equalization pressure. 
Assuming for the purposes of calculation that the emergency 
pressure is the result of the equalization of the brake cyl- 
inder, auxiliary reservoir and supplementary reservoir vol- 
umes, we have 

a (R + S) 

= E 

R + S + C 
whence, by proper substitution and reduction, we derive 
a (E — P) 

s=- — xc 

r (a— E) 

While the above expression is interesting as showing the 
simple relation which exists between the various volumes 
involved in the typical equipment as we have assumed it, 
it must be clearly understood, 1st, that we have supposed 
all the additional air supply in emergency to come from the 
supplementary reservoir, having taken no account of that 
vented from the brake pipe; and 2nd, that in any actual 
installation similar to that we have discussed, the equaliza- 
tion is dependent upon the movement of certain valves actu- 
ated by spring and air pressures in combination, the result- 
ant effect of which is such that in the actual working equip- 
ment the state of affairs is by no means as simple as has 
been assumed for the typical equipment. Instead of equaliza-/ 
tion taking place between all the volumes concerned simul- 
taneously, there are time limitations imposed on the rate 
of flow from the various sources of air supply to the brake 
cylinder, so as to derive the maximum possible benefit from 
the compressed air stored in each. Proper allowance being 
made for these limitations, a formula might be derived, in 
the same manner as above, to completely cover the more 
complicated conditions, but as we are concerned here only 
with laying down the principles involved, it is unnecessary 
to go further into details, particularly as these are accurately 
determined by experiment. 

In the above analysis, as is necessarily the case with all 
theoretical considerations relative to mechanical apparatus 
of this character, certain assumptions were made to furnish 
a basis from which to start. Hence, it should always be 
remembered that the formulae derived must be interpreted, 
for any given case, in the light of the modification of these 
primary assumptions which the nature of the installation or 
the character of the apparatus used may involve. With this 
understanding, the above reasoning affords a logical and 
sound theoretical basis, not only for determining the cor- 
rect proportions of new types of equipment, but also estab- 
lishes a criterion, by means of which the shortcomings of 
incorrectly designed installations may be discovered. 
Past and Present Conditions. 

It is our effort to show, not that the air brake has ad- 
vanced relatively to the requirements, but that it has en- 
deavored to keep pace with the developments of locomotion; 
in other words, how and why we are able today to control 
and stop a train in approximately the same distance as when 
the weight and length of the train was less than one-fourth 
of that today and the speed correspondingly slower, which 
is quite an accomplishment since the length of the trains 
and the volume of air employed have rendered this vastly 
more difficult as to service control and the weight to the 
extent that it would require at least twice the distance in 



which to stop if the old brake had to be used with present 
day conditions. 

It is difficult for one who has not given the subject careful 
thought to realize the great changes in railroad equipment 
and operative requirements which have taken place since 
the introduction of the air brake, but it is only necessary 
to review briefly these past and present conditions in order 
to appreciate the necessity for a similar development and 
improvement of the apparatus used for controlling trains 
under these new conditions. 

Since the air brake was invented locomotives have in- 
creased in weight on drivers from 50,000 lbs. to 270,000 lbs., 
in draw-bar pull from 10,000 lbs. to over 50,000 lbs., and in 
total weight from 90,000 lbs to 500,000 lbs. and the working 
steam pressures have increased from 125 lbs. to 225 lbs. 
Freight equipment cars have increased from 9,000 lbs. light 
weight to 48,000 lbs., and in carrying capacity from 14,000 
lbs. to 100,000 lbs. The length of freight trains has increased 
from 15 to 130 cars and tonnage from 300 to 4,500 tons. 
Passenger equipment cars have increased from about 20,000 
lbs. to 150,000 lbs. weight and schedule speeds for passenger 
trains have increased from 30 miles per hour to as high as 
65 miles per hour in certain cases. 

A concrete example will show forcibly just what this in- 
crease in weight and speed means to the operating depart- 
ment. Under the former conditions the factor of safety in 
train handling was none too large and it is therefore im- 
perative that we should be able to control modern trains 
under present existing conditions at least as safely and ef- 
ficiently as formerly. To do this for five 150,000 lb. coaches* 
running at 65 m. p. h., it is necessary to provide means for 
controlling over 105,000,000 ft. lbs. of energy as compared 
with about 6,000,000 ft. lbs., which was all that the brake of 
the early 70's was called upon to control with a train of five 
30,000 lb. cars running at 35 m. p.. h. When the locomotive 
used with each train is considered, the total energy in the 
modern train becomes 162,000,000 ft. lbs., as compared with 
9,800,000 ft. lbs., for the train of 1870. It is not surprising, 
therefore, that the air brake art demands thoughtful con- 
sideration from trained and experienced minds if the fail- 
road traffic of today is to be handled with a safety and 
efficiency equal even to that of the days when the total 
energy to be reckoned with was i?s as great. Here again is 
found another close resemblance between the conditions of 
acceleration and deceleration, for while it is not especially 
difficult to increase the speed of a train from 30 m. p. h. to 
40 m. p. h., it requires the expenditure of a vastly greater 
amount of energy to increase its speed from 60 m. p. h. to 
70 m. h. p. In like manner, for any given increase in speed 
the additional amount of work required from the brake in- 
creases in geometrical, not arithmetical, ratio; therefore, if 
our improvements for the heavier trains and higher speeds 
of today enable us to stop in about the same distance as 
we could forty years ago the trains of that period, we should 
congratulate ourselves for having held our own. 

The mere power necessary to accomplish this is indi- 
cated by the fact that the total maximum force exerted by 
the push rod of the 6 in. brake cylinder of the early equip- 
ment was 1,700 lbs., while with the 18 in. brake cylinder 
used on the heaviest coaches of today a maximum pressure 
on the push rod of 23,625 lbs. is obtainable. 

From the above it will be apparent that many features 
must now be considered which did not exist when the brake 
was first invented, particularly on the physical side of the 
problem. For example, the amount of work required per 
square inch of brake shoe surface is vastly greater. This is 
a condition seldom noticed and yet of great significance, as 
the following comparison will show: 

Tn the report of one of the earliest brake trials in the 



May, 1909. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



165 



history of continuous brakes, made on the Midland Rail- 
way, near Newark, England, in 1875, and since known as the 
Newark trials, we rind that the best brake performance there 
recorded was by a train of fifteen, 21,000-lb. (average) four- 
wheel carriages, fitted with a primitive form of the West- 
inghouse Automatic Brake, one cast-iron brake shoe being 
used on each wheel. The best stop was made from a speed 
of 52 m. p. h.. the highest that could be obtained, in 18 sec- 
onds time. This corresponds to the performance of 15.5 
foot tons (1 ton = 2,000 lbs.) of work per brake shoe per 
second. In the classic Westinghouse-Galton tests, which 
followed about three years later, the four-wheel experimental 
van used weighed 18,200 lbs. and was fitted with two brake 
shoes per wheel, and from 52 m. p. h speed a stop was 
made by the experimental van alone in 11^ seconds. Here 
the work done was only about 9 foot tons per brake shoe per 
second. 

In 1875 the standard passenger coach used on the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad weighed 39,300 lbs. and had four-wheeled 
trucks. To stop such a car from 52 m. p. h. in 18 seconds 
required only 12.33 foot tons of work per brake shoe per 
second, or less than that required of the brake on the Mid- 
land train, although the Pennsylvania car weighed 18,300 
lbs. more. This is, of course, due to the fact that eight brake 
shoes were available to do the work, as compared with four 
on the Midland train. Contrast with the above a modern 
Pullman car weighing 160,000 lbs. and having six-wheel 
trucks. Assuming that from a speed of 52 m. p. h. the stop 
could be made in 18 seconds, the work done would be 33.5 
foot tons per brake shoe per second, or over twice that of 
the Midland train, notwithstanding that there are twelve 
brake shoes to do the work instead of four. But modern 
express train speed may be expected to run frequently as 
high as 75 m. p. h., and to make a stop from this speed in, 
say 35 seconds, which would be about the best we could ex- 
pect of the modern brake equipment, would require 35.8 
foot tons per brake shoe per second, or not much more than 
when a stop of 52 m. p. h. is made in 18 seconds. But to 
have the same absolute safety under modern conditions as 
existed in 1875 would require the stop to. be made in at 
least the same distance and time, and to stop a 160,000-lb. 
car from a speed of 75 m. p. h. in 18 seconds would require 
69.6 foot tons of work per brake shoe per second or about 
4i l /2 times that in the case of the Midland train. (What this 
would be with four-wheeled trucks will be appreciated.) Even 
if we could use two brake shoes per wheel instead of one, 
we would still have over twice as much work to be per- 
formed by each brake shoe per second if the trains of today 
at the speeds now attained in high speed service are to be 
relatively as safe as the trains of thirty years ago. 

The tremendous significance of this increase is, we believe, 
but faintly appreciated. We have today the cast-iron brake 
shoe practically as it was thirty years ago. This brake shoe 
must now do four times the amount of work by frictional 
resistance to the rotation of the wheel, as formerly. We 
may say "Why not quadruple the pressure per brake shoe?" 
But it must be remembered that when the brake shoe pres- 
sure is multiplied by four, the actual retarding force is by 
no means quadrupled, for we are then overlooking three vital 
adverse factors, viz., the effect of increased pressure, speed 
and temperature, on the coefficient of friction between the 
wheel and the shoe. Exactly how great an effect these may 
have depends, of course, on the conditions of the individual 
test considered, but that it is considerable is proven by the 
fact that a stop from a speed of 75 m. p. h. in 35 to 40 sec- 
onds, instead of 18 seconds, is considered good, although we 
are today using about four and a half times as much pres- 
sure per brake shoe as at the Newark trials. 

We should mention that in the above no account is taken 



of the rotative energy of the wheel-.. If this is considered, 
it is evident that the figure for the modern conditions will 
be still more in excess of those of the past, on account of 
the wheels being heavier and there being a greater number 
per vehicle. 

Again the difference in air pressure required to apply and 
release the brakes is by no means as easily obtained today 
as when trains we're short. The air supply required for 
short trains with small brake cylinders was obtained with 
compressors of much less capacity than it is now necessary 
to employ; witness, the 6 in. air compressor of the early 
days of the brake, with its capacity of not over 15 eu. ft. per 
minute, as compared with the cross compound compre- 
now used, which have approximately 125 cu. ft. capacity. 
The reason for this is apparent, for it required, not so very 
long ago, about 25 to 30 cu. ft. for a full application; now 
300 cu. ft. is required. In general, therefore, it may be stated 
that the brake which would satisfactorily meet the require- 
ments of past conditions falls short of the maximum ef- 
ficiency which it should be possible to attain in proportion 
to the increase of the requirements of present day service 
over those of the past. The force of this is apparent when 
we make the same comparison between the locomotives and 
cars of the two periods. This review of the conditions and 
what is involved, which is by no means exhaustive, will 
serve to give an idea of the magnitude of the problem; how 
we have endeavored to meet the various stages of this prob- 
lem will be best shown by a consideration of the develop- 
ment of the brake. 

Development of the Brake. 

The operating conditions prevailing about 1870 were very 
different from those of the present time: then the tracks 
were not of the character 'Of today and not suitable for such 
heavy and fast traffic; in fact, neither the locomotive nor the 
cars were capable of it, therefore, the brake required was 
something better than a hand brake, which was obtained 
when the straight air brake (Fig. 3) was applied to the equip- 
ment. This term implies that compressed air is used as a 
direct force from the main reservoir supply of the locomotive 
through direct piping to the brake cylinders on the vehicles 
to apply the brakes, simply requiring a valve on the locomo- 
tive to admit air to the brake pipe and brake cylinder in 
order to apply the brakes, to hold it there when admitted 
and to exhaust it when desiring to release the brakes. An 
early form of this apparatus is shown in Fig. 3. The air 
pump is one of the first forms to come into general use, the 
so-called "trigger" or "jigger" valve motion and square pis- 
ton rod being recalled, no doubt, by many here present. The 
brake valve was the simplest form of three-way cock. The 
hose couplings were "butte end," male and female, which 
necessitated there being a male and a female coupling at 
each end so that a connection between cars might always be 
made. 

This equipment had many good qualities and a very large 
degree of flexibility, but had shortcomings which made it 
unsuited for use on trains of any considerable length on ac- 
count of the time required to apply and release the brake 
and the unequal braking effort throughout the train. The 
factor of safety was low as no warning was given in the 
event of the hose becoming uncoupled, and a parted train 
meant no brakes. Thus it is seen that it lacked the first 
essential of an efficient brake, which is, that it must be its 
own "tell-tale," that is, if an accident occurs to the system, 
it must result in a brake application instead of a loss of the 
brake. 

In the natural process and development of railroads, the 
requirements became more exacting and it was evident that 
the straight air brake was not only unsuitable for these re- 
quirements, but that it lacked essential features. It became 



166 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



May, 1909. 



more than ever important that the brake must apply auto- 
matical!}' in case of the train parting. This was so funda- 
mentally necessary that even if the flexibility of the straight 
air brake had not already been lost to a large extent by the 
lengthening of the trains, it would have had to be abandoned 
because of the infinitely greater safety inherent in a brake 
of the "closed circuit type." Therefore, the straight air 
brake, having served its purpose as an advanced agent of 
something better, gave way to the automatic brake, which, 
when the quick action brake was invented, was called the 
"plain automatic brake" to distinguish it from the type that 
locally reduced the brake pipe pressure, thus producing what 
i- called "quick action." 

The automatic action of the brakes was accomplished by 
means of indirect application of the brakes through the 
medium of a valve device called a triple valve and an aux- 
iliary storage reservoir which were added to the brake cylin- 
der on each car. All of these valves were connected together 
by a continuous pipe with flexible connections between the 
cars: this pipe being charged with air whenever the brakes 
were in operating condition. By this means, the auxiliary 
reservoir was charged with compressed air for braking pur- 
poses on the vehicle to which it was attached; "therefore, it 
was no longer necessary to transmit the air from the locomo- 
tive to the vehicle when an application of the brakes was 
desired. From what has been said, it is plain that the triple 
valve must be the essential mechanical element in such a 
system and that it must possess the three functions of charg- 
ing and recharging the auxiliary reservoir and of applying 
and releasing the brakes, the medium for applying and re- 
leasing the brakes, for all general operations, being a man- 
ually operated brake valve on the locomotive. 

The operation of the triple valve to apply the brake is 
brought about by reducing the brake pipe pressure, thus 
creating a differential of pressure in the auxiliary or braking 
reservoirs throughout the train; this reducing of the brake 
pipe pressure below that of the auxiliary reservoir pressure, 
permits the auxiliary reservoir pressure to force the triple 
piston and its slide valve to application position, in which 
position the brake cylinder outlet to the atmosphere is closed 
and a port opened from the auxiliary reservoir to the brake 
cylinder, when the auxiliary reservoir pressure will also re- 
duce equally with that of the brake pipe into the brake cyl- 
inder and apply the brake. It is, perhaps, needless to say 
that these applications could be either partial or full; thus 
the brake possesses graduating features so far as the ap- 
plication was concerned. To release the brake, it is neces- 
sary to create a differential in the reverse order, that is, the 
brake pipe pressure must be increased above that of the aux- 
iliary reservoir, when the triple valve will be forced to release 
position, opening the brake cylinder to the atmosphere and 
thus releasing the brake, and also opening the necessarily 
restricted passage from the brake pipe to the auxiliary' reser- 
voir that it might again be recharged to full braking pres- 
sure. There was no graduating feature to the release of this 
brake, therefore one of the elements of flexibility possessed 
by the straight air brake was lost. but. as has been said, this 
feature had already been very much reduced in value by the 
lengthening of the train. 

Thus, through the use of triple valves, the equipment be- 
came automatic, which term applies to that application of 
the brakes which occurs through any material depletion of 
pressure from any cause in the brake pipe and auxiliary 
reservoir pressure, either at the will of the engineer, by hose 
parting, burst hose, leakage, or at the instance of the train 
crew, -o that this system very materially increased the factoi 
• .f safety and permitted the use of air brakes on longi 
senger train- and on the already existing freight train- in 



a way that was not possible with the straight air brake 
equipment. 

It is generally thought that the invention of the valve 
mechanism solved the problem of automatic brake operation 
and this is exceedingly unfortunate, for of an importance 
second only to the apparatus itself were the fixing of the 
conditions under which the brake would operate properly, 
namely, 

1st. — The percentage of braking power to light weight of 
car. 

2nd. — The times the cylinder valve could and should be 
multiplied to advantage and without detrimental results — 
that is, the fixing of the leverage ratio. 

3rd. — The proportion of auxiliary reservoir volume to 
brake cylinder volume. 

4th. — The percentage of braking power per pound of cyl- 
inder pressure. 

5th. — The amount of reduction of brake pipe pressure to 
produce equalization and the time in which it should be done. 
These things required a great amount of thought, experi- 
ment, and practical experience, and when Mr. Westinghouse 
had, worked all these out, the brake itself, the governing 
factors of its operation, its installation and manipulation 
were practically perfect and have never been improved 
upon. We regret to say, however, that these things have 
often been changed and ignored to such an extent that the 
operation and efficiency have been seriously impaired, and 
while much has been said and written from the standpoint 
of stopping the train only, little or no consideration is given 
to the above mentioned factors, which are vital to the every 
day operation of the brake and make possible and permis- 
sible a much greater stopping power than can be used if 
these factors are not utilized. In fact, satisfactory opera- 
tion and proper stopping power, as we have already pointed 
out in the consideration of the fundamental principles of 
brake design, are absolutely dependent upon them. 

This plain automatic brake was a great improvement in 
many respects over straight air, but chiefly from an emer- 
gency or safety standpoint, for much of the flexibility (that 
is, ability of the operator to increase or decrease the cylinder 
pressure at will and for any number of times in rapid suc- 
cession) for ordinary service brake operations had to be sac- 
rificed. This brake served fairly well the purpose while 
trains were short and speeds, weights, and frequency low, 
but as these factors changed, its limitations became more 
and more apparent, particularly with reference to emergency 
operation, as the application was too slow with long trains, 
and for reasons differing only in degree from those which 
had effected the straight air brake. Thus, when a quick ap- 
plication was attempted, the shocks were great, nor was the 
stop as short as should be. The reason for this slowness of 
operation was because the air could not be quickly and uni- 
formly reduced from the brake pipe; this, because of in- 
creased volume frictional resistance, and the necessity of its 
traveling to the one outlet, which was through the brake 
valve at one end of the train. This limitation was overcome 
by the invention of what came to be called the Quick-action 
Automatic Brake (Fig. 4), taking its name from the "quick 
action" triple valve which was identical with the plain triple 
valve as far as service operations were concerned, but dif- 
ferent in emergency in that it locally invented the brake pipe 
pressure. The principle of operation of this feature of the 
valve is that if a sudden reduction is commenced at any part 
of I he train, the pi-ton and slide valve of the nearest triple 
valve will travel to a position not reached in service appli- 
cations and cause the operation ol" a valve mechanism which 
makes a large opening from the brake pipe; the rapid reduc- 
tion thus resulting is transmitted to the next valve and seri- 
ally to all the valves in the train, thereby reducing the time 



Mar. 1909. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



167 



of full application to about one-sixth of what is inherent with 
plain triple valves on a 50 car train, and shocks were there- 
correspondingly lessened and stops shortened. 

The feature of serial venting of the brake pipe was so 
important that a second one — which this made possible — 
was. and is today, overlooked by many, and perhaps we 
should say is not rated at its true value. We refer to the 
then possible attainment of a different and higher braking 
power for emergency than for service applications. Up to 
this time, the cylinder pressure attainable had been the same 
for both service and emergency applications, but now since 
the brake pipe pressure vented could be vented into the 
brake cylinder, the pressure therein was increased whenever 
quick action took place and as this, with the comparatively 
small cylinders of that day, raised the pressure from 50 lbs. 
equalization to 60 lbs. from an initial brake pipe pressure of 
70 lbs., it will be seen that the increase in braking power was 
20 per cent. This, for passenger service, was allowed to re- 
main, for. because these trains were shorter than freight 
trains and the cars more rigid and of greater length, it was 
warranted: the measure on the one hand being property, 
the other